(Ethics and Oral Foci)


TIME: Tuesdays 1:30-4:00 p.m., Spring Semester 2006

PLACE: Gartley Hall 103, University of Hawai`i @ Manoa



Dr. Les Sponsel, Professor of Anthropology

Office: Saunders Hall 317

Hours: Thursdays 1:00-4:00 p.m. and by appointment

Phone: 956-8507

Email: Sponsel@hawaii.edu

Website: http://www.soc.hawaii.edu/Sponsel



“Yet the ethics of anthropology is clearly not just about obeying a set of guidelines; it actually goes to the heart of the discipline; the premises on which its practitioners operate, its epistemology, theory and praxis. In other words, what is anthropology for? Who is it for?” Pat Caplan, 2003, The Ethics of Anthropology: Debates and Dilemmas, New York, NY: Routledge, p. 3).

“The development of an ethically conscious culture that promotes discussion of ethically responsible decision-making still eludes us as a profession.” (Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban 2002, “A Century of Ethics and Professional Anthropology,” AAA Anthropology News 43(3):20).


Since the controversy surrounding Patrick Tierney’s Darkness in El Dorado erupted in late 2000 there has been a substantial elevation of the level of information, sensitivity, discussion, and debate about professional ethics in anthropology. Nevertheless, most anthropologists have failed to become informed about the controversy and to become engaged in the discussion and debate in a constructive way, something that is itself an ethical problem. This course will allot considerable attention to all sides of the controversy.

This seminar will also provide a thorough historical survey of the development of ethics in anthropology since the late 19th century and within the American Anthropological Association since the 1940s as reflected in the titles and sequence of the case studies listed below. General background will be provided through scrutiny of the Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, Belmont Report, institutional review boards, and the like as well as through discussing a basic textbook on ethics in general.

While our emphasis this semester will be on problems, issues, questions, and cases involving ethics in ethnographic fieldwork, we will also critically analyze a broad and diverse range of other subjects. For instance, we will debate a number of hypothetical cases of the violation of professional ethics in an imagined dysfunctional department of anthropology such as discrimination by members of a graduate admissions committee, a conspiracy by three faculty to sabotage a dissertation defense examination, favoritism in the awarding of student financial support, sex and age discrimination in “collegial” relations, and the creation and maintenance of a hostile work environment.

This course is reading, thinking, discussion, and debate intensive. It is designated to satisfy the university ethics and oral communication skills foci.



This course is primarily designed as a seminar for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Accordingly, the class meets one afternoon a week for 2.5 hours to allow sufficient time for penetrating analysis and discussion focused on selected case study books and other materials. The course will be reading, thinking, discussion, and debate intensive. The instructor will only give one regular lecture, an introductory overview on the historical development of ethics in anthropology with PowerPoint.

Every student is expected to voluntarily and actively participate in class discussions on a regular basis. The instructor may also call on individuals in class. Engaging in class discussions with clear, concise, and relevant comments and questions is an important component of the focus of this course on developing oral communication skills as well as essential for the seminar format.



The four primary goals of this course are to:

1. provide a systematic, thorough, and in-depth survey of the development of professional ethics in cultural anthropology and its sociopolitical contexts from its inception to the present;

2. increase information, awareness, sensitivity, and responsibility of students regarding matters of professional ethics in anthropology;

3. familiarize students with the available literature, videos, and internet resources on this indispensable subject; and

4. facilitate each student in pursuing his or her own interests in a particular ethical matter in anthropology.

This course will not preach to students about ethical and unethical conduct. However, it will further inform and sensitize students about such matters by providing numerous and diverse examples of ethical codes, cases, problems, dilemmas, issues, controversies, discussions, debates, and questions in historical perspective. While the American Anthropological Association and other professional organizations in the discipline have established general ethical guidelines, they have yet to develop any strong sanctions for serious abuses, unlike the medical and legal professions that can revoke an individual’s license to practice. Therefore, the ethical conduct of an anthropologist ultimately remains largely a matter of individual morality and conscience for the most part. This situation is reinforced by the variety, complexity, and difficulty of many ethical concerns. Nevertheless, general agreement within the profession is apparent on many matters, especially some that are obviously just plain wrong.

In this class anyone is welcome to say or write anything with only three restrictions--- it is relevant, polite, and concise. This includes respecting the sensitivities of others and allowing others an opportunity to join in the class discussion. Although it will become obvious that the instructor has his own perspective, ultimately there is no “party line” in this course. In fact, students are encouraged to disagree with the instructor, course material, and each other whenever they wish to do so. Ultimately, the instructor does not really care what students think; however, he does care very deeply that they think in an informed and critical manner.



The final course grade will be calculated as follows:

20% class attendance and discussion;

20% individual reaction papers;

30% panel or individual discussion of one case study book supported by PowerPoint;

10% evaluation forms (for discussion of case studies and final reports);

20% individual research report on a particular ethical matter supported by PowerPoint during the final examination period for the class.

A reaction paper is required for each class meeting in which some reading has been assigned from one or more of the regular textbooks. The paper should be limited to one page typed single-spaced. (The instructor will not read more). This paper should be organized into three parts:

(1) list three main points that best summarize the assigned readings;

(2) write a penetrating reaction to one of the three points; and

(3) pose three insightful questions for class discussion.

The purposes of the reaction papers are to prove to the instructor that the course textbooks are being read and to bring that information and the student's own ideas about it to class in order to contribute actively to an informed and meaningful discussion. Reaction papers will only be accepted and credited on the date due for the reading assignment. No exceptions to this rule will be allowed without a written excuse from a medical doctor or another appropriate official. Ideally the paper should be left in the instructor =s mailbox (Saunders 346) or under his office door (Saunders 317) before the class meeting.

Guidelines for the case study discussion and the final report are at the end of this syllabus in Appendices V and VI.

Both the case study discussion and the final report should be rehearsed several times outside of class in front of a critical audience. For both, the instructor should be given a printed outline from the PowerPoint at the beginning of the presentation.

The case study discussion and the individual report will be graded on the basis of both content and performance by fellow students using a standard evaluation form. These completed forms will be graded as well by the instructor. Then these completed forms will be returned to the student(s) evaluated after the instructor removes the names of the students who wrote the evaluation. The instructor will also provide the evaluated students(s) with his summary of the student evaluations and his additional comments.

Regular attendance is imperative. Students are expected to stay for the entire class period ( 1:30-4:00). One whole letter grade will be deducted for every three absences that are not excused.

Students are expected to arrive at class on time, remain attentive, and avoid conversation or other behavior that distracts other students and the instructor. Cellular phones should be turned off before class and remain so throughout the class period. Students who disrupt class in any way, or sleep in class, will be warned and may even be asked to leave the room. The second time this happens one whole letter grade will be deducted from the final course grade, likewise for a third time, and so on. The Dean may also be notified.

Extra credit is possible through a book review essay based on one or more of the course texts and/or case studies, an intellectual journal with entries for class discussions and readings, reaction papers on videos, and the like. The instructor must approve any extra credit exercises beforehand.



The course will begin with an introduction to ethics in general in the second meeting through a division of labor among students in discussing chapters in this basic textbook:

Gensler, Harry L., 1998, Ethics: A Contemporary Introduction, New York , NY : Routledge. [Not available in UH libraries] ($29.95 new, $20 used)

Throughout the semester students will be assigned various chapters to discuss from these three anthologies:

Caplan, Pat, ed., 2003, The Ethics of Anthropology: Debates and Dilemmas , New York , NY : Routledge. ($36.95 hardcover new, $34.85 used) GN33.6 .E86 2003

Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn, ed., 2003, Ethics and the Profession of Anthropology: Dialogue for Ethically Conscious Practice, Thousand Oaks , CA : AltaMira Press. ($27.95 new, $20.13 used) GN33.6 .E84 2003

Meskell, Lynn, and Peter Pels, eds., 2005, Embedding Ethics, New York, NY: Berg. ($28.95 new)


Each student is expected to read and help discuss this book as the main source on the El Dorado Controversy:

Borofsky, Robert, et al., 2005, Yanomami: The Fierce Controversy and What We Can Learn From It , Berkeley , CA ; University of California Press. ($19.95 new, $12.15 used) F2520.1.Y3 B67 2005


Finally, each student is required to present to the class a 40 minute discussion of one of the following case studies of her or his choice listed in the order scheduled:

Bodley, John H., 1999, Victims of Progress , Mountain View , CA : Mayfield Publishing Company.

Stocking, George W., Jr., ed., 1992, Colonial Situations: Essays on the Contexts of Ethnographic Knowledge, Madison , WI : University of Wisconsin Press. GN308 .C64 1991

Kroeber, Karl, and Clifton Kroeber, 2003, Ishi in Three Centuries, Lincoln , NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Starn, Orin, 2004, Ishi’s Brain: In Search of America’s Last “Wild” Indian, New York , NY : W.W. Norton and Company.

Biolsi, Thomas, and Larry J. Zimmerman, eds., 1997, Indians and Anthropologists: Vine Deloria, Jr., and the Critique of Anthropology, Tucson , AZ : University of Arizona Press. E76.6 .I53 1997

Wakin, Eric, 1992,Anthropology Goes to War: Professional Ethics and Counterinsurgency in Thailand, Madison , WI : University of Wisconsin Center for Southeast Asian Studies Monograph Number 7. Asia DS586 .W294 1992

Hymes, Dell, ed., 1999, Reinventing Anthropology, Ann Arbor , MI : University of Michigan Press. GN43 .A2 H9 (1972 edition)

Harrison, Faye V., ed., 1991, Decolonizing Anthropology: Moving Toward an Anthropology of Liberation, Washington , D.C. : American Anthropological Association /Association of Black Anthropologists.

Price, David H., 2004, Threatening Anthropology: McCarthyism and the FBI’s Surveillance of Activist Anthropologists, Durham , NC : Duke University Press. GN17.3 .U5 P75 2004

Fabian, Johannes, 1983, Time and the Other: How Anthropology Makes Its Object, New York , NY: Columbia University Press. GN345 .F32 1983

Tierney, Patrick, 2001, Darkness in El Dorado: How Scientists and Journalists Devastated the Amazon, New York , NY : W.W. Norton and Company. F2501.1 .Y3 T54 2000 (first edition)

Smith, Linda Tuhiwai, 1999, Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples, New York , NY : Zed Books. GN380 .S65 1999

Gonzalez, Roberto J., 2004, Anthropologists in the Public Sphere: Speaking Out on War, Peace, and American Power, Austin , TX : University of Texas Press. GN492 .A592 2004

Williams, Melvin D., 1993, An AmericanVillage: The Ethnography of an Anthropology Department 1959-1979, Ann Arbor , MI : M.D. Williams.


