S Y L L A B U S

 

COURSE: Anth 435 Human Adaptation to Forests (Theory) 3 credits

TIME: 10:30-11:45 a.m., Thursdays, Fall Semester 2003

PLACE: BusAdmin D102, University of Hawai`i @ Manoa

INSTRUCTOR: Dr. Les Sponsel, Professor

Office: Saunders Hall 317
Hours: 12:00-3:00 p.m. Thursdays
Phone: 956-8507
Email: sponsel@hawaii.edu

ORIENTATION:

The topical focus of this course is the changing niches of humans and anthropology in tropical forests and in relation to the environmental and social impacts of deforestation, mineral and oil extraction, and other problems. The main approaches are cultural, historical, political, and spiritual ecology. Biological and cultural diversity will also be emphasized.

The regional focus of this course is on the Amazon. This emphasis reflects the facts that the Amazon remains the largest area of tropical forest in the world; it is one of the most important sources of innovative research in ecological anthropology; and it is where the instructor conducted considerable fieldwork and has published extensively. However, the focus on the Amazon is not exclusive and much of the material surveyed has pantropical relevance in any case. Furthermore, students interested in other regions of tropical rainforest are encouraged to pursue recommended and other literature as well.

The course critically analyzes both modernist and postmodernist studies of indigenous societies in Amazonia, challenging and transcending anachronistic dualities such as nature/culture, natural/supernatural, primitive/civilized, forager/farmer, local/global, developing/developed countries, and biological/cultural anthropology.

The politics and ethics of anthropology are discussed through scrutiny of the negative and positive aspects of the unprecedented scandalous controversy exposed by Patrick Tierney's book Darkness in El Dorado.

The instructor will also discuss his own fieldwork in the Venezuelan Amazon on the ecology of the Curripaco, Yanomami, and Ye'cuana as well as on ethnoprimatology.

FORMAT:

This course is reading, thinking, and discussion intensive with an emphasis on the critical analysis of selected pivotal issues in the ecological anthropology of the Amazon. Most of the classes will emphasize discussions of assigned readings and videos, often with a student facilitator, although some lectures will also be presented. Several selected videos will be shown which best illustrate visually material discussed in class. (Other videos will be recommended for optional outside viewing, see course website). Details of the syllabus, including grading criteria, are subject to negotiation during the first two weeks of classes. However, ultimately the instructor reserves the right to make any changes or adjustments at any time as the course progresses.

OBJECTIVES:

1. The main aim of this course is to survey selected aspects of ongoing human ecology and adaptation in tropical forest ecosystems with a regional focus on the Amazon.

2. Within this context the course also aims to identify and critically analyze pivotal issues in basic and applied ecological anthropological.

3. The course also aims to provide an inventory of the most important literature, videos, websites, and other resources for the systematic study of these and related subjects.

GRADING:

It is imperative that the assigned reading is regularly completed on time in preparation for active participation in class discussion and to regularly submit a reaction paper when due. (Late reaction papers will not be accepted without a written excuse from a medical doctor or other official source).

The final course grade will be based on the following:

15% weekly concise reaction papers due each Tuesday for the previous week's class material

15 one-page single-spaced typed reactions to:

(1) material discussed in class,
(2) the assigned reading, and
(3) one article selected from recommended readings, see Schedule.

20% final written research report

15 page single-spaced typed summary and critical analysis a single issue, see Schedule.

20% portfolio

(1) copy of all of the above,
(2) class notes, and
(3) a reflective essay of at least 5 pages typed double-spaced as the final examination.

15% class discussion facilitator or panelist

focused on a major issue, the same one chosen for final research report, see Schedule.

20% regular class attendance and active participation

10% regular course website participation

weekly comments of one brief paragraph posted on the Discussion Forum.

Reaction papers should briefly summarize class material, but emphasize an informed opinion. They may include comments, criticisms, questions, and other types of reactions. However, they must also clearly and convincingly demonstrate familiarity with the class material of the previous week, including class discussions, assigned readings, and one additional reading each week of your choice.

Extra credit may be earned through reaction papers to additional videos not shown in class, a book review, and/or a second research paper. The topic for either of the last two need to be approved by the instructor in advance.

READINGS:

Readings will be drawn mostly from the following:

Kricher, John, 1997, A Neotropical Companion: An Introduction to the Animals, Plants, and Ecosystems of the New World Tropics, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press (all chapters).
QH 106.5 K75 1997

Slater, Candace, 2002, Entangled Edens: Visions of the Amazon, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press (all chapters).
F2546 .S67 2002

Sponsel, Leslie E., ed., 1995, Indigenous Peoples and the Future of Amazonia: An Ecological Anthropology of an Endangered World, Tuczon, AZ: University of Arizona Press (Chapters 1-6, 13).
GF532 .A4 I53 1995

Sponsel, Leslie E., et al., eds., 1996, Tropical Deforestation: The Human Dimension, New York, NY: Columbia University Press (Chapters 1, 6).
SD418.2 T76 T75 1996

Wilson, David J., 1999, Indigenous South Americans of the Past and Present: An Ecological Perspective, Boulder, CO: Westview Press (Chs. 1-7, 10).
F2230.1 .S7 W55 1999

The above five books plus the first one listed below are available on 1 Night Loan Closed Reserve at Sinclair Library Circulation Desk.

These major reference works are especially useful:

Goulding, Michael, Ronaldo Barthem, and Efrem Ferreira, 2003, The Smithsonian Atlas of the Amazon, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press (requested for Sinclair Library Reserve).

Groombridge, Brian, and Martin D. Jenkins, eds., 2002, World Atlas of Biodiversity: Earth's Living Resources in the 21st Century, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Hamilton Library Reference QH77 .I5 A85 1995

Harcourt, Caroline S., and Jeffrey A. Sayer, eds., 1996, The Conservation Atlas of Tropical Forests: The Americas, New York, NY: Simon and Schuster (available only at UH Hilo Library).

Heywood, V.H., Executive Editor, 1995, Global Biodiversity Assessment, New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Hamilton Library Government Documents UNEP G51/4

Levin, Simon Asher, Editor-in-Chief, 2001, Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, San Diego, CA: Academic Press, Volumes 1-5.
Hamilton Library Reference QH 541.15 .B56 E53 2001

Prance, Ghillean T., and Thomas E. Lovejoy, eds., 1985, Amazonia: Key Environments, New York, NY: Pergamon.
Hamilton Library QH 112 .A43 1985

Salomon, Frank, and Stuart B. Schwatz, eds., 1999, South America: The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, Voume III, Part I, II. Hamilton Library F 2229 .S66 1999

Steward, Julian H., ed., 1963, Handbook of South American Indians, New York, NY: Cooper Square Publishers (reprint of Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143).
Windward Community College Reference Collection E 51 .U6 No. 143 1963

Wilbert, Johannes, ed., 1991, Encyclopedia of World Cultures: South America, Boston, MA: G.K. Hall. Hamilton Library
GN 307 E53 1991

Additional literature will be recommended in class and through bibliographies on the course website, especially emphasizing periodical articles since 1980. (Also see
Hamilton Library shelves section F and SD 1-600).