As a prelude to our consideration of the El Dorado controversy the instructor will discuss this book by a Princeton University Professor of Philosophy:

Frankfurt, Harry G., 2005, On Bullshit, Princeton , NJ : Princeton University Press. BJ1421 .F73 2005


Although not required, these anthologies are recommended for additional case studies:

Appell, George N., 1978, Ethical Dilemmas in Anthropological Inquiry: A Case Book, Waltham, MA: Crossroads Press. GN33.6 .A6

Anthropology in Action volume 9 number 3, special issue on “Effective Ethics and Effects of Ethics”

Berreman, Gerald D., et. al., 1968 (December), “Social Responsibilities Symposium,” Current Anthropology 9(5):391-435. GN1 .C8 [Also available electronically through Hamilton Library Hawai`i Voyager].

Cantwell, Anne-Marie, Eva Friedlander, and Madeline L. Tramm, ed., 2000, Ethics and Anthropology: Facing Future Issues in Human Biology, Globalism, and Cultural Property, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, v. 925. Qll .N5 v. 925

Cassell, Joan, and Murray L. Wax, eds., 1980 (February), “Ethical Problems in Fieldwork,” Social Problems 27(3):259-377. HN1 .S58

Cassell, John, and Sue-Ellen Jacobs, eds., 1987, Handbook on Ethical Issues in Anthropology, Washington, D.C.: American Anthropological Association Special Publication No. 23.


Rose, Deborah Bird, 2005, Reports From A Wild Country: Ethics for Decolonization [Australian cases], Sydney, Australia: University of New South Wales Press.

Rynkiewich, Michael A., and James P. Spradley, eds., 1976, Ethics and Anthropology: Dilemmas in Fieldwork, New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons. GN33.6 .E83

Salzano, Francisco M., and A. Magdalena Hurtado, eds., 2003, Lost Paradises and the Ethics of Research and Publication, New York, NY: Oxford University Press. GN33.6 .L67 2004


Also see relevant entries on ethics in these major reference works:

Encyclopedia of Ethics, Lawrence C. Becker and Charlotte B. Becker, eds., 2001. Ref BJ63 .E45 2001

The Handbook of Ethical Research with Ethnocultural Populations and Communities, Joseph E. Trimble and Celia B. Fisher, eds. Ref GN495.4 .H36 2006

International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences 2001, N. J. Smelser and P.B. Baltes, Editors-in-Chief. (See Appendix I in this syllabus for a partial listing). Ref H41 .I58 2001


In addition, students should explore these sections of the Hamilton Library shelves:

BJ66 Ethics,

GN 33.6 Ethics in Anthropology

H62 Social Science Fieldwork, and

KF4280 Social Research Ethics.


Recommended for general background are the following books:

Adams, William Y., 1998, The Philosophical Roots of Anthropology, Stanford , CA : Leland Stanford Junior University Center for the Study of Language and Information.

Amit, Vered, ed., 2004, Biographical Dictionary of Social and Cultural Anthropology. Ref GN20 .B56 2004

Borofsky, Robert, ed., 1994, Assessing Cultural Anthropology, New York , NY : McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Hellman, Hal, 1998, Great Feuds in Science: Ten of the Liveliest Disputes Ever.

Robin, Rik, 2004, Scandals and Scoundrels: Seven Cases That Shook the Academy, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Rorty, Richard, 1991, Objectivity, Relativism, and Truth.

Young, Robert M., 1998, Scientific Blunders: A Brief History of How Wrong Scientists Can Sometimes Be.




1/10 Overview of course and subject

1/17 Ethics in general (Gensler), Video: Belmont Report

1/24 Ethics in anthropology in historical perspective

1/31 Anthropology and colonialism (Bodley & Stocking)

2/7 Video: Ishi: Last of His Tribe

2/14 Ishi (Kroeber-Kroeber & Starn)

2/21 More on anthropology and colonialism (Biolsi, Harrison)

2/28 Vietnam War and anthropology (Wakin & Hymes)

3/7 More on anthropology and colonialism (Fabian & Smith)

3/14 Various cases in brief

3/21 Videos on Yanomami

3/28 Spring recess (explore websites)

4/4 El Dorado controversy, Videos: BS, Olelo Dialogue

4/11 continued (Tierney)

4/18 continued (Borofsky)

4/25 Imagined anthropology department (Williams)

5/2 McCarthyism and déjà vu (Price & Gonzalez)

5/9 Final examination (research reports)





January 10 Course Syllabus

Ethics in Anthropology: An Overview (PowerPoint lecture)

Assigned readings


Fluehr, Lobban, Carolyn, 2002 (March), "A Century of Ethics and Professional Anthropology," Anthropology News 43(3):20 [handout].



January 17 Ethics in General: An Introduction – Gensler

Assigned reading

“Some Notes on Biomedical Ethics” on instructor’s homepage under “Courses,” “410 Ethics in Anthropology,” and then “Medical”




The Belmont Report: Basic Ethical Principles and their Application 5118


 Recommended videos

 Balancing Society's Mandates: IRB Review Criteria 5117 (Beta)

The Nuremberg Trial 19638

The Nuremberg Trials: A Film Documentary 11492

Nuremberg DVD 0636


Recommended websites - See Appendix III.


Recommended readings

 Akeroyd, Anne V., 1984, "Ethics in Relation to Informants, the Profession and Governments," in Ethnographic Research: A Guide to General Conduct, Roy Ellen, ed., pp. 133-154.

Alford, C. Fred, 2001, Whistleblowers: Broken Lives and Organizational Power.

Annas, G.J., and M.A. Grodin, 1992, The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Experimentation.

Barnes, J.A., 1979, Who Should Know What: Social Science, Privacy and Ethics, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Beauchamp, Tom L., Ruth J. Faden, Jay Wallace, Jr., and Leroy Walters, eds., 1982, Ethical Issues in Social Science Research.

Bower, R.T., and P. de Gasparis, 1978, Ethics in Social Research: Protecting the Rights of Human Subjects.

Bulmer, Martin, ed., 1982, The Uses of Social Research: Social Investigations in Public Policy-making.

Campbell, Alastair V., et al., 1997, Medical Ethics.

Chronicle of Higher Education, 1991 (March 27), "Videotaped data pose legal and ethical problems for social scientists," p. A9.

Chalk, Rosemary, et al., 1980, Professional Ethics Activities in the Scientific and Engineering Societies (AAAS).

Committee for the Protection of Human Participants in Research, 1979, Ethical Principles in the Conduct of Research with Human Participants, Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Dickens, Bernard M., 2000, "Can Science or Ethics Compromise Each Other in Human Subject Research?," in Science and Ethics, Patricia Demers, ed., pp. 3-23.

Dooley, David, 2001, "Ethics: Protecting Human Subjects and Research Integrity," in his Social Research Methods, pp. 16-39.

Erikson, Kai T., 1967, “A Comment on Disguised Observation in Sociology,” Social Problems 14:366-373.

Faden, Ruth R., and T.L. Beauchamp, 1986, A History and Theory of Informed Consent.

Fitzgerald, Maureen H., 2005 (September), “The Ethics-Review Process,” Anthropology News 46(6):10-11.

Gray, Bradford H., 1979, "Human Subjects Review Committees and Social Research," in Federal Regulations: Ethical Issues and Social Research, Murray Wax and Joan Cassell, eds., Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science, pp. 43-59.

Gross, Larry, John Stuart Katz, and Jay Ruby, eds., 1987, Image Ethics: The Moral Rights of Subjects in Photographs, Films, and Television.

Herrera, C.D., 1996, "Informed Consent and Ethical Exemptions," Human Organization 55:235-238.

International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2001 [See Appendix I in this syllabus for a partial list of relevant entries on ethics].

International War Crimes Tribunal, 1946, Nuremberg Code (Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. 10, Nuremberg, October 1946), Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, v. 2, pp. 181-182, 1949.

Kadushin, Charles, 2005, “Who Benefits from Network Analysis: Ethics of Social Network Research,” Social Networks 27(2):139-153.

Kearney, Richard, and Mark Dooley, 1999, Questioning Ethics: Contemporary Debates in Philosophy.

Kelly, Ann, 2003, “Research and the Subject: The Practice of Informed Consent,” PoLAR: Political and Legal Anthropology Review 26(2):182-195.

Klockers, C.B., and F.W. O'Conner, eds., 1979, Deviance and Decency: The Ethics of Research with Human Subjects.

LeCompte, Margaret D., et al., 1999, Researcher Roles and Research Partnerships.

Lifton, Robert Jay, 1986, The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide.

McNabb, Steven, 1995, "Social Research and Litigation: Good Intentions Versus Good Ethics," Human Organization 54:331-335.

May, William, 1980, "Doing Ethics: The Bearing of Ethical Theories on Fieldwork," Social Problems 27(3):358-370.

National Academy of Sciences, 1995, On Being a Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research.

Murphy, Michael Dean, and Agneta Johannsen, 1990, "Ethical Obligations and Federal Regulations in Ethnographic Research and Anthropological Education," Human Organization 49(2):127-134.

The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, 1979, The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research.

Plattner, Stuart, 2002, "The Protection of Human Subjects in Anthropological Research," AAA Anthropology News 43(5):22.

Punch, Maurice, 1986, The Politics and Ethics of Fieldwork.

Rainwater, Lee, and David J. Pittman, 1967, "Ethical Problems in Studying a Politically Sensitive and Deviant Community," Social Problems 14(4):357-366.

Reamer, Frederic G., 1987, "Informed Consent in Social Work," Social Work 32(5):425-429.

Reynolds, Paul Davidson, 1982, Ethics and Social Science Research.

Ryan, Kenneth John, et al., 1979, The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects, Washington, D.C.: Department of Health, Education and Welfare/The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research.

Sieber, Joan E., 1998, "Planning Ethically Responsible Research," in Handbook of Applied Social Science Research Methods, Leonard Bickman and Debra J. Rog, eds., pp. 127-156.

Sjoberg, G., ed., Ethics, Morals and Social Responsibility.

Stenmark, Mikael, 1997, "What is Scientism?" Religious Studies 33(1):15-32.

Swazey, Judith P., Melissa S. Anderson, and Karen Seashore Lewis, 1993, "Ethical Problems in Academic Research," American Scientist 81:542-553.