SCHEDULE (brief):

8/26 Orientation
8/28-9/2 Deforestation video (Kuykendall 207)
9/4-11 Discuss Slater's book Entanged Edens
9/16-10/2 Tropics, rainforests, South America, Amazon
10/7 Ecological anthropology overview
10/9-11/20 Subsistence economies and adaptations
11/25 Economic "development" with oil and mining
12/2-13 Yanomami aggression, ecology, mining, and ethics

SCHEDULE (detailed):

DATE TOPIC READING

PART I - INTRODUCTION

August
26T Orientation to course, instructor, and fellow students

_________________________________________________________________

28Th Issue: What are the causes, Kricher 14
consequences, and solutions to Sponsel et.al 1
tropical deforestation and
the erosion of diversity?

Video: Can Tropical Forests Be Saved?
(13177)

Note: For each of the videos scheduled to be shown in class we will meet in Kuykendall 207.

Required:

Sponsel, Leslie E., Robert C. Bailey, and Thomas N. Headland, 1996, "Anthropological Perspectives on the Causes, Consequences, and Solutions of Deforestation," in Tropical Deforestation: The Human Dimension, Leslie E. Sponsel, T.N. Headland, and R.C. Bailey, ed., New York, NY: Coumbia University Press, pp. 3-52.

Recommended:

Anderson, Anthony, and E. Irois, 1992, "Valuing the Rain Forest: Economic Strategies by Small-Scale Forest Extractivists in the Amazon Estuary," Human Ecology 20(3):337-369.

Barbier, E.B., 1987, "The Concept of Sustainable Economic Development," Environmental Conservation 14(2):101-110.

Barrett, Suzanne W., 1980, "Conservation in Amazonia," Biological Conservation 18:209-235.

Atisse, M., 1982, "The Biosphere Reserve: A Tool for Environmental Conservation and Management," Environmental Conservation 9(2):101-114.

Bawa, K.S., 1992, "The Riches of Tropical Forests: Non-Timber Products," Trends in Research in Ecology and Evolution 7:361-363.

Broner, Nira, 1990, "Brazil's Thriving Environmental Movement," Technology Review 93(7):42-51.

Browder, J.O., 1992, "The Limits of Extractionism," BioScience 42:174-182.

Brown, S., 1994, "Rehabilitation of Tropical Lands: A Key to Sustaining Development," Restoration Ecology 2:97-111.

Budowsky, Gerardo, 1976, "Why Save Tropical Forests? Some Arguments for Campaigning Conservationists," Amazoniana 5(4):529-539.

Bunyard, Peter, 1987, "The Significance of the Amazon Basin for Global Climatic Equilibrium," The Ecologist 17(4/5):139-141.

Bunyard, P., 1989, "Guardians of the Forest: Indigenist Policies in the Colombian Amazon," The Ecologist 19(6):255-258.

Buschbacher, Robert J., 1986, "Tropical Deforestation and Patterns of Development," BioScience 36(1):22-28.

Bush, M.B., 1994, "Amazonian Speciation: A Necessarily Complex Model," Journal of Biogeography 21:5-17.

Clay, Jason, 1991, "Cultural Survival and Conservation: Lessons from the Past Twenty Years," in Biodiversity, Culture, Conservation, and Ecodevelopment, Margery L. Olfield and Janis B. Alcorn, eds., Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 248-273.

Conklin, Beth, 2002, "Shamanism versus Pirates in the Amazonian Treasure Chest," American Anthropologist 104(4):1050-1061.

Cook, Allison G., Anthony C. Janetos, and W. Ted Hinds, 1990, "Global Effects of Tropical Deforestation: Towards an Integrated Perspective," Environmental Conservation 17(3):201-212.

Cox, P.A., and M.J. Balick, 1994, "The Ethnobotanical Approach to Drug Discovery," Scientific American 270:82-87.

Detwiler, R.D., and C.A.S. Hall, 1988, "Tropical Forests and the Global Carbon Cycle," Science 239:42-47.

Diamond, Jared, 1988, "Factors Controlling Species Diversity: Overview and Synthesis," Annals of the Missouri Botannical Garden 75:117-129.

Dickenson, J.P., 1989, "Development in Brazilian Amazonia: Background to New Frontiers," Revista Geografica 109:141-155.

Dove, Michael R., 1993, "A Revisionist View of Tropical Deforestation and Development," Environmental Conservation 20(1):17-25.

Eden, M.J., 1994, "Environment, Politics and Amazonian Deforestation," Land Use Policy 11:55-66.

Ehrlich, Paul R., and Edward O. Wilson, 1991, "Biodiversity Studies: Science and Policy," Science 253:758-762.

Fearnside, Philip M., 1986, "Spatial Concentration of Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon," Ambio 15:74-81.

Fearnside, P.M., 1988, "Jari at Age 19: Lessons for Brazil's Silvicultural Plans at Carajas," Interciencia 13:12-24.

Fearnside, P.M., 1989, "Extractive Reserves in Brazilian Amazonia: An Opportunity to Maintain Tropical Forest Under Sustainable Use," BioScience 39(6):387-393.

Fearnside, P.M., 1989, "Forest Management in Amazonia: The Needs for New Criteria in Evaluating Development Options," Forest Ecology and Management 27:61-79.

Fearnside, P.M., 1990, "The Rate and Extent of Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia," Environmental Conservation 17(3):192-196.

Gascon, C., et al., 1998, "Logging in the Rain Forests," Science 210:1354-1356.

Gentry, A.H., and J.L. Lopez-Parodi, 1980, "Deforestation and Increased Flooding in the Upper Amazon," Science 210:1354-1356.

Giaimo, Michael S., 1988, "Deforestation in Brazil: Domestic Political Imperative, Global Ecological Disaster," Environmental Law 18(3):537-570.

Godfrey, Brian J., 1990, "Boom Towns of the Amazon," Geographic Review 80(2):103-117.

Goodland, Robert J.A., 1992, "Neotropical Moist Forests: Priorities for the Next Two Decades," in Conservation of Neotropical Forests: Working from Traditional Resource Use, Kent H. Redford and Christine Padoch, eds., pp. 416-434.

Goodland, R.J.A., 1995, "The Concept of Sustainability," Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 26:1-24.

Gomez-Pompa, Arturo, C. Vazquez-Yanes, and S. Guevara, 1972, "The Tropical Rain Forest: A Nonrenewable Resource," Science 177:762-765.

Gomez-Pompa, A., and F.W. Burley, 1991, "The Management of Natural Tropical Forests," in Rain Forest Regeneration and Management, A. Gomez-Pompa, T.C. Whitmore, and M. Hadley, eds., pp. 3-18.

Gribel, Rogerio, 1990, "The Balbina Disaster: The Need to Ask Why?," The Ecologist 20(4):133-135.

Gross, Anthony, 1990, "Amazonia in the Nineties: Sustainable Development or Another Decade of Destruction?," Third World Quarterly 12(3):1-24.

Gullison, Raymond E., and Elizabeth C. Losos, 1993, "The Role of Foreign Debt in Deforestation in LAtin America," Conservation Biology 7(1):140-147.

Hayes, Randall, 1990, "Activism: You Make the Difference," in Lessons of the Rainforest, Suzanne Head and Robert Heinzman, eds., San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books, pp. 219-233.

Hecht, Susanna B., 1989, "The Sacred Cow in Green Hell," The Ecologist 19(6):229-234.

Hecht, S.B., 1993, "The Logic of Livestock and Deforestation in Amazonia," BioScience 43(10):687-695.

Hecht, S.B., R.B. Norgaard, and G. Possio, 1988, "The Economics of Cattle Ranching in Eastern Amazonia," Interciencia 13:233-240.

Holloway, Marguerite, 1993, "Sustaining the Amazon," Scientific American 269(1):90-99.

Houghton, R.A., D.S. Lefkowitz, and D.L. Skole, 1991, "Changes in the Landscape of Latin America Between 1850 amd 1985," Forest Ecology and Management 38(3-4):143-172.

Hyman, Randall, 1988, "Rise of the Rubber Tappers," International Wildlife 18(5):24-38.

Jackson, Donald Dale, 1989. "Searching for Medicinal Wealth in Amazonia," Smithsonian 19(11):94-103.

Janetos, A.C., and W.T. Hinds, 1990, "Global Effects of Tropical Deforestation: Toward an Integrated Perspective," Environmental Conservation 17(3):201-212.

Kaimowitz, D., 1997, "Factors Determining Low Deforestation: The Bolivian Amazon," Ambio 26(8):536-540.

Katzman, Martin T., and William G. Cale, Jr., 1990, "Tropical Forest Preservation Using Economic Incentives," BioScience 40(11):827-832.

LeTacon, F., and J.L. Harley, 1990, "Deforestation in the Tropics and Proposals to Arrest It," Ambio 19(8):372-378.

Lele, S.N., 1991, "Sustainable Development: A Critical Review," World Development 19:607-621.

Little, Paul E., 1995, "Ritual, Power and Ethnography at the Rio Earth Summit," Critical Anthropology 15(3):265-288.

Loker, William M., 1993, "The Human Ecology of Cattle Raising in the Peruvian Amazon: The View from the Farm," Human Organization 52(1):14-24.

Lutzenberger, Jose, 1987, "Brazil's Amazonian Alliance," The Ecologist 17(4):190-191.

Mares, M.A., 1986, "Conservation in South America: Problems, Consequences, and Solutions," Science 233:734-739.

May, R.M., 1988, "How Many Species Are There On Earth?," Science 241:1441-1449.

McNeely, Jeffrey A., et al., 1990, "Strategies for Conserving Biodiversity," Environment 32(3):16-20, 36-40.

Murray, Martyn G., 1990, "Conservation of Tropical Rain Forests: Arguments, Beliefs, and Convictions," Biological Conservation 52:17-26.

Myers, Norman, 1991, "Tropical Forests: Present Status and Future Outlook," Climatic Change 19:3-32.

Myers, N., 1993, "Tropical Forests: The Main Deforestation Fronts," Environmental Conservation 20(1):9-16.

Myers, N., 2001, "Hotspots," in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Simon Asher Levin, Editor-in-Chief, San Diego, CA: Academic Press 3:371-381.

Nordin, C.F., Jr., and R.H. Meade, 1982, "Deforestation and Increased Flooding in the Upper Amazon," Science 215:426-427.

O'Brien, K.L., 1996, "Tropical Deforestation and Climate Change," Progress in Physical Geography 20:311-335.

Orlove, Benjamin S., and Stephen B. Brush, 1996, "Anthropology and the Conservation of Biodiversity," Annual Review of Anthropology 25:329-352.

Pearman,, P.B., 1995, "An Agenda for Conservation Research and its Application, with a Case-Study from Amazonian Ecuador," Environmental COnservation 22:39-43.

Peres, C.A., 1994, "Indigenous Reserves and Nature Conservation in Amazonian Forests," Conservation Biology 8:586-588.

Peres, C.A., and J. Terborgh, 1995, "Amazonian Nature Reserves: An Analysis of the Defensibility of Existing Conservation Units and Design Criteria for the Future," Conservation Biology 9:34-46.

Peres, C.A., amd B. Zimmerman, 2001, "Perils in Parks or Parks in Peril? Reconciling Conservation in Amazonian Reserves With and Without Use," Conservation Biology 15:793-797.

Peters, C., A. Gentry, and R. Mendelsohn, 1989, "Valuation of an Amazonian Rainforest," Nature 339:655-656.

Pimentel, David, Michael McNair, Louise Buck, Marcia Pimentel, and Jeremy Kamil, 1997, "The Value of Forests to World Food Security," Human Ecology 25(1):91-120.

Pleydell, G., and S. Johnson, 1997, "Tropical Timber Trade Trends 1987-1996," Tropical Forest Update 7(1):13-15.

Poelhekke, Fabio G.M.N., 1986, "Fences in the Jungle: Cattle Raising and the Economic and Social Integration of the Amazon Region in Brazil," Revista Geografica 104:33-43.

Randall, A., 1991, "The Value of Biodiversity," Ambio 20(2):64-68.

Repetto, Robert, 1987, "Creating Incentives for Sustainable Development," Ambio 16(2-3):94-99.

Repetto, R., 1990, "Deforestation in the Tropics," Scientific American 262:36-42.

Rice, Richard E., Raymond E. Gullison, and John W. Reid, 1997, "Can Sustainable Management Save Tropical Forests?," Scientific American 276(4):44-50.

Rudel, Tom, and Jill Roper, 1996, "Regional Patterns and Historical Trends in Tropical Deforestation, 1976-1990: A Quantitative Comparative Analysis," Ambio 25(3):160-166.

Sarukhan, Jose, and Rodolfo Dirzo, 2001, "Biodiversity-Rich Countries," in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Simon Asher Levin, Editor-in-Chief, San Diego, CA: Academic Press 1:419-436.

Schwartz, Tanya, 1989, "The Brazilian's Forest People's Movement," The Ecologist 19(6):245-247.

Schwartzman, Stephen, 1984, "Indigenists, Environmentalists, and the Multilateral Development Banks," Cultural Survival Quarterly 8(4):74-75.

Shukla, J., C. Nobre, and P. Sellers, 1990, "Amazonian Deforestation and Climate Change," Science 247:1322-1325.

Sierra, R., 2000, "Dynamics and Patterns of Deforestation in the Western Amazon: The Napo Deforestation Front, 1986-1996," Applied Geography 20:1-16.

Silva, J.N.M., 1995, "Growth and Yield of a Tropical Rain Forest in the Brazilian Amazon 13 Years After Logging," Forest Ecology and Management 71:267-274.

Sioli, Harald, 1987, "The Effects of Deforestation in Amazonia," The Ecologist 17(4/5):134-138.

Skole, D.L., and C. Tucker, 1993, "Tropical Deforestation and Habitat Fragmentation in the Amazon: Satellite Data from 1978 to 1988," Science 260:1905-1910.

Skile, D.L., et al., 1994, "Physical and Human Dimensions of Deforestation in Amazonia," BioScience 44:314-322.

Smith, Nigel, 1982, "Colonization Lessons from the Rain Forest," Science 214:755-761.

Sommer, A., 1976, "Attempt at an Assessment of the World's Tropical Forests," Unasylva 28(112/113):5-25.

Sponsel, L.E., 2001, "Human Impact on Biodiversity, Overview," Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Simon Asher Levin, Editor-in-Chief, San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 3:395-409.