Van Meijl, Toon, 2000, “Modern Morals in Postmodernity: A Critical Reflection on Professional Codes of Ethics,” Cultural Dynamics 121:65-81.

Wax, Murray L., 1980, "Paradoxes of "Consent" to the Practice of Fieldwork," Social Problems 27(3):272-283.

Wax, Murray, and Joan Cassell, eds., Federal Regulation: Ethical Issues and Social Research, Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science.

de Wolf, Jan J., 1992 (August-October), "Ethnology in the Third Reich," Current Anthropology 33(4):473-475.

World Medical Association, 1964, Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects.

Wulff, Keith M., ed., 1979, Regulation of Scientific Inquiry: Societal Concerns with Research, Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science.



January 24 Ethics in Anthropology: Historical Reflections

 Assigned readings

 Boas, Franz, 1919 (October 16), "Letter to the Editor: Scientists as Spies," The Nation 109:797 [handout].

AAA, 2005 (May), “Referendum for Uncensoring Boas,” AAA website [handout].

Fluehr-Lobban Introduction, Chs. 1 3, 9-10, Appendix A

Caplan Introduction, Ch. 2, Meskell-Pels Introduction, Ch. 2

AAA Committee on Ethics webpage, including "AAA Statement on Ethics" and "Final Report of the Commission to Review the AAA Statement on Ethics" http://www.aaanet.org

[The most recent "Code of Ethics of the American Anthropological Association" is also available in the Fluehr-Lobban textbook as Appendix A].


Recommended video

Anthropology on Trial (Margaret Mead) 893


Recommended readings

Allen, John S., 1989 (February), "Franz Boas' Physical Anthropology: The Critique of Racial Formalism Revisited," Current Anthropology 30(1):79-84.

AAA, 1967 (December), "Statement on Problems of Anthropological Research and Ethics," Current Anthropology 8(5):474-475.

ASAC, 1988 (June), "Association of Social Anthropologists of the Commonwealth Ethical Guidelines for Good Practice," Current Anthropology 29(1):523-527.

Baker, Lee D., 2004, “Franz Boas of the ivory tower,” Anthropological Theory 4(1):29-51.

Barnes, John, 1967, “Some Ethical Problems in Fieldwork,” British Journal of Sociology 14:111-134. (reprinted in Anthropologists in the Field, D.G. Jongmans and P.C. Gutkind, eds., pp. 193-213, and also in The Craft of Social Anthropology, A. Epstein, ed.).

Bauman, Zygmunt, 1993, Postmodern Ethics.

Bauman, Zygmunt, 2001, “Postmodern Ethics,” in The New Social Theory Reader: Contemporary Debates.

Boas, Franz, 1912, "An Anthropologists View of War," International Conciliation 52.

Cassell, Joan, 1980, "Ethical Principles for Conducting Fieldwork," American Anthropologist 82:29-42.

Chilungu, Simeon W., 1976, "Issues in the Ethics of Research Methods: An Interpretation of the Anglo-American Perspective," Current Anthropology 17(3):457-481.

Cole, Johnetta B., 1995, "Human Rights and the Rights of the Anthropologists,” American Anthropologist 97(3):445-448.

D'Andrade, Roy, 1995, "Moral Models in Anthropology," Current Anthropology 36(3):399-408.

Diamond, Stanley, 1964, “Nigerian Discovery: The Politics of Fieldwork,” in Reflections on Community Studies, Arthur J. Vidich, Joseph Bensman, and Maurice R. Stein, eds.,

Edel, May, and Abraham Edel, 2000, Anthropology and Ethics: The Quest for Moral Understanding.

Fabian, Johannes, 1971, “On Professional Ethics and Epistemological Foundations,” Current Anthropology 12(2):230-231.

Fischer, Ann, 1969, “The Personality and Subculture of Anthropologists and their Study of U.S. Negroes,” in Concepts and Assumptions in Contemporary Anthropology, Stephen A. Tyler, ed., Southern Anthropological Society Proceedings No. 3, pp. 12-17.

Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn, 1994, "Informed Consent in Anthropology: We Are Not Exempt," Human Organization 53(1):1-10.

Fluehr-Lobban Carolyn, 1996, "Reply to Wax and Herrera," Human Organization 55:240-241.

Fluehr-Lobban Carolyn, 1996, "Developing the new Code of Ethics," AAA Anthropology Newsletter 17(4):17-18.

Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn, 1998, "Ethics," Handbook of Methods in Cultural Anthropology, H. Russell Bernard, ed., Walnut Creek, CA; AltaMira Press, pp. 173-202.

Fernandez, James W., 1990, “Tolerance in a Repugnant World and Other Dilemmas in the Cultural Relativism of Melville J. Herskovits,” Ethos 18(2):140-164.

Fried, Morton H., 1972, "Ethics," in The Study of Anthropology, pp. 229-276.

Gellner, Ernest, 1987 (August-October), "The Political Thought of Bronislaw Malinowski," Current Anthropology 28(4):557-559.

Gert, Bernard, 1995, "Universal Values and Professional Codes of Ethics," AAA Anthropology News 36(7):30-31.

Glazer, Myron Peretz, 1996, "Ethics," in Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology, David Levinson and Melvin Ember, eds., 2:389-392.

Goldschmidt, Walter, ed., 1979, The Uses of Anthropology.

Grigulevich, J., and E. Veselkin, 1976 (December), “On the Ethics of Research Methods,” Current Anthropology 17(4):734-738.

Hatch, Elvin, 1983, Culture and Morality: The Relativity of Values in Anthropology.

Herskovits, Melville J., 1972, Cultural Relativism.

Hill, James, 1987, "The Committee on Ethics: Past, Present, and Future," in Handbook on Ethical Issues in Anthropology, Joan Cassell and Sue-Ellen Jacobs, eds., pp. 11-19.

Honigmann, John J., 1959, “How Values Enter,” in his The World of Man, pp. 114-17.

Huizer, Gert, and Bruce Mannheim, eds., The Politics of

Anthropology: From Colonialism and Sexism Toward a View from Below.

Jarvie, I.C., 1969, “The Problem of Ethical Integrity in Participant Observation,” Current Anthropology 10(5):505-508.

Jordan, Ann, 1996 (April), "Review of the Code of Ethics," AAA Anthropology News 37(4):17-18.

Khasnabish, Alex, 2004, “Zones of Conflict: Exploring the Ethics of Anthropology in Dangerous Places,” Nexus 17:63-87.

Levy, Janet, 1994, "Anthropological Ethics, the PPR and the CoE: Thoughts from the front line," Anthropology Newsletter 35:1,5.

Mabee, Carleton, 1987, "Margaret Mead and Behavioral Scientists in World War II: Problems in Responsibility, Truth, and Effectiveness," Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 23:3-13.

Malinowski, Bronislaw, 1941, "An Anthropological Analysis of War," American Journal of Sociology 46:521-550.

Maquet, Jacques, 1964, “Objectivity in Anthropology,” Current Anthropology 5:47-55.

Marshall, Patricia A., 2005 (October), “On Research Ethics,” Anthropology News 46(7):13-14.

MacIntyre, Alasdair, 1993, “Ethical Dilemmas: Notes from outside the field,” AAA Anthropology News 34(7):5-6.

Messenger, Phyllis Mauch, ed., 1999, The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property.

Messing, Simon D., and Spencer L. Rogers, 1976 (June), "On Anthropology and Nazi Genocide," Current Anthropology 17(2):326-327.

Nelson, Nancy L., 1996, “The Thief and the Anthropologist: A Story of Ethics, Power, and Ethnography,” City and Society 8(1):119-127.

Patterson, Thomas C., 2001, A Social History of Anthropology in the United States.

Pels, Peter, 1994, “National Codes of Ethics and European Anthropology: A Call for Cooperation and Exchange,” European Association of Social Anthropologists Newsletter 13:9-10.

Pels, Peter, 1999, "Professions of Duplexity: A Prehistory of Ethical Codes in Anthropology," Current Anthropology 40(2):101-136.

Pels, Peter, 2000, “The Trickster’s Dilemma: Ethics and the Technologies of the Anthropological Self,” in Audit Cultures: Anthropological Studies in Accountability, Ethics, and the Academy, Marilyn Strathern, ed., pp. 135-172.

Rosaldo, Michelle, 1980, “The Use and Abuse of Anthropology,” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 5(3):389-417.

Salzman, Philip Carl, 1977 (March), “On the Demonstration of Our Sins,” Current Anthropology 18(1):119-123.

Schafft, Gretchen Engle, 2004, From Racism to Genocide: Anthropology in the Third Reich.

Scheper-Hughes, Nancy, 1995, "The Primacy of the Ethical: Propositions for a Militant Anthropology," Current Anthropology 36(3):409-420.

Southall, Aidan, 1977 (June), "More on Ethics in Research," Current Anthropology 18(2):338-339.

Ringberg, Torsten 1995, "Is Academic Anthropology Unethical," AAA Anthropology News 36(1):48.

Rynkiewich, Michael A., 1976, "The Underdevelopment of Anthropological Ethics," in Ethics and Anthropology: Dilemmas in Fieldwork, Michael A. Rynkiewich and Kames P. Spradley, eds., pp. 47-60.

Ulrich, George, 1999, "Comment on Pels...," Current Anthropology 40(2):126-127.

Washburn, Wilcomb E., 1985, "Ethical Perspectives in North American Ethnology," in Social Contexts of American Ethnology, 1840-1984, June Helm, ed., pp. 51-64.

Washburn, Wilcomb E., 1987, "Cultural Relativism, Human Rights, and the AAA," American Anthropologist 89(4):939-946.

Washburn, Wilcomb E., 1998, "What Are Anthropological Ethics?," in his Against the Anthropological Grain, pp. 45-62.

Wax, Murray L., 1977, “On Fieldworkers and Those Exposed to Fieldwork,” Human Organization 36:321-328.

Wax, Murray L., 1991, “The Ethics of Research in American Indian Communities,” American Indian Quarterly XV(4):431-456.

Weaver, Thomas, 1971, To See Ourselves: Anthropology and Modern Social Issues.



January 31 Anthropology and Colonialism

Case studies: Bodley (esp. chs. 10-11, also 2-3, 5-7 & Stocking (esp. first two chapters by Stocking and last two chs. By Turner and Asad)


Recommended video:

Kayapo Out of the Forest (Terence Turner) (5297)


Recommended readings

Asad, T., ed., 1973, Anthropology and the Colonial Encounter, London, England: Ithaca Press.

Becker, Ernest, 1971, The Lost Science of Man.