Stocks, Anthony, 1987, "Tropical Forest Development in Peru," Development Anthropology Network 5(2):1-8.

Swingland, Ian R., 2001, "Biodiversity, Definition of," in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Simon Asher Levin, Editor-in-Chief, San Diego, CA: Academic Press 1:377-391.

Terborgh, John, 1992, "Maintenance of Diversity in Tropical Forests," Biotropica 24(2b):283-292.

Terborgh, J., 2000, "The Fate of Tropical Forests: A Matter of Stewardship," Conservation Biology 14(5):1358-1361.

Tole, L., 1998, "Sources of Deforestation in Tropical Developing Countries," Environmental Management 22(1):19-33.

Treacy, J., 1982, "Bora Indian Agroforestry: An Alternative to Deforestation," Cultural Survival Quarterly 6(2):15-16.

Turner, I.MN., and R.T. Corlett, 1996, "The Conservation Value of Small, Isolated Fragments of Lowland Tropical Rain Forest," Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11:330-333.

Uhl, C., and I.C.G. Vieira, 1989, "Ecological Impacts of Selective Logging in the Brazilian Amazon: A Case Study from the Paragominas Region of the State of Para," Biotropica 21:98-106.

Uhl, Christopher, et al., 1997, "Natural Resource Management in the Brazilian Amazon: An Integrated Research Approach," BioScience 47(3):160-168.

Vina, A., and J. Cavelier, 1999, "Deforestation Rates (1938-1988) of Tropical Lowland Forests on the Andean Foothills of Colombia," Biotropica 31(1):31-36.

Vincent, J.R., 1992, "The Tropical Timber Trade and Sustainable Development," Science 256:1651-1655.

Visser, Dana R., and Guillermo A. Mendoza, 1994, "Debt-for-Nature Swaps in Latin America," Journal of Forestry 92(6):13-16.

Wilcox, Bruce A., and K.N. Duin, 1995, "Indigenous Cultural Diversity and Biological Diversity: Overlapping Values of Latin American Ecoregions," Cultural Survival Quarterly 18(4):49-53.

Williams, Michael, 1989, "Deforestation: Past and Present," Progress in Human Geography 13(2):176-208.

Wilson, Edward O., 1989, "Threats to Biodiversity," Scientific American 261(3):108-116.

_________________________________________________________________

September
2T Continued Moran

Required:

Moran, Emilio F., 1996, "Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon," in Tropical Deforestation: The Human Dimension, L.E. Sponsel, T.N. Headland, and R.C. Bailey, eds., New York, NY: Columbia University Press, pp. 149-164.
_________________________________________________________________

PART II - APPROACHES TO THE AMAZON

4Th Issue: What are the relative pros and cons of modernist and postmodernist approaches
in contemporary Amazonian anthropology? What are the different images of the Amazon and its indigenous people, and how can they be explained?

Group and class discussion of the book:

Entangled Edens: Visions of the Amazon Slater 1-3

Recommended:

Bishop, Ryan, 1996, "Postmodernism," in Encyclopedia of Anthropology, David Levinson and Melvin Ember, eds., New York, NY: Henry Holt & Co., 3:993-998.

Lett, James, 1996, "Scientific Anthropology," in Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology, David Levinson and Melvin Ember, eds., New York, NY: Henry Holt & Co., 4:1141-1148.

_________________________________________________________________

9T Continued Slater 4-5
11Th Continued Slater 6-8

Recommended:

Descola, Philippe, 1996, "Constructing Natures: Symbolic Ecology and Social Practice," in Nature and Society: Anthropological Perspectives, Philippe Descola and Gisli Palsson, eds., New York, NY: Routledge, pp. 82-102.

Dobkin de Rios, Marlene, 1994 (January), "Drug Tourism in the Amazon: Why Westerners Are Desperate to Find the Vanished Primitive," Omni 16(4):6.

Fisher, William H., 1996, "Native Amazonians and the Amazon Wilderness," in Creating the Countryside: The Politics of Rural and Environmental Discourse, E. Melanie DuPuis and Peter Vandergeest, eds., Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, pp. 166-203.

Heinzman, Robert, 1990, "Visions of the Rainforest," in Lessons of the Rainforest, Suzanne Head and Robert Heinzman, eds.,
............... pp. 1-10.

Mitter, Partha, 1996, "Primitivism," Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology, David Levinson and Melvin Ember, eds., New York, NY: Henry Holt & Co., 3:1029-1032.

Putz, Francis E., and M. Michele Holbrook, 1988, "Tropical Rain-Forest Images," in People of the Tropical Rain Forest, Julie Sloan Denslow and Christine Padoch, eds., Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, pp. 37-52.

Raffles, Hugh, 1999, "`Local Theory': Nature and the Making of an Amazonian Place," Cultural Anthropology 14(3):323-360.

Richards, Paul, 1996, "Forest Indigenous Peoples: Concept, Critique and Cases," Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh B 104:349-365.

Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 2000(March), "Special Issue on Constructing the Tropics," 21(1).

Viveiros de Castro, Eduardo, 1996, "Images of Nature and Society in Amazonian Ethnology," Annual Review of Anthropology 25:179-200.

Wassman, Thomas, 1991, "The Discovery of Endless Forests: First Accounts of Five Hundred Years Ago," in The Plight of the Tropical Rainforest: Vanishing Eden, Edward G. Atkins, ed., New York, NY: Barron's Educational Series, Inc., pp. 8-27.

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PART III - TROPICS, RAINFORESTS, SOUTH AMERICA

16T Issue: Is tropical rain forest unique?
Is the Amazon unique? What are the trends and priorities in research on tropical forest ecology?

Video: Jungle Under Glass (13152)

18Th Tropics Kricher 3

Recommended:

Dawkins, H.C., 1988, "The First Century of Tropical Silviculture: Successes Forgotten and Failures Misunderstood," in The Future of the Tropical Rain Forest, M.J. McDermott, ed., Oxford, UK: Oxford Forestry Institute, pp. 4-8.

Erwin, T., 1988, "The Tropical Forest Canopy: The Heart of Biotic Diversity," in Biodiversity, Edward O. Wilson, ed., Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Forest Ecology and Management, special issue in 2001 on "New Directions in Tropical Forest Research."

Godoy, Ricardo, and Ruben Lubowski, 1992, "Guidelines for the Economic Valuation of Nontimber Tropical-Forest Products," Current Anthropology 33(4):423-433.

Godoy, R., R. Lubowski, and A. Markandya, 1993, "A Method for the Economic Valuation of Non-timber Tropical Forest Products," Economic Botany 47:220-233.

Jacobs, Marus, 1988, "How Rainforests Are Studied," in his The Tropical Rain Forest: A First Encounter, New York, NY: Spring-Verlag, pp. 14-41.

Janowski, Pat, 1990, "Mapping the Immeasureable: Amazon Researchers Face Up to the Vastness of Their Job," Scientific American 263(1):24-35.

Janzen, Daniel H., 1986, "The Future of Tropical Ecology," Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 17:305-324.

Lugo, Ariel E., 1991, "Tropical Forestry Research: Past, Present, and Future," Journal of Forestry 89(3):10-11, 22.

Peters, Charles M., Alwyn H. Gentry, and Robert O. Mendelsohn, 1989, "Valuation of an Amazonian Rainforest," Nature 339:655-656.

Phillips, O., et al., 1994, "Quantitative Ethnobotany and Amazonian Conservation," Conservation Biology 8:225-248.

Putz, Francis E., 1989, "Tropical Forestry Education in the United States," Journal of Forestry 87(7):27-30.

Schmidt, R., 1987, "Tropical Rain Forest Management," Unaslyva 39(156):2-17.

Whitmore, T.C., 1989, "Forty Years of Rain Forest Ecology 1948-1988 in Perspective," GeoJournal 19(4):347-360.

Wilson, Edward O., 1991, "Rain Forest Canopy: The High Frontier," National Geographic 180:78-107.

_________________________________________________________________

23T Video: South America: Balee, Moran Continent of Contrasts (12988)

Required:

Balee, William, 1995, "Historical Ecology of Amazonia," in Indigenous Peoples and the Future of Amazonia: An Ecological Anthropology of an Endangered World, L.E. Sponsel, ed., Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, pp. 97-110.

Moran, Emilio F., 1995, "Disaggregating Amazonia: A Strategy for Understanding Biological and Cultural Diversity," in Indigenous Peoples and the Future of Amazonia: An Ecological Anthropology of an Endangered World, L.E. Sponsel, ed., Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, pp. 71-95.

Recommended:

Hartshorn, Gary S., 2001, "Tropical Forest Ecosystems," in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Simon Asher Levin, Editor-in-Chief, San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 5:701-710.

Jordan, Carl, 1982, "Amazonian Rain Forests," American Scientist 70:394-401.

Perry, D.R., 1984, "The Canopy of the Tropical Rain Forest," Scientific American 251:138-147.

Prance, Ghillean, 2001, "Amazon Ecosystems," in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Simon Asher Levin, Editor-in-Chief, San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1:145-157.

Richards, Paul W., 1973, "The Tropical Rain Forest," Scientific American 229:58-67.

Robinson, M.H., 1992, "The Uniqueness of Tropical Natural History," Malaysian Nature Journal 45:273-309.

Salati, E., T.E. Lovejoy, and P.B. Vose, 1983, "Precipitation and Water Recycling in Tropical Rainforests with Special Reference to the Amazon Basin," The Environmentalist 3:67-71.

Solorzano C., Luis A., 2001, "South America, Ecosystems of," in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Simon Asher Levin, Editor-in-Chief, San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 5:327-343.

Sponsel, L.E., 1986, "Amazon Ecology and Adaptation," Annual Review of Anthropology 15:67-97.

Sponsel, L.E., 1997, "Environment and Nature: South America--- The Amazon," in Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures, Helaine Selin, ed., Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 305-307.

Sponsel, L.E., 2004, "Amazonia," in Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, Bron Taylor and Jeffrey Kaplan, General Editors, New York, NY: Continuum.

Van der Hammen, Thomas, 1974, "The Pleistocene Changes of Vegetation and Climate in Tropical South America," Journal of Biogeography 1:3-26.

Whitmore, T.C., J.R. Flenley, and D.R. Harris, 1982, "The Tropics as the Norm in Biogeography," Geographical Journal 148(1):8-21.

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25Th South America Wilson 1, 3
________________________________________________________________

30T Tropical rainforest ecosystems Kricher 2-3
and ecology

Issue: How ancient, stable, variable, and
resilient is the tropical rain forest?

October
2Th Continued Kricher 4-5
(12-13 opt)

Recommended:

Bierregaard, R.O., et al., 1992, "The Biological Dynamics of Tropical Rain Forest Fragments," BioScience 42:859-866.

Colinvaux, P.A., 1989, "Ice-Age Amazon Revisisted," Nature 340:188-189.

Colinvaux, P.A., 1987, "Amazonian Diversity in the Light of the Paleoecological Record," Quaternary Science Review 6:93-114.

Colinvaux, P.A., 1989. "The Past and Future Amazon," Scientific American 260(5):102-108.

Colinvaux, P.A., et al., 1996, "A Long Pollen Record from Lowland Amazonia: Forest and Cooling in Glacial Times," Science 274:85-88.

Dickinson, R.E., and H.Virji, 1987, "Climate Change in the Humid Tropics, Especially Amazonia, Over the Last Twenty Thopusand Years," in The Geophysiology of Amazonia: Vegetation and CLimate Interactions, R.E. Dickinson, ed., New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 91-106.

Fisch, G., 1990, "Climate Aspects of the Amazonian Tropical Forest," Acta Amazonica 28:101-126.

Garwood, N.C., D.P. Janos, and N. Brokaw, 1979, "Earthquake-caused Landslides: A Major Disturbance in Tropical Forests," Science 205:997-999.

Haffer, J., 1993, "Time's Cycle and Time's Arrow in the History of Amazonia," Biogeographica 69:15-45.

Kerr, R.A., 1996, "Ice-Age Rainforest Found Moist, Coller," Science 274:35-36.

Mayr, Ernst, and R.J. O'Hara, 1986, "The Biogeographic Evidence Supporting the Pleistocene Refuge Hypothesis," Evolution 40:55-67.

Meggers, Betty J., 1975, "Application of Biological Model of Diversification to Cultural Distributions in Tropical Lowland South America," Biotropica 7(3):141-161.

Meggers, B.J., 1979, "Climatic Oscillation as a Factor in the Prehistory of Amazonia," American Antiquity 44:252-266.

Meggers, B.J., 1995, "Judging the Future by the Past: The Impact of Environmental Instability on Prehistoric Amazonian Populations," in Indigenous Peoples and the Future of Amazonia: An Ecological Anthropology of an Endangered World, L.E. Sponsel, ed., Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, pp. 15-43.

Molion, L.C.B., 1989, "The Amazonian Forests And Climatic Stability," The Ecologist 19:211-213.

Nelson, B.W., 1994, "Natural Forest DIsturbance and Change in the Brazilian Amazon," Remote Sensing Reviews 10:105-125.

Nelson, B.W., et al., 1994, "Forest Disturbance by Large Blow Downs in the Brazilian Amazon," Ecology 75:853-858.

Phillips, O.L., 1996, "Long-term Environmental Change in Tropical Forests: Increasing Tree Turnover," Environmental Conservation 23:235-248.

Platt, W.J., and D.R. Strong, 1989, "Treefall Gaps and Forest DYnamics," Ecology 70:537-576.

Raven, P.H., and D. Axelrod, 1975, "History of the Flora and Fauna of Latin America," American Scientist 63:420-429.

Richey, J.E., C. Nombre, and C. Deser, 1989, "Amazon River Discharge and Climate Variability: 1903 to 1985," Science 246:101-103.

Salati, E., and P.B. Vose, 1984, "Amazon Basin: A System in Equilibrim," Science 225:129-138.

Salo, J., et al., 1986, "River Dynamics and the Diversity of Amazon Lowland Forest," Nature 322:254-258.

Sanford, R.J., Jr., et al., 1985, "Amazonian Rain-Forest Fires," Science 227:53-55.

Sprugel, Douglas, 1991, "Disturbance, Equilibrium, and Environmental Variability: What is "Natural" Vegetation in a Changing Environment?," Biological Conservation 58:1-18.