Berreman, Gerald, 1969, "Academic Colonialism: Not So Innocent Abroad," The Nation 505-508.

Diamond, Jared, 1988 (August), "The Last First Contacts," Natural History pp. 28-31.

Dostal, W., ed., 1971, The Situation of the Indian in South America, Geneva, Switzerland: World Council of Churches ("Declaration of Barbados").

Fabian, Johannes, 1971 (April), "On Professional Ethics and Epistemological Foundations," Current Anthropology 12(2):230-232.

Gjessing, Gutorm, 1968, "The Social Responsibility of the Social Scientist," Current Anthropology 9:397-403.

Gordon, R., 1987, "Anthropology and Apartheid--- The Rise of Military Ethnology in South Africa," Cultural Survival Quarterly 11:58-60.

Gough, Kathleen, 1968 (April 13), "Anthropology and Imperialism," Monthly Review, pp. 12-24.

Hailey, Lord, 1944, "The Role of Anthropology in Colonial Development," Man 5:10-16.

Hinsley, C., 1979, "Anthropology as Science and Politics: The Dilemmas of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1870 to 1904," in The Uses of Anthropology, Walter Goldschmidt, ed., pp. 15-32.

Hitchcock, Robert K., and Tara M. Twedt, 1997, "Physical and Cultural Genocide of Various Indigenous Peoples," in Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views, Samuel Totten, William S. Parsons, and Israel W. Charny, eds., pp. 372-407.

Horvath, Ronald J., 1972 (February), "A Definition of Colonialism," Current Anthropology 13(1):45-57.

Hsu, Francis L.K., 1964 (June), "Rethinking the Concept of Primitive," Current Anthropology 5(3):169-178.

Jaulin, Robert, 1971, "Ethnocide: The Theory and Practice of Cultural Murder," The Ecologist 1(18):12-15.

Johnson, Elden, 1973, “Professional Responsibilities and the American Indian,” American Antiquity 38:129-130.

Keesing, Felix M., 1945, "Applied Anthropology in Colonial Administration," Science of Man, pp. 370-398.

Kloos, Peter, 1977, The Akuriyo of Surinam: A Case of Emergence from Isolation, Copenhagen, Denmark: International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs Document No. 27.

Lewis, Diane, 1973 (December), "Anthropology and Colonialism," Current Anthropology 14(5):581-602.

MacCalncy, Jeremy, ed., 2002, Exotic No More: Anthropology on the Front Lines.

Nietschmann, Bernard, 1987, "The Third World War," Cultural Survival Quarterly 11(3):1-16.

Pandian, Jacob, 1985, Anthropology and the Western Tradition: Toward an Authentic Anthropology.

Pels, Peter, and Oscar Salemink, eds., 1999, Colonial Subjects: Essays in the Practical History of Anthropology.

Robinson, Scott S., 1973 (June), "The Declaration of Barbados: For the Liberation of Indians with Comments," Current Anthropology 14(3):267-270.

Schoen, Ivan, 1969, "Contact with the Stone Age," Natural History 68: 10-18, 16.

Starn, Roin, 1994, (February), "Rethinking the Politics of Anthropology: The Case of the Andes," Current Anthropology 35(1):13-38.

Stauder, J., 1974, "The "Relevance" of Anthropology to Colonialism and Imperialism," Radical Science Journal 1:38-61.

Stocking, George W., Jr., ed., 1992, Colonial Situations: Essays on the Contexts of Ethnographic Knowledge.

Sturtevant, William C., 1970 (April), "Resolution on Forced Acculturation," Current Anthropology 11(2):160.

Vincent, Joan, 1990, Anthropology and Politics: Visions, Traditions, and Trends.

Wallace, Scott, 2003 (August), "Into the Amazon," National Geographic 204(2):2-27.



February 7 Ishi, Alfred Kroeber, and Early American Anthropology


Last Of His Tribe (HBO)

Ishi, the Last Yahi 9383


Assigned reading

Fluehr-Lobban Ch. 9



February 14 Ishi continued

Case studies: Kroeber-Kroeber, Starn


Recommended videos

Genocide, from Biblical Times through the Ages 19828

Indians' Sacred Spirit (Ogalala Lakota Sioux) 18922

The Tribe that Time Forgot 10873

Who Owns the Past (Kennewick Man)(18985)

Recommended readings

Churchill, Ward, 1997, A Little Matter of Genocide: Holocaust and Denial in the Americas 1492 to the Present.

Field, Les W., 1999 (April), "Complicities and Collaborations: Anthropologists and the "Unacknowledged Tribes" of California," Current Anthropology 40(2):193-209.

Hurtado, Albert, 1988, Indian Survival on the California Frontier.

Killion, T., et al., 1999, “The Facts About Ishi’s Brain,” AAA Anthropology News 40(6):9.

Kroeber, Theodora, 1961, Ishi in Two Worlds: A Biography of the Last Wild Indian in North America.

Kroeber, Theodora, 1962, Ishi: Last of the Yahi.

Marks, Jonathan, 1999, “They Saved Ishi’s Brain!” AAA Anthropology News 40(4):22.

Norton, Jack, 1979, Genocide in Northwestern California: When Our Worlds Cried.



February 21 More on Colonialism and Anthropology

Case studies: Biolsi-Zimmerman (esp. Introduction and Parts One and Three) & Harrison


Recommended videos

 First Contact (gold miners in New Guinea) 4387

Frontier: Stories of White Australia's Forgotten War 14584/1-2

The Last Tasmanians: Ancestors 424

The Last Tasmanians: Extinction 425


Recommended readings

Cove, John J., 1995, What The Bones Say?: Tasmanian Aborigines, Science, and Domination.

Deloria, Vine, Jr., 1969, Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto.

DeLoria, Vine, Jr., 1980, "Our New Research Society: Some Warnings to Social Scientists," Social Problems 27:265-271.

Hughes, Daniel T., 1976, “Responsibilities of Anthropologists to Pacific Islanders,” unpublished manuscript (Hamilton Library Pacific Collection.

Rose, Deborah Bird, 2005, Reports From A Wild Country: Ethics for Decolonization [Australian cases].



February 28 Vietnam War, Politics, and Ethics in American Anthropology

Case studies: Wakin, Hymes


Recommended readings

Beals, Ralph L., 1967 (December), "International Research Problems in Anthropology: A Report from the U.S.A.," Current Anthropology 8(5):470-475.

Beals, Ralph L., 1969, Politics of Social Research: An Inquiry into the Ethics and Responsibilities of Social Scientists.

Berreman, Gerald D., et al., 1968 (December), "Social Responsibilities Symposium," Current Anthropology 9(5):391-435.

Berreman, Gerald D., 1968, "Is Anthropology Alive? Social Responsibility in Social Anthropology," Current Anthropology 9:391-397.

Berreman, Gerald, 1971, "Ethics, Responsibility and the Funding of Asian Research," Dialectical Anthropology 100-104.

Berreman, Gerald D., 1978, "Ethics and Responsibility in Social Science Research," The American Sociologist 13:153-155.

Berreman, Gerald D., 1981, The Politics of Truth: Essays in Critical Anthropology.

Chilungu, Simeon W., 1976, "Issues in Ethics of Research Methods: An Interpretation of the Anglo-American perspective," Current Anthropology 17(3):457-481.

Condominas, George, 1973, "AAA Distinguished Lecture 1972: Ethics and Comfort: An Ethnographer's View of His Profession," AAA Annual Report 1972, pp. 1-17.

Condominas, George, 1979, "Notes on the Present State of Anthropology in the Third World," in The Politics of Anthropology: From Colonialism and Sexism Toward a View from Below, Gerrit Huizer and Bruce Mannheimeds, pp. 187-199.

Cruikshank, J., 1971, "The Potential of Traditional Societies and of Anthropology, Their Predator," Antropologica n.s. XIII:129-142.

Davenport, William, 1985, "The Thailand Controversy in Retrospect," in Social Contexts of American Ethnology, 1840-1984, June Helm, ed., Proceedings of the American Ethnological Society, pp. 65-72.

Duerr, Hans Peter, et al., 1970 (February), "On the Social Responsibilities Symposium," Current Anthropology 11(1):72-79.

Foster, George M., Peter Hinton, A.J.F. Kobben, Eric Wolf, and Joseph Jorgensen, 1971, "Anthropology on the Warpath: An Exchange," New York Review 16(6):43-46.

Gjessing, Gutorm, 1968, Social Responsibility of the Social Scientist,” Current Anthropology 9(5):397-403.

Gough, Kathleen, 1968, “New Proposals for Anthropologists,” Current Anthropology 9(5):403-407.

Gough, Kathleen, 1968 (April), “Anthropology- Child of Imperialism,” Monthly Review 19(11).

Grigulevich, J., and E. Veselkin, 1976 (December), "On the Ethics of Research Method," Current Anthropology 17(4):734-738.

Henry, Frances, 1966 (December), "The Role of the Fieldworker in an Explosive Political Situation," 7(5):552-559.

Horowitz, Irving Lewis, ed., 1967, The Rise and Fall of Project Camelot: Studies in the Relationship Between Social Science and Practical Politics, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Isaacs, Stephen, 1971 (November 23), " Asia Anthropology: Science or Spying?," Washington Post.

Jarvie, I.C., 1969, "The Problem of Ethical Integrity in Participant Observation," Current Anthropology 10:505-508.

Jones, Delmos, 1971, "Social Responsibility and the Belief in Basic Research: An example from Thailand," Current Anthropology 12(3):347-350.

Jorgensen, Joseph, 1971 (June), "On Ethics and Anthropology," Current Anthropology 12(3):321-334.

Rossi, Ino, 1973 (June), "More on Positivism and Professional Ethics," Current Anthropology 14(3):320-322.

Salzman, Philip Carl, 1977 (March), "On the Demonstration of Our Sins," Current Anthropology 18(1):119-123.

Shenker, Israel, 1971 (November 21), "Anthropologists Clash Over Their Colleagues' Ethics in Thailand," New York Times.

Sjoberg, Gideon, 1967, "Project Camelot: Selected Reactions and Personal Reflections," in Ethics, Politics, and Science Research, G. Sjoberg, ed., pp. 141-161.

Tugby, Elise, 1968 (April-June), "Ethnological and Applied Work on Southeast Asia, 1950-66," Current Anthropology 9(2-3):185-206.

Tugby, Elise, 1968 (April-June), "The Distribution of Ethnological and Applied Fieldwork in Southeast Asia, 1950-66," Current Anthropology 9(2-3):207-214.