Sanford, R., et al., 1985, "Amazon Rain-Forest Fires," Science 227:53-55.

_________________________________________________________________

PART IV - INDIGENOUS ADAPTATIONS

7T Issue: What is the place of humans in nature?
What should be the place of humans in nature?
What is the relevance of indigenous knowledge, beliefs, and practices for natural use, management, and conservation?

Ecological anthropology Wilson 2, 10

Recommended:

Cleary, David, 2001, "Towards an Environmental History of the Amazon: From Prehistory to the Nineteenth Century," Latin American Research Review 36(2):64-96.

Lamb, F.B., 1987, "The Role of Anthropology in Tropical Forest Ecosystem Resource Management and Development," Journal of Developing Areas 21:429-458.

Little, Paul E., 1999, "Environmentalists and Environmentalisms in Anthropological Research: Facing a New Millennium," Annual Review of Anthropology 28:253-284.

McNeil, John R., 1986, "Agriculture, Forests, and Ecological History: Brazil, 1500-1984," Enironmental History Review 10(2):123-134.

Moran, Emilio F., 1982, "Ecological, Anthropological, and Agronomic Research in the Amazon Basin," Latin American Research Review 17:3-41.

Roosevelt, Anna C., 1994, "Amazonian Anthropology: Strategy for a New Synthesis," in Amazonian Indians from Prehistory to the Present: Anthropological Perspectives, Anna C. Roosevelt, ed., Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, pp. 1-29.

Schmink, M., and C. Wood, 1987, "The `Political Ecology' of Amazonia," in Lands at Risk in the Third World, Paul Little, M. Horowitz, and E. Nyerges, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 38-57.

Sillitoe, P., 1998, "The Development of Indigenous Knowledge: A New Applied Anthropology," Current Anthropology 39(2):223-252.

Sponsel, L.E., 1986, "Amazon Ecology and Adaptation," Annual Review of Anthropology 15:67-97.

Sponsel, L.E., 1995, "Relationships Among the World System, Indigenous Peoples, and Ecological Anthropology," in Indigenous Peoples and the Future of Amazonia: An Ecological Anthropology of an Endangered World, pp. 263-293.

Sponsel, L.E., 2003, "Ecological Anthropology: A Critical Retrospective and Prospective Analysis," unpublished paper presented at the International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Florence, Italy, July 9th.
_________________________________________________________________

9Th Issue: Is slash-and-burn farming
economically wasteful and
environmentally destructive?
To what extent are tropical forests
anthropogenic?

Recommended:

Andrade, G.I., and H. Rubio-Torgler, 1994, "Sustainable Use of the Tropical Forest: Evidence from the Avifauna in a Shifting-Cultivation Habitat Moasic in the Colombian Amazon," Conservation Biology 8:545-554.

Balee, William, 1989, "The Culture of Amazonian Forests," Advances in Economic Botany 7:1-21.

Balee, W., 1989, "Managed Forest Succession in Amazonia: The Ka'apor Case," Advances in Economic Botany 7:129-158.

Balee, W., 1995, "Historical Ecology of Amazonia," in Indigenous Peoples and the Future of Amazonia: An Ecological Anthropology of an Endangered World, L.E. Sponsel, ed., Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, pp. 97-110.

Balee, W., and J. Christopher Brown, 1996, "Ethnobotany," in Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology, David Levinson and Melvin Ember, eds., New York, NY: Henry Holt & Co., 2:399-404.

Boster, James, 1983, "A Comparison of the Diversity of Jiovaroan Gardens with that of the Tropical Forest," Human Ecology 11:69-84.

Brandani, A., G.S. Hartshorn, and G.H. Orians, 1988, "Internal Heterogeneity of Gaps and Tropical Tree Species Richness," Journal of Tropical Ecology 4:99-119.

Brondizio, E.S., E.F. Moran, P. Mausel, and Y. Wu, 1994, "Land Use Change in the Amazon Estuary: Patterns of Caboclo Settlement and Landscape Management," Human Ecology 22(3):24-54.

Brown, M., and M. Van Bolt, 1980, "Aguaruna Jivaro Gardening Magic in the Alto Rio Mayo, Peru," Ethnology 19(2):169-190.

Conklin, Harold C., 1954, "An Ethnoecological Approach to Shifting Agriculture," Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences 2(17):133-142.

_____, 1961, "The Study of Shifting Cultivation," Current Anthropology 2:27-61.

Denevan, William M., 1992, "Stone versus Metal Axes: The Ambiguity of Shifting Cultivation in Prehistoric Amazonia," Journal of Steward Anthropological Association 20(1-2):153-165.

Denevan, W.M., and Christine Padoch, 1988, "Swidden Fallow Agroforestry in the Peruvian Amazon," Advances in Economic Botany 5:1-17.

Denslow, Julie Sloan, 1987, "Tropical Rainforest Gaps and Tree Species Diversity," Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 18:431-451.

Dove, Michael R., 1983, "Theories of Swidden Agriculture and the Political Economy of Ignorance," Agroforestry Systems 1:85-99.

Fearnside, Philip M., 187, "Rethinking Continuous Cultivation in Amazonia," BioScience 37:209-214, 638-640, 38:525-527.

Grenaud, Pierre, 1992, "The Use and Cultural Significance of the Secondary Forest Among the Wayapi Indians," in Sustainable Harvest and Marketing of Rain Forest Products, Mark Plotkin and Lisa Famolare, eds., pp. 27-40.

Hammond, D.S., P.M. Dolman, and A.R. Watkinson, 1995, "Modern Ticuna Swidden-Fallow Management in the Colombian Amazon: Ecologically Integrating Market Strategies and Subsistence-driven Economies?," Human Ecology 23(3):335- .

Harris, D., 1971, "The Ecology of Swidden Cultivation in the Upper Orinoco Rain Forest, Venezuela," The Geographical Review 61(4):475-495.

Hauser, Stefan, and Lindsey Norgrove, 2001, "Slash-and-Burn Agriculture, Effects of," in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Simon Asher Levin , Editor-in-Chief, San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 5:269-284.

Irvine, Dominique, 1989, "Succession Management and Resource Distribution in an Amazonian Rain Forest," Advances in Economic Botany 7:223-237.

Janzen, Daniel H., 1973, "Tropical Agroecosystems," Science 182:1212-1219.

Moran, Emilio F., Eduardo Brondizio, and Paul Mausel, 1994, "Secondary Succession," Research and Exploration (National Geographic) 10(4):458-476.

Nelson, Bruce W., et al., 1994, "Forest Disturbance by Large Blowdowns in the Brazilian Amazon," Ecology 75(3):853-858.

Odum, Eugene P., 1969, "The Strategy of Ecosystem Development," Science 164:262-270.

Odum, E.P., 1985, "Trends Expected in Stressed Ecosystems," BioScience 35(7):419-422.

Oldfield, Margery L., and Janis B. Alcorn, 1987, "Conservation of Traditional Agroecosystems," BioScience 37(3):199-208.

Nicholaides, J.J., et al., 1985, "Agricultural Alternatives for the Amazon Basin," BioScience 35:279-285.

Rival, Laura, 1993, "The Growth of Family Trees: Understanding Huaorani Perceptions of the Forest," Man 28(4):635-652.