Tugby, Donald J., 1970 (February), "Ethnological and Allied Research Problems in Southeast Asia," Current Anthropology 11(1):49-54.

Wolf, Eric R., and Joseph G. Jorgensen, 1970 (November 19), "Anthropology on the Warpath in Thailand," New York Review 15(9):26-36.



March 7 More on Anthropology and Colonialism

Case studies: Fabian, Smith


Recommended readings

Barsh, R.L., 1988, "Are Anthropologists Hazardous to Indians' Health?," Journal of Ethnic Studies 15:3-38.

Chapin, M, 1991, "How the Kuna Keep the Scientists in Line," Cultural Survival Quarterly 15(3):17.

Morauta, L., 1979, "Indigenous Anthropology in Papua New Guinea," Current Anthropology 20:561-576.

Narayan, Kirin, 1993, "How Native is a Native Anthropologist?," American Anthropologist 95:671-687.

Ohnuki-Tierney, E., 1984, ""Native" Anthropologists," American Ethnologist 11:584-586.

Ortiz, Alfonso, 1973, "An Indian Anthropologist's Perspective on Anthropology," in Anthropology and the American Indian, Jeannette Henry, ed., pp. 85-92.




March 14 Various Cases in Brief

Assigned readings

Fluehr-Lobban 6, Caplan 3, 5-11, Meskell-Pels 4-8



March 21 The Yanomami


 The Yanomamo: A Multidisciplinary Study 4553, Yanomami Homecoming 17918


 Recommended videos

A Man Called Bee 5836

Contact: The Yanomami Indians of Brazil 4962

Warriors of the Amazon 18554




 Assignment – start exploring these web sites in the order listed:

Douglas Hume’s website on Darkness in El Dorado


Les Sponsel’s Homepage (archives under “El Dorado Controversy,” especially file on “Personal Involvement”)


Coronil, Fernando, et al., 2001 (Fall), “The Production of Knowledge and Indigenous Peoples,” The Journal of the International Institute 9(1).


AAA Task Force on Darkness in El Dorado Final Report


Napoleon Chagnon’s response to Tierney, etc.


Robert Borofsky’s Public Anthropology


AAA Committtee on Ethics, 2002, "Briefing Papers on Common Dilemmas Faced by Anthropologists Conducting Research in Field Situations"





April 4 The Darkness in El Dorado Controversy

Assigned readings

Fluehr-Lobban 4, 7-8, Caplan 4, Meskell-Pels 1, 3, 10

Sponsel, Leslie E., 2005, articles on “Darkness in El Dorado Controversy” and “Yanomami” in The Encyclopedia of Anthropology, James Birx, ed.



Philosopher Frankfurt on BS (60 Minutes segment)

Olelo Dialog Among Steve Boggs, Christopher Fong, and Terry Turner

Recommended videos

Half-Life: A Parable of the Nuclear Age ( Marshall Islands) 851

Violence: An American Tradition 14195


Recommended readings

Goodman, Alan H., Deborah Heath, and M. Susan Lindee, eds., 2003, Genetic nature/culture: Anthropology and Science Beyond the Two-culture Divide.

Greely, H.T., 1998, “Legal, Ethical, and Social Issues in Human Genome Research,” Annual Review of Anthropology 27:473-502.

Kiste, Robert C., 1976, "The People of Enewetak Atoll versus the U.S. Department of Defense," in Ethics and Anthropology: Dilemmas in Fieldwork, Michael A. Rynkiewich and James P. Spradley, eds., pp. 61-80.

Marks, Jonathan, 2005, “Your Body, My Property: The Problem of Colonial Genetics in a Postcolonial World,” in Emedding Ethics, Lynn Meskell and Peter Pels, ed., pp. 29-45.

Nader, Laura, 1997, "The Phantom Factor: The Impact of the Cold War on Anthropology," in Cold War and the University, Noam Chomsky, et al., eds., pp. 107-146.

Neel, James V., 1970, “Lessons from a Primitive People,” Science 170:815-822.

Neel, James V., 1994, Physician to the Gene Pool: Genetic Lessons and Other Stories.

Price, David, 1998, "Cold War Anthropology: Collaborators and Victims of the National Security State," Identities 4(3-4):389-430.

Salzano, Francisco M., and A. Magdalena Hurtado, eds., 2003, Lost Paradises and the Ethics of Research and Publication.

Turner, Terence, 2001 (November), The Yanomami and the Ethics of Anthropological Practice, Cornell University Latin American Studies Program Occasional Papers Series Volume 6.

Turner, Trudy, ed., 2005, Biological Anthropology and Ethics: From Repatriation to Genetic Identity.

Welsome, Eileen, 1999, The Plutonium Files: America's Secret Medical Experiments in the Cold War.

Zilinskas, R.A., and P.J. Balint, eds., 2001, The Human Genome Project and Minority Communities: Ethical, Social, and Political Dilemmas.



April 11 Controversy continued

Assigned readings

Gregor, Thomas A., and Daniel Gross, 2004 (December), “Guilt by Association: The Culture of Accusation and the American Anthropological Association’s Investigation of Darkness in El Dorado,” American Anthropological Association 106(4):687-698.

Robin, Rik, 2004, "Violent People and Gentle Savages: The Yanomami Controversy," in Scandals and Scoundrels: Seven Cases That Shook the Academy, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, pp. 138-165.

Tierney, Patrick, 2000 (October 9), "The Fierce Anthropologist," The New Yorker pp. 50-61.

Wong, Kate, 2001 (March), "Fighting the Darkness in El Dorado," Scientific American pp. 26-28.


Case study: Tierney


Recommended readings

Albert, Bruce, ed., 2001, Research and Ethics: The Yanomami Case: Brazilian Contributions to the Darkness in El Dorado Controversy, Brazilia: Pro-Yanomami Commission Documentos Yanomami No. 2.

Atkinson, Paul, 1992, Understanding Ethnographic Texts.

Biella, Peter, 2000, “Visual Anthropology in the Plague Year,” AA Anthropology News 41(9):5-6.

Briggs, Charles L., and Clara E. Mantini-Briggs, 2001, “Review of Darkness in El Dorado,” Current Anthropology 42:269-271.

Carneiro da Cunha, Maria Manuela, 1989, “Letter to the Editor/the AAA Committee on Ethics,” AAA Anthropology News 30(1):3.

Chagnon, Napoleon, 1989, “Letter,” AAA Anthropology News 30(1):3, 24.

Coronil, Fernando, et al., 2991 (April), "CA Forum on Anthropology in Public: Perspectives on Tierney's Darkness in El Dorado," Current Anthropology 42(2):265-276.

Cote, William, and Roger Simpson, 2000, Covering Violence: A Guide to Ethical Reporting About Victims and Trauma.

Fischer, Michael M.J., 2003, “In the Science Zone: The Yanomami and the Fight for Representation,” Emergent Forms of Life and the Anthropological Voice, pp. 370-392.

Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn, 2000 (October 6), "How Anthropologists Should Respond to an Ethical Crisis," The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Geertz, Clifford, 2001 (Bebruary 8), “Life Among the Anthros [review of Tierney 2001],” New York Review of Books pp. 18-22.

Good, Kenneth, with David Chanoff, 1991, Into the Heart: One Man's Pursuit of Love and Knowledge Among the Yanomami.

Hammersley, Martyn, 1990, Reading Ethnographic Research: A Critical Guide.

Hill, Jane, 2000, “Getting Out the Real Story,” AAA Anthropology News 41(8):5.

Hill, Jane, et al., 2005 (September), “On the Referendum to Rescind the AAA’s Acceptance of the El Dorado Task Force Report,” AAA Anthropology News 46(6):28-29.

Kulick, Don, and Margaret Wilson, eds., 1995, Taboo: Sex, Identity, and Erotic Subjectivity in Anthropological Fieldwork.

Miller, D.W., 2000 (September 20), “Scholars Fear that Alleged Misdeeds by Amazonian Anthropologists will Taint Entire Discipline,” Chronicle of Higher Education.

Miller, D.W., 2001 (January 12), "Academic Scandal in the Internet Age," The Chronicle of Higher Education p. A 14.

Monaghan, Peter, 1994 (October 26), "Bitter Warfare in Anthropology," Chronicle of Higher Education, p. A10.

Nugent, Stephen, 2001, “Anthropology and Public Culture: The Yanomami, Science, and Ethics,” Anthropology Today 173:10-14.

Ramos, Alcida Rita, 1987, “Reflecting on the Yanomami: Ethnographic Images and the Pursuit of the Exotic,” Cultural Anthropology 2:284-304.

Raybeck, Douglas, et al., 2005 (May), “Dialogue on the Referendum to Rescind the AAA’s Acceptance of the El Dorado Task Force Report,” AAA Anthropology News 46(5):21-22.

Sahlins, Marshall, 2001 (November 17), “Jungle Fever” [review of Tierney 2001], Guardian Weekly, p. 33.

Spencer, Jonathan, 1996, “Anthropological Scandals,” in Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Alan Barnard and Jonathan Spencer, eds., pp. 501-503.

Sponsel, L.E., 1995, "Relationships Among the World System, Indigenous Peoples, and Ecological Anthropology in the Endangered Amazon," Indigenous Peoples and the Future of Amazonia: An Ecological Anthropology of an Endangered World, L.E. Sponsel, ed., pp. 263-293.

Sponsel, L.E., 1998, "Yanomami: An Arena of Conflict and Aggression in the Amazon," Aggressive Behavior 24(2):97-122.

Sponsel, L.E., et al., 2002 (February), "On Reflections on Darkness in El Dorado," Current Anthropology 43(1):149-152.

Stoll, David, 2001 (March 19), “Science Attacks Amazon Tribe,” The New Republic pp. 34-39.

Stoll, David, 2001, “The Altar Boy and the Anthropologist,” Anthropology News 42(4):6.

Thomas, Jim, 1993, Doing Critical Ethnography.

Tooby, John, 2000, “Witchcraft Accusations in Anthropology,” Anthropology News 41(9):8.

Wolcott, Harry F., 2002, Sneaky Kid and Its Aftermath: Ethics and Intimacy in Fieldwork.

Zalweski, Daniel, 2000 (October 8), “Anthropology Enters the Age of Cannibalism,” New York Times.



April 18 Controversy continued

Assigned reading: Borofsky




April 25 An Imagined Department of Anthropology

Case study: Williams


Recommended websites

Hawai`i State Ethics Commission


University of Hawai`iFaculty Handbook and Student Handbook (sections on conduct).