Sponsel, L.E., 1992, "The Environmental History of Amazonia: Natural and Human Disturbances, and the Ecological Transition," in Changing Tropical Forests: Historical Perspectives on Today's Challenges in Central and South America, Harold K. Steen and Richard P. Tucker, eds., Durham, NC: Forest History Society, pp. 27-37.

Treacy, J., 1982, "Bora Indian Agroforestry: An Alternative to Deforestation," Cultural Survival Quarterly 6(2):15-16.

Uhl, Christopher, 1983, "You Can't Keep a Good Forest Down," Natural History 92(4):69-79.

Uhl, C., K. Clark, H. Clark, and P. Murphy, 1981, "Early Plant Succession After Cutting and Burning in the Upper Rio Negro Region of the Amazon Basin," Journal of Ecology 69:631-649.

Uhl, C., 1982, "Successional Patterns Associated with Slash-and-Burn Agriculture in the Upper Rio Negro Region of the Amazon Basin," Biotropica 14:249-254.

Uhl, C., et al., 1988, "Vegetation Dynamics in Amazonian Tree Fall Gaps," Ecology 69:751-763.

Uhl, C., et al., 1989, "Disturbance and Regeneration in Amazonia: Lessons for Sustainable Land-Use," The Ecologist 19(6):235-240.

Subsistence economies in the Amazon Kricher 6-7
Wilson 4

Recommended:

Balee, W., 1988, "Indigenous Adaptations to Amazonian Palm Forests," Principes 32:47-54.

Behrens, C., 1986, "The Cultural Ecology of Dietary Change Accompanying Changing Activity Patterns Among the Shipibo," Human Ecology 14:367-395.

Burkhalter, S. Brian, and Robert F. Murphy, 1989, "Tappers and Sappers: Rubber, Gold and Money among the Mundurucu," American Ethnologist 16(1):100-116.

Dufour, Darna L., 1990, "Use of Tropical Rainforest by Native Amazonians," BioScience 40(9):652-659.

Gross, Daniel, et al., 1979, "Ecology and Acculturation Among Native Peoples of Central Brazil," Science 206:1043-1050.

Hill, Kim, and A.M. Hurtado, 1989, "Hunter-Gatherers in the New World," American Scientist 77:436-443.

Johnson, Allen W., 1975, "Time Allocation in a Machigenga Community," Ethnology 14(3):301-310.

Johnson, A.W., and C. Behrens, 1982, "Nutritional Criteria in Machiguenga Food Production Decisions: A Linear Programming Analysis," Human Ecology 10:167-189.

Johnson, O., and A.W. Johnseon, 1975, "Male/Female Relations and the Organization of Work in a Machiguenga Community," American Ethnologist 2:634-648.

May, P.H., A.B. Anderson, M.M. Balick, and J.M.F. Frazao, 1985, "Subsistence Benefits from the Babassu Palm (Orbignya martiana)," Economic Botany 39:113-129.

Milton, Katherine, 1991, "Comparative Aspects of Diet in Amazonian Forest Dwellers," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 334:253-263.

Milton, K., 1992 (March), "Civilization and its Discontents," Natural History pp. 36-43.

Moran, Emilio F., 1973, "Energy Flow Analysis and the Study of Manihot esculenta Crantz," Acta Amazonica 3(3):29-39.

Murrieta, R.S., L. Dufour, and A. Siqueria, 1999, "Food Consumption and Subsistence in Three Caobclo Populations on Marajo Island, Amazonia, Brazil," Human Ecology 27(3):45-62.

Picchi, Debra, 1991, "The Impact of an Industrial Agricultural Project on the Bakairi Indians of Central Brazil," Human Organization 50(1):26-38.

Pichi, D., 1995, "Village Division in Lowland South America: The Case of the Bakairi Indians of Central Brazil," Human Ecology 23(4):477-498.

Pollak, H., M. Mattos, and C. Uhl, 1995, "A Profile of Palm Heart Extraction in the Amazon Estuary," Human Ecology 23(3):357-385.

Posey, Darrell A., et al., 1984, "Ethnoecology as Applied Anthropology in Amazonian Development," Human Organization 43:95-107.

Ross, Eric B., 1978, "The Evolution of the Amazon Peasantry," Journal of Latin American Studies 10:193-218.

Santos, Ricardo Ventura, et al., 1997, "Tapirs, Tractors, and Tapes: The Changing Economy and Ecology of the Xavante Indians of Central Brazil," Human Ecology 25(4):545-566.

Smith, Nigel, 1976, "Utilization of Game Along Brazili's Transamazon Highway," Acta Amazonica 6(4):455-466.

Sponsel, Leslie E., 1997, "The Human Niche in Amazonia: Explorations in Ethnoprimatology," in New World Primates: Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, Warren Kinzey, ed., Chicago, IL: Aldine de Gruyter, pp. 143-165.

Stearman, Allyn M., 1989, "Yuqui Foragers in the Bolivian Amazon: Subsistence Strategies, Prestige, and Leadership in an Acculturating Society," Journal of Anthropological Research 45(2):219-244.

Stearman, A.M., 1990, "The Effects of Settler Incursion on Fish and Game Resources of the Yuqui, a Native Amazonian Society of Eastern Bolivia," Human Organization 49(4):373-385.

Stearman, A.M., 1991, "Making a Living in the Tropical Forest: Yuqui Foragers in the Bolivian Amazon," Human Ecology 19:245-260.

Zarur, G., 1979, "Ecological Need and Cultural Choice in Central Brazil," Current Anthropology 20(3):649-653.

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14T Video: Nomads of the Rainforest [Waorani of Ecuador]

Recommended:

Robarchek, Clayton, and Carolyn J., 1996, "Cultures of War and Peace: A Comparative Study of Waorani and Semai," in Aggression and Peacefulness in Humans and Other Primates, J. Silverberg and J.P. Gray, eds., pp. 189-213.

Robarchek, Clayton A., 1989, "Hobbesian and Rousseauan Images of Man: Autonomy and Individualism in a Peaceful Society," in Societies at Peace: Anthropological Perspectives, Signe Howell and Roy Willis, eds., pp. 31-44.

_________________________________________________________________

16Th Issue: Does the environment limit
cultural evolution and/or
economic development?

Bands and chiefdoms in the Amazon Wilson 5-6-7

Recommended:

Carneiro, Robert L., 1960, "Slash-and-Burn Agriculture: A Closer Look at Its Implications for Settlement Patterns," in Men and Cultures, Anthony F.C. Wallace, ed., Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 229-234.

Carneiro, R.L., 1961, "Slash-and-Burn Cultivation Among the Kuikuru and Its Implications for Cultural Development in the Amazon Basin," in The Evolution of Horticultural Systems in Native South America, Causes and Consequences, Johannes Wilbert, ed., Caracas, Venezuela: Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle, pp. 47-67 (reprinted in Patricia J. Lyon, ed., 1985, Native South Americans, Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press).

Carneiro, R.L., 1995, "The History of Ecological Interpretations of Amazonia: Does Roosevelt Have It Right?," in Indigenous Peoples and the Future of Amazonia: An Ecological Anthropology of an Endangered World, L.E. Sponsel, ed., Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, pp. 45-70.