Recommended readings

LaFollette, Michael C., 1992, Stealing into Print: Fraud, Plagiarism and Misconduct in Scientific Publishing.

Mallon, Thomas, 1989, Stolen Words: Forays into the Origins and Ravages of Plagiarism.

Montagu, Ashley, 1966, Up the Ivy: Being microcosmographia academic revisited, a true blue guide on how to climb in the academic world without appearing to try.

Professor X, 1973, This Beats Working for a Living: The Dark Secrets of a College Professor.



May 2 McCarthyism and deja vu

Assigned reading

Fluehr-Lobban Ch. 2

Case studies: Price, Gonzalez

Recommended readings

Allen, John S., 1989 (February), “Franz Boas’ Physical Anthropology: The Critique of Racial Formalism Revisited,” Current Anthropology 30(1):79-84.

Baker, Lee D., 2004, “Franz Boas out of the ivory tower,” Anthropological Theory 4(1):29-51.

Basch, Linda, et al., eds., 2000, Transforming Academia: Challenges and Opportunities for an Engaged Anthropology.

Bulmer, Martin, ed., 1982, Social Research Ethics: An Examination of the Merits of Covert Participant Observation.

Eickelman, Dale F., 2001, "Secret Research," AAA Anthropology News 42(1):3.

Erikson, Thomas Hylland, 2006, Engaging Anthropology: The Case for a Public Presence.

Goolsby, Rebecca, 2005, “Ehics and Defense Agency Funding: Some Consideration,” Social Networks 27(2):95-106.

Gusterson, Hugh, 2003, “Defending the Nation? Ethics and Anthropology after 9/11,” Anthropology Today 19(3):23-26.

Gusterson, Hugh, 2005 (September), “Spies in Our Midst,” AAA Anthropology News 46(6):39-40.

Moos, Felix, 1995, "Anthropological Methods and the Military," AAA Anthropology News 36(9):34.

Moos, Felix, 2005 (September), “Some Thoughts on Anthropological Ethics and Today’s Conflicts,” AAA Anthropology News 46(6):40-42.

Nuti, Paul J., 2005 (September), “The Pat Roberts Intelligence Scholars Program: FAQs,” AAA Anthropology News 46(6):41.

Price, David, 2000 (November 20), "Anthropologists as Spies," The Nation 271:24-27. http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml?i=2000II20&s=price

Price, David, 2000, "The AAA and CIA," AAA Anthropology News 41(8):13-14.

Scollon, Ron, 1991, "Plagarism and Ideology: Identity in Intercultural Discourse," Language in Society 24:1-28.

Sheets, Payson, 2001, "The CIA," AAA Anthropology News 42(1):3.

Smith, Gavin, 1999, Confronting the Present: Towards a Politically Engaged Anthropology, New York, NY: Berg.

Sponsel, Leslie E., Homepage file on “Anthropologists as Spies” http://www.soc.hawiai.edu/Sponsel

Winkler, Karen, 1985 (December 17), "Anthropologists Debate the

Ethical Propriety of Keeping Research Results Secret," The Chronicle of Higher Education.





Scheduled 12:00-2:00 p.m.

Individual research reports (see Appendices II and VI)




International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, N.J. Smelser and P.B. Baltes, Editors-in-Chief. Ref H41 .I58 2001

“Advocacy in Anthropology,” Leslie E. Sponsel, pp. 204-206.

“Archiving: Ethical Aspects,” Card, J.J., pp. 646-649.

“Cultural Relativism, Anthropology of,” J.W. Fernandez, pp. 3110-3113.

“Deceptive Methods: Ethical Aspects,” J.E. Sieber, pp. 3281-3284.

“Ethical Dilemmas: Research and Treatment Priorities,” Betzler, M., pp. 4759-4762.

“Ethical Practices, Institutional Oversight, and Enforcement: United States Perspective,” Levine, R.J., pp. 4770-4774.

“Ethics Committees in Science: European Perspectives,” Doppelfeld, E., pp. 4786-4788.

“Fieldwork: Ethical Aspects,” Marshall, P., pp. 5625-5628.

“Intellectual Property Rights,” J. Straus, pp. 7621-7624.

“Objectivity of Research: Ethical Aspects,” D.B. Resnik, pp. 10789-10793.

“Privacy of Individuals in Social Research: Confidentiality,” Boruch, R.F., pp. 12070-12072.

 “Research Conduct: Ethical Codes,” F. Thiele, pp. 13224-13227.

 “Research Ethics, Cross-Cultural Dimensions of,” D. Tuzin, pp. 13231-13235.

 “Research Ethics,” J.E. Sieber, pp. 13235-13240.

 “Research Funding: Ethical Aspects,” Orjar Oyen, pp. 13240-13242.

 “Research Publication: Ethical Aspects,” F. Di Trocchio, pp. 13242-13246.

 “Research Subjects, Informed and Implied Consent of,” Appelbaum, P.S., pp. 13246-13250.





Case 1. Steven Mosher’s exposure of forced abortion policy in China

Horowitz, Irving L., 1983 (July/August), "Struggling for the Soul of Social Science," Society 20:4-15.

Lincoln, Jeffrey, 1983 (September 3-10), "Steven Mosher and the Politics of Cultural Exchange," The Nation 237:176-180.

Mosher, Steven W., 1983, Broken Earth: The Rural Chinese.

Mosher, Steven W., 1985, Journey to the Forbidden China.

Mosher, Steven W., 1993, A Mother's Ordeal: One Woman's Fight Against China's One Child Policy.

The Nation, 1983 (September 24), "Letters: The Ethics of Anthropology and Lincoln Replies," The Nation 237:226.

Saturday Review, 1985 (September/October), "Interview with Steven Mosher," Saturday Review, p. 73.

Science, 1983 (May 13), "The Mysterious Expulsion of Steven Mosher," Science 220:692-694.

Science, 1983 (July 22), "Panel Uphold Dismissal of Mosher," Science 221:348.

Science, 1984 (October 5), "Chinese express views on Mosher to Stanford," Science 226:

Science 1986 (October 17), "Mosher sues Stanford," Science p. 280.

Time 1983 (March 14), " Battle in the Scholarly World: An Anthropologist Fights Stanford over a Code of Ethics," Time p. 72.



Case 2. Colin Turnbull and the starving Ik

Barth, Fredrik, 1974, "On Responsibility and Humanity: Calling a Colleague to Account," Current Anthropology 15(1):100-102.

Grinker, Roy A., 2000, In the Arms of Africa: The Life of Colin M. Turnbull.

Heine, Bernd, 1985, "Some Notes on the Ik of Northeastern Uganda," Africa 55(1):3-16.

Knight, James ZA., 1976 (Decedmber), “On the Ik and Anthropology: A Further Note,” Current Anthropology 17(4):777.

Turnbull, Colin M., 1972, The Mountain People.

Turnbull, Colin M., 1974, "Reply," Current Anthropology 15(2):355.

Wilson, Peter J., et al., 1975 (September), "More Thoughts on the Ik and Anthropology," Current Anthropology 16(3):343-358.



Case 3. The controversy over the Tasaday of the Philippines as a hoax


 Cave People of the Philippines (1975) 7526

Lost Tribe (1993) 9985

Trial in the Jungle

Berreman, Gerald D., "Romanticizing the Stone Age: The Incredible `Tasaday': Deconstructing the Myth of a `Stone-Age' People," Cultural Survival Quarterly 15:3-45.

Bower, Bruce, 1989, "The Strange Case of the Tasaday: Were They Primitive Hunter-Gatherers or Rainforest Phonies?," Science News 135:280-281.

Dandan, Virginia, ed., 1988, Readings on the Tasaday.

Dumont, Jean-Paul, 1988, "The Tasaday, Which and Whose? Toward the Political Economy of an Ethnographic Sign," Cultural Anthropology 3:261-275.

Fernandez, Carlos A., and Frank Lynch, 1972, "The Tasaday: Cave-Dwelling Food Gatherers of South Cotabato, Mindanao," Philippine Sociological Review 20:275-330.

Headland, Thomas N., ed., 1992, The Tasaday Controversy: Assessing the Evidence, Washington, D.C.: American Anthropological Association.

Headland, Thomas N., 1996, "Tasaday Controversy," in Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology, David Levinson and Melvin Ember, eds., 4:1285-1286.

Hemley, Robin, 2003, Invented Eden: The Elusive, Disputed History of the Tasaday.

Hyndman, David C., and Levita Duhaylungsod, 1990, "The Development Saga of the Tasaday: Gentle Yesterday, Hoax Today, Exploited Forever?," Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 22(4):38-54.

MacLeish, Kenneth, 1972 (August), "Stone Age Cavemen of Mindanao," National Geographic 142:219-249.

Nance, John, 1975/1988, The Gentle Tasaday: A Stone Age People of the PhilppineRain Forest.

National Geographic, 1971 (December), "First Glimpse of a Stone Age Tribe," National Geographic pp. 880-882.

Sponsel, L.E., 1992, "Our Fascination with the Tasaday: Anthropological Images and Images of Anthropology," in The Tasaday Controversy: Assessing the Evidence, Thomas N. Headland, ed., pp. 200-212.

Tan, Michael L., 1986 (July-September), "The Tasaday and Other Urgent Issues in Anthropology," Social Science Information 14(2):20, 26.

Yen, Douglas E., and John Nance, eds., 1976, Further Studies on the Tasaday.



Case 4. The Mead-Freeman Controversy

 Recommended video: Anthropology on Trial (893)

 Appell, George N., and T.N. Madan, eds., 1988, Choice and Morality in Perspective: Essays in Honor of Derek Freeman.

 Brady, I., ed., “Speaking in the Name of the Real: Freeman and Mead in Samoa,” American Anthropologist 85(4):908-947.

Canberra Anthropology, 1983, 6(1-2), special volume on “Fact and Context in Ethnography: The Samoa Controversy.”

Freeman, Derek, 1983, Margaret Mead and Samoa: The Making and Unmaking of an Anthropological Myth.

Freeman, Derek, 1991 (June), "On Franz Boas and the Samoan Researches of Margaret Mead," Current Anthropology 32(3):322-330.

Freeman, Derek, 1996, "Reflections of a Heretic," The Evolutionist (online only magazine) http://cpnss.1se.ac.uk/darwin/evo/freeman.htm

Freeman, Derek, 1999, The Fateful Hoaxing of Margaret Mead (second editon).

Freeman, Derek, et al., 2000 (August-October), "Was Margaret Mead Misled or Did She Mislead on Samoa?" Current Anthropology 41(4):1-24.

Holmes, Lowell D., and Ellen Rhoads Holmes, 1992, SamoanVillage: Then and Now.

Holmes, Lowell D., 1987, Quest for the Real Samoa: The Mead/Freeman Controversy and Beyond.

Lewis, Herbert S., 2001 (June), "Boas, Darwin, Science, and Anthropology," Current Anthropology 42(3):381-406.

Marcus, George, 1983 (March 27), "One Man's Mead," New York Times Book Review 2-3, 22-23.

Martin, Orans, 1999 (March 12), "Mead Misrepresented," Science pp. 1649-1650.

Mead, Margaret, 1928, Coming of Age in Samoa: A Psychological Study of Primitive Youth for Western Civilization.

Orans, Martin, 1996, Not Even Wrong: Margaret Mead, Derek Freeman and the Samoans.

Shankman, Paul, 1996, "The History of Samoan Sexual Conduct and the Mead-Freeman Controversy," American Anthropologist 98:555-567.

Shankman, Paul, 1998, "Margaret Mead, Derek Freeman, and the Issue of Evolution," Skeptical inquirer 22:35-39.

Shankman, Paul, 1998, "All Things Considered: A Reply to Derek Freeman," American Anthropologist 100:977-979.



Case 5. Rigoberta Menchu, Guatemalan human rights activist and Nobel Peace Prize winner


We Are Guatemalans (segment on Ricardo Falla) 12335

Rigoberta Menchu: Cassandra and Crusader 20188


Amnesty International, 1992, Human Rights Violations Against Indigenous Peoples of the Americas.

Arias, Arturo, ed., 2001, The Rigoberta Menchu Controversy.

Bourgois, Philippe, 1990, "Confronting Anthropological Ethics: Ethnographic Lessons from Central America," Journal of Peace Research 27(1):43-54.

Carmack, Robert, 1988, Harvest of Violence: The Maya Indians and the Guatemalan Crisis.

Ehlers, Tracy Bachrach, 1990, " Central America in the 1980s: Political Crisis and the Social Responsibility of Anthropologists," Latin American Research Review 25(3):141-155.

Falla, Ricardo, 1994, Massacres in the Jungle: Ixcan, Guatemala (1975-1982).

Feldman, Jonathan, 1989, Universities in the Business of Repression: The Academic-Military-Industrial Complex and Central America.

Green, Linda, 1955, "Living in a State of Fear," in Fieldwork Under Fire: Contemporary Studies of Violence and Survival, Carolyn Nordstrom and Antonius C.G.M. Robben, eds., pp. 105-130.

Hale, Charles R., 1997 (December), "Consciousness, Violence, and the Politics of Memory in Guatemala," Current Anthropology 38(5):817-838.

Jones, Susannze, 1991, The Battle of Guatemala: Rebels, Death Squads, and U.S. Power.

Manz, Beatriz, 1988, Refugees of a Hidden War: The Aftermath of Counterinsurgency in Guatemala.

Manz, Beatrice, 1995, "Reflections on an Antropologia Comprometida: Conversations with Ricardo Falla," in Fieldwork Under Fire: Contemporary Studies of Violence and Survival, pp. 260-274.

Menchu, Rigoberta, 1984, I, Rigoberta Menchu: An Indian Woman in Guatemala.

Montejo, Victor, 1987, Testimony: Death of a GuatemalanVillage.

Nash, June, 1976, "Ethnology in a Revolutionary Setting [ Bolivia]," in Ethics and Anthropology: Dilemmas in Fieldwork, Michael A. Rynkiewich and James P. Spradley, eds., pp. 148-166.

Oglesby, Elizabeth, 1995, "Myrna Mack," in Fieldwork Under Fire: Contemporary Studies of Violence and Survival, Carolyn Nordstrom and Antonius C.G.M. Robben, eds., pp. 253-259.

Smith, Carol, ed., 1990, Guatemalan Indians and the State, 1540-1988.

Starn, Orin, 1991, "Missing the Revolution: Anthropologists and the War in Peru," Cultural Anthropology 6(1):63-91.

Stoll, David, 1999, Rigoberta Menchu and the Story of All Poor Guatemalans.

Towell, Larry, 1994, House on Ninth Street: Interviews and Photographs from Guatemala.



Case 6. Intellectual Property Rights and Professional Ethics

Brush, Stephen, 1993, "Indigenous Knowledge of Biological Resources and Intellectual Property Rights: The Role of Anthropology," American Anthropologist 95(3):653-671.

Brush, Stephen B., and Doreen Stabinsky, eds., 1996, Valuing Local Knowledge: indigenous People and Intellectual Property Rights.

Busch, Lawrence, William B. Lacy, Jeffrey Burkhardt, and Laura R. Lacy, 1991, Plants, Power, and Profit: Social, Economic, and Ethical Consequences of the New Biotechnologies.

Cunningham, Anthony B., 1996, "Professional Ethics and Ethnobotanical Research," in Selected Guidelines for Ethnobotanical Research: A Field Manual, New York Botanical Garden.

"Declaration of Belem," in Posey, Darrell A., et al., eds., 1990, Ethnobiology: Implications and Application (Proceedings of the First International Congress of Ethnobiology.

Friedlander, Jonathan, 1996, "Introduction: Genes, Property and People: Furor Erupts over Genetic Research on Indigenous Groups," Cultural Survival Quarterly 20(2):54-57.

Greaves, Tom, ed., 1994, Intellectual Property Rights for Indigenous People: A Sourcebook, Society for Applied Anthropology.

Greely, Henry T., 1996, "Genes, Patents and Indigenous Peoples, Biomedical Research and Indigenous People's Rights," Cultural Survival Quarterly 20(2):54-57.

 Kloppenburg, Jack Ralph, Jr., 1988, First the Seed: The Political Economy of Plant Biotechnology, 1492-2000.

 Martin, Gary J., Alison L. Hoare, and Darrell A. Posey, eds., 1996, Protecting Rights: Legal and Ethical Implications of Ethnobiology, World Wildlife Fund


Plenderleith, Kristina, ed., 2004, Indigenous Knowledge and Ethics: A Darrell Posey Reader.

Posey, Darrell A., 1990, "Intellectual Property Rights and Just Compensation for Indigenous Knowledge," Anthropology Today 6:13-16.

Posey, Darrell A., 1990, "Intellectual Property Rights: What is the position of ethnobiology?," Journal of Ethnobiology 10(1):93-98.



Case 7. Applied and Advocacy Anthropology: A Different Ethics?


Anthropologists at Work: Careers Making a Difference 11984


Adams, Richard Newbold, 1979, "Ethical Principles in Anthropological Research: One or Many?" Human Organization 40(2):155-160.

Bennett, John W., 1996 (February), "Applied and Action Anthropology: Ideological and Conceptual Approaches," Current Anthropology 37(Supplement):23-53.

Chambers, Erve, and Mike G. Trend, 1979, "Fieldwork ethics in Policy-Oriented Research," American Anthropologist 83:626-628.

Clifton, James A., and Lynn Johnson, 1974 (December), "On Action Anthropology," Current Anthropology 15(4):467-468.

D'Andrade, Roy, 1995 (June), "Moral Models in Anthropology," Current Anthropology 36(3):399-408.

Ervin, Alexander M., 2000, "Ethics in Applied Research and Practice," in his Applied Anthropology: Tools and Perspectives for Contemporary Practice, pp. 27-40.

Fall, Wendy Wilson, 2001 (January), “Reflections on Ethics Working in International Development,” National Association for the Practice of Anthropology Bulletin 20(1):82-84.

Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn, 1991, "Ethics and Professionalism in Anthropology: Tensions Between its Academic and Applied Branches," Business and Professional Ethics 10(4):1-10.

Gray, Andrew, et al., 1990 (August-October), "On Anthropological Advocacy," Current Anthropology 31(4):387-390.

Gwynne, Margaret A., 2003, "The Ethics of Applied Anthropology," in her Applied Anthropology: A Career-Oriented Approach, pp. 79-104.

Hastrup, Kirsten, and Peter Elsass, 1990 (June), "Anthropological Advocacy: A Contradiction in Terms?" Current Anthropology 31(3):301-311.

Iris, Madelyn, 2004 (January), “Ethical Issues And Other Things To Think About,” National Association for the Pactice of Anthropology Bulletin 22(1):159-163.

Irvine, Leslie, 1998, "Organizational Ethics and Fieldwork Realities: Negotiating Ethical Boundaries in Codependents Anonymous," in Doing Ethnographic Research, Scott Grills, ed., pp. 167-183.

Lamphere, Louise, 2003, “The Perils and Prospects of an Engaged Anthropology: A View from the United States,” Social Anthropology 11:153-168.

Mead, Margaret, Ellito D. Chapple, and G. Gordon Brown, 1949, "Report of the Committee on Ethics," Human Organization 8(2):20-21.

National Association of Practicing Anthropologists, 1988, "Ethical Guidelines for Practitioners


Paine, Robert, ed., 1985, Advocacy in Anthropology: First Encounters.

Pierce-Colfer, Carol J., 1976, "Rights, Responsibilities, and Reports: An Ethical Dilemma in Contract Research," in Ethics and Anthropology: Dilemmas in Fieldwork, Michael A. Rynkiewich and James P. Spradley, eds., pp. 32-46.

Robins, Steven, and Nancy Scheper-Hughes, 1996 (April), "On the Call for a Militant Anthropology: The Complexity of "Doing the Right Thing,"" Current Anthropology 37(2):341-345.

Scheper-Hughes, Nancy, 1995 (June), "The Primacy of the Ethical: Propositions for a Militant Anthropology," Current Anthropology 36(3):409-440.

Sponsel, Leslie E., 1992, "Information Asymmetry and the Democratization of Anthropology," Human Organization 51(3):299-301.

Sponsel, Leslie E., 2001, “Advocacy in Anthropology,” International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences, N.J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, eds., pp. 204-206.

Society for Applied Anthropology, 1983, "Professional and Ethical Responsibilities"


Tax, Sol, et al., 1975 (December), "A Discussion of Action Anthropology," Current Anthropology 16(4):507-550.

Trend, M.G., 1980, "Applied Social Research and the Government: Notes on the Limits of Confidentiality," Social Problems 27(3):342-349.

Washburn, Wilcomb E., 1989, "Anthropological Advocacy in the Hopi-Navajo Land Dispute," American Anthropologist 91:738-753.

Wax, Murray L., 1995, Informed Consent in Applied Research: A Commentary," Human Organization 54:330-331.

Wax, Murray L., 1996, "Reply to Herrera," Human Organization 55:238-240.

van Willigen, John, 2002, "Ethics," in his Applied Anthropology: An Introduction, pp. 47-62.

Wright, Robin M., 1988, "Anthropological Presuppositions of Indigenous Advocacy," Annual Review of Anthropology 17:365-390.



Case 8. Teaching Ethics in Anthropology Classes

Alvarez, Robert R, Jr., 1998, "Teaching Ethics: The Local and the Global," AAA Anthropology News 41(1):24-25.

Appell, George N., 1976, "Teaching Anthropological Ethics: Developing Skills in Ethical Decision-Making and the Nature of Moral Education," Anthropological Quarterly 49(2):81-88.

Cassell, Joan, 1987, "How to Hold a Workshop on Ethical Problems in Fieldwork," in Handbook on Ethical Issues, Joan Cassell and Sue-Ellen Jacobs, eds., American Anthropological Association, pp. 93-95 (also available on the AAA Committee on Ethics webpage: http://www.aaanet.org).

Jacob, Sue-Ellen, 1987, "Some Experiences in Teaching Ethics in Fieldwork Classes," in Handbook on Ethical Issues, Joan Cassell and Sue-Ellen Jacobs, eds., American Anthropological Association, pp. 76-92 (also available on the AAA Committee on Ethics webpage: http://www.aaanet.org).

Klingsolver, Ann, et al., 2003, “Teaching Anthropological Ethics at the University of South Carolina: An Example of Critical Ethical Dialogues across Communities" in Ethics and the Profession of Anthropology: Dialogue for Ethically Conscious Practice, Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban, ed., pp. 197-224.

Kottak, Conrad, et al., eds., 1997, The Teaching of Anthropology: Problems, Issues, and Decisions.

Pruitt, Deborah, 2003, “Teaching as Social Action: Ethics of Access and Relevance in Introductory Anthropology,” Kroeber Anthropological Society Papers 89/90:205-218.





 American Anthropological Association Committee on Ethics

(also see links to Society for Applied Anthropology, and National Association of Practicing Anthropologists)


American Association for the Advancement of Science


American Association of Physical Anthropologists


American Political Science Association


American Psychological Association


American Sociological Association


Anthropology and Public Policy, Society for Applied Anthropology


Archaeological Institute of America


Association of Social Anthropologists of the UK and the Commonwealth - Ethical Guidelines for Good Research Practice


The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects Research



Center for Applied Ethics (CAE)


Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions (CSEP)


Dartmouth College Institute for the Study of Applied and Professional Ethics


Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects


Ethics Across the Curriculum


EthicsWeb.ca (professional ethics resources on the World Wide Web)


Federal Regulations Governing Research Involving Human Subjects


Hawai`i State Ethics Commission


Hume, Douglas, website on Darkness in El Dorado: How Anthropologists and Journalists Devastated the Amazon by Patrick Tierney 2000


International War Crimes Tribunal, 1946, Nuremberg Code


Institute for Global Ethics


National Association of Practicing Anthropologists ( NAPA)


National Association of Social Workers


Nuremberg Code


Public Anthropology


Society for Applied Anthropology


The Society for Economic Botany


Society of Professional Archaeologists


University of Hawai`i Committee on Human Subjects


University of Hawai`i Faculty and Student Handbooks (sections on conduct)



Also see the various centers and institutes on ethics on the websites of these universities:

Arizona State U, Carnegie Mellon U, Case Western Reserve U, Cornell U, Duke U, Harvard U, Illinois Institute of Technology, Indiana U, Iowa State U, Loyola U of Chicago, Marquette U, U Notre Dame, Ohio U, Princeton U, U Santa Clara, Southern Methodist U, Stanford U, U British Columbia, U Montana, U Nebraska at Lincoln, U North Carolina at Charlotte, U San Diego, Tampa U, U Tennessee, and Youngstown State U.





Collaboration and Respect

Academic Freedom and Intellectual Rigor

Institutional Integrity and Service

Access, Affordability and Excellence

Active Learning and Discovery

Diversity, Fairness and Equity

Leveraged Technology

Hawaiian and Asian-Pacific Advantage

Innovation and Empowerment

Accountability and Fiscal Integrity

Malama’aina, Sustainability








1. PANEL SIZE AND COORDINATION The optimum size for a student panel is around three to four individuals, a smaller or larger number is awkward. One member of the panel should volunteer or be elected to serve as its coordinator. The coordinator should make a list of the names and email addresses of all members of the panel to set up a group email to facilitate effective communication and coordination of the panel as a whole.

2. THREE MEETINGS Each panel should meet outside of class at least three times, the third time as a rehearsal. It is important for the panel to rehearse the presentation before it is given in class in order to work out any problems, gauge time (one hour), and make it run as smoothly as possible. In effect, panel meetings outside of class should be like a small seminar on the subject under consideration as part of the active and collaborative learning style emphasized in this course.

3. INSTRUCTOR FEEDBACK The second meeting of the panel should be held with the instructor in order to report on the panel’s plans for the contents and delivery of its presentation. Ideally this meeting should be scheduled during the instructor’s office hours (Thursday afternoons) and involve as many of the members of the panel as possible. If a regular meeting is not feasible, then email communication is acceptable.

4. WHOLE BOOK The members of each panel should dialog among themselves in person and by email to identify the book author’s argument (thesis) and three to five main points about professional ethics to explore in their class discussion. In this presentation panel members should engage together in a conversation about their collective and individual conclusions regarding the book, perhaps focusing on each of the three to five main points in turn. Avoid each panelist simply summarizing successive chapters in turn. The book as a whole should be discussed among the panelists. Thus, every panelist should read the entire book, not just one chapter to summarize. (The author of an academic book usually identifies the argument and main points in a preface, introduction, and/or conclusion).

5. IDEAS AND DELIVERY The panel should keep its presentation simple, just focus on discussing the argument and three to five main points identified for the book as a whole. Try to accomplish this in a manner that attracts and holds the attention of the class. In other words, both the ideas and their delivery are important for an effective presentation. Because of the Oral Communication focus of this course, individual panel members and the panel as a whole should carefully consider this aspect of the presentation (performance) as well as its contents (ideas). See the Peer Evaluation Form and the special handout on Oral Communication for points to consider.

6. ASSESSMENT The panel presentation as a whole will be assessed by all other members of the class using the Peer Evaluation Form. Comments may also be made on the oral communication performance of individual panelists on a separate page. Through email the instructor will summarize these class evaluations for the panel as a whole and provide additional comments. The evaluation forms will be shown to the panel after the names of other classmates have been removed. The case study presentation is worth 30% of the final course grade.





1. CONCLUSIONS The primary purpose of the individual research project is to allow each student to pursue her or his own special interests in some particular ethical matter. A secondary purpose is for each individual student to demonstrate his or her oral communications skills with a PowerPoint presentation briefly summarizing the project conclusions. Note that this presentation should be only a short summary of 3-5 conclusions, not a detailed discussion of the entire project. Only about 10 minutes are available for each presentation.

2. START SOON The research should be based on reading several articles and/or book chapters on a particular topic, summarizing them, and then drawing 3-5 conclusions to inform the class about the topic. You should pursue this individual reading throughout the semester and especially when there is no other reading assignment. As you read the syllabus and assignments and attend classes, you should be able to identify topics that personally interest you the most and could be pursued for your research project. However, a list of some possible topics is given at the end of this guide. (Also Appendix I in this syllabus includes initial bibliographic sources for several topics).

The topical bibliography in the course syllabus should help facilitate your literature search to compose your own individual bibliography on a particular topic. Other sources are listed on the instructor’s homepage. Especially useful is the Anthropology Index Online available through the Hamilton Library Hawai`i Voyager Online Resources. There you can search for very specific topics, cultures, religions, regions, and/or countries for particular time periods of several decades ago up to the present. Those who are members of the American Anthropological Association may search AnthroSource to find key journal articles.

3. OUTLINE AND BIBLIOGRAPHY The only written portion of this research for you to give to your instructor is a printout of the PowerPoint outline just before the presentation in the final examination period. This should include your bibliography. However, for extra credit you may also submit a written essay based on the research project.

4. POWERPOINT If you do not yet know how to develop a PowerPoint presentation, then you may learn from a classmate, friend, or your instructor. It is actually fairly simple, quick, and fun. Ideally, the PowerPoint presentation should only have about a dozen frames, including a few illustrations. Images may be located on the Fotosearch, Google, and/or Yahoo websites and transferred to the PowerPoint by copy and paste, and/or scanned from photos. Use a standard format, as large a print as possible, and good color contrast between the print and background. (Do not use a plain white background or black text on red background). Capitals in the text of a frame are usually used only at the beginning of a point and for proper nouns. The writing in a frame should be limited to a few key words or phrases. Avoid cluttering a frame with too much information. Each frame is supposed to help only as a guide for the speaker and the audience. Avoid simply reading each frame, the audience can read it. Instead, use the frame as an outline for your comments or discussion.

5. ORAL COMMUNICATION Be sure to check and follow the guidelines for Oral Communication Skills provided by the instructor and also the points on the Evaluation Form.

6. GRADE Don’t wait until the last week or so of the semester to start your research project and prepare your PowerPoint presentation. You should be developing it throughout the entire semester. It is important, comprising 20% of your final course grade. It will be evaluated and graded by your fellow students as well as your instructor on the basis of contents and delivery.

7. TOPICS Here is a list of some possible topics for research projects.

The earliest literature on ethics in anthropology

The evolution of professional ethics in the AAA

Salvage ethnography versus advocacy anthropology

Basic versus applied anthropology

Debates on ethics in the journal Current Anthropology

Anthropologists in World War II

Anthropologists and Japanese Relocation Centers in WWII

The abuses of anthropology in Nazi Germany

The abuses of anthropology during apartheid in South Africa

The censoring and uncensoring of Franz Boas

Anthropologists as spies then and now: 1917 and 2006

Project Camelot

Steven Mosher and the controversy over forced abortions in China

Cultural relativism as ethics: From Melville Hershkovits to today

Barbados Declaration (from conference on South American Indians)

Colin Turnbull and the starving Ik people

Derek Freeman on Margaret Mead’s representation of Samoans

Tasaday controversy in the Philippines and beyond

Debate on militant anthropology in Current Anthropology 1995-

Discussion and debate on ethics in the AAA Anthropology News

The presentation of professional ethics in textbooks

Comparison of codes of ethics of different organizations

Anthropology in Hawai`i

Teaching ethics in anthropology classes

UH Committee for Human Subjects