Carneiro, R.L., 1970, "The Transition from Hunting to Horticulture in the Amazon Basin," Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, 1968, Volume 3, Ethnology and Archaeology, pp. 144-148.
Ferden, Edwin, 1959, "Agricultural Potential and the Development of Cultures," Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 15:1-19.

Heckenberger, M.J., J.B. Petersen, and E.B. Neves, 1999, "Village Size and Permanence in Amazonia: Two Archaeological Examples from Brazil," 10(4):353-376.

Issac, Barry, 1977, "The Siriono of Western Bolivia: A Reexamination," Human Ecology 5:137-154.

Lathrap, Donald, 1968, "The "Hunting" Economies of the Tropical Forest Zone of South America: An Attempt at Historical Perspective," in Man the Hunter, Richard B. Lee and Irven DeVore, eds., Chicago, IL: Aldine, pp. 23-29.

Martin, M. Kay, 1969, "South American Foragers: A Case Study in Cultural Devolution?," American Anthropologist 71:243-260.

Meggers, Betty J., 1954, "Environmental Limitations on the Development of Culture," American Anthropologist 56:801-824.

Meggers, B.J., 1988, "The Prehistory of Amazonia," in People of the Tropical Rain Forest, Julie Sloan Denslow and Christine Padoch, eds., Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, pp. 53-62.

Meggers, B.J., 1992, "Amazonia: Real or Counterfeift Paradise? Review of Moundbuilders of the Amazon: Geophysical Archaeology on Marajo Island, Brazil, by Anna Roosevelt," Review of Archaeology 13(2):25-40.

Meggers, B.J., 1992, "Review of Moundbuilders of the Amazon: Geophysical Archaeology on Marajo Island, Brazil, by Anna Roosevelt," Journal of Field Archaeology 19:399-404.

Meggers, B.J., 1992, "Prehistoric Population Density in the Amazon Basin," in Disease and Demography in the Americas, John W. Verano and Douglas H. Ubelaker, eds., Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, pp. 197-205.

Meltzer, David, James Adovasio, and Tom Dillehay, 1994, "On a Pleistocene Human Occupation at Pedra Furuda, Brazil," Antiquity 68:695-714.

Myers, Thomas P., 1992, "Agricultural Limitations of the Amazon in Theory and Practice," World Archaeology 24:82-97.

Roosevelt, Anna C., 1989, "Natural Resource Management in Amazonia before the Conquest: Beyond Ethnographic Projection," Advances in Economic Botany 7:30-62.

Roosevelt, A.C., 1989 (February), "Lost Civilizations of the Lower Amazon," Natural History pp. 76-82.

Roosevelt, A.C., et al., 1991, "Eighth Millennium Pottery from Prehistoric Shell Midden in the Brazilian Amazon," Science 254:1621-1624.

Roosevelt, A.C., 1992, "Secrets of the Forest," The Sciences 32(6):22-28.

Roosevelt, A.C., et al., 1996, "Paleoindian Cave Dwellers in the Amazon: The Peopling of the Americas," Science 272:373-384.

Smith, Nigel J., 1980, "Anthrosols and Human Carrying Capacity in Amazonia," Annals of the Association of American Geographers 70:533-566.

Stearman, Allyn M., 1984, "The Yuqui Connection: Another Look at Siriono Deculturation," American Anthropologist 86(3):630-650.

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21T Continued

23Th Open

_________________________________________________________________

28T Issue: How do indigenous societies
adapt to seasonally flooded and/or
nutrient poor environments?

Video: Amazon:
Land of the Flooded Forest (8765)

30Th Aquatic ecosystems in the Amazon Kricher 8
_________________________________________________________________

November
4T Curripcao adaptations to the
oligotrophic ecosystems of white
sand and black water in the
Rio Negro - slide lecture

Recommended:

Arhem, Kaj, 1996, "The Cosmic Food Web: Human-Nature Relatedness in the Northwest Amazon," in Nature and Society: Anthropological Perspectives, Philippe Descola and Gisli Palsson, eds., pp. 185-204.

Bayley, P.B., and R.E. Sparks, 1989, "The Flood Pulse Concept in River-Floodplain Systems," Fish and Aquatic Science 106:385-398.

Chaumeil, Jean-Pierre, 1992, "Varieties of Amazonian Shamanism," Diogenes 158:101-113.

Chernela, Janet M., 1982, "Indigenous Forest and Fish Management in the Vaupes Basin of Brazil," Cultural Survival Quarterly 6(2):17-18.

Chernela, J.M., 1985, "Indigenous Fishing in the Neotropics: The Tukano Uanano of the Blackwater Uaupes River Basin in Brazil and Colombia," Interciencia 10(2):78-86.

Chernela, J.M., 1987, "Endangered Ideologies: Tukano Fishing Taboos," Cultural Survival Quarterly 11(2):50-52.

Chernela, J.M., 1989, "Managing Rivers of Hunger: The Tukano of Brazil," Advances in Economic Botany 7:238-248.

Chernela, J.M., 1994, "Tuaknoan Fishing," Research and Exploration (National Geographic) 10(4):440-457.

Clark, Katherine, and Christopher Uhl, 1987, "Farming, Fishing, and Fire in the History of the Upper Rio Negro Region of Venezuela," Human Ecology 15(1):1-26.

Coomes, O.T., 1992, "Blackwater Rivers, Adaptation, and Environmental Heterogeneity in Amazonia," American Anthropologist 94:698-701.

Coomes, O.T., 1998, "Traditional peasant Agriculture Along A Blackwater River of the Peruvian Amazon," Revista Geografica 124:33-54.

Goulding, Michael, 1993, "Flooded Forests of the Amazon," Scientific American 266(3):114-120.

Gragson, Ted L., 1992, "Fishing the Waters of Amazonia: Native Subsistence Economies in a Tropical Rain Forest," American Anthropologist 94(2):428-440.

Hiraoka, M., 1985, "Floodplain Farming in the Peruvian Amazon," Geographical Review of Japan 58:1-23.

Hiraoka, M., 1985, "Mestizo Subsistence in Riparian Amazonia," National Geographic Research 1(2):236-246.

Holmes, Rebecca, 1984, "Non-dietary Modifiers of Nutritional Status in Tropical Forest Populations of Venezuela," Interciencia 9:386-391.

Lescure, Jean-Paul, et al., 1992, "Nontimber Forest Products and Extractive Activities in the Middle Rio Negro Region, Brazil," in Sustainable Harvest and Marketing of Rain Forest Products, Mark Plotkin and Lisa Famolare, eds., ............pp. 151-157.

McDaniel, Josh, 1997, "Communal Fisheries Management in the Peruvian Amazon," Human Organization 56(2):147-153.

McGrath, David G., 1993, "Fisheries and the Evolution of Resource Management on the Lower Amazon Floodplain," Human Ecology 21(2):167-195.

Merona, B., 1990, "Amazon Fisheries: General CHaracteristics Based On Two Case-Studies," Interciencia 15:461-468.

Milton, Katherine, 1984, "Protein and Carbohydrate Resources of the Maku Indians of the Northwestern Amazon," American Anthropologist 86(1):7-27.

Moran, Emilio F., 1991, "Human Adaptive Strategies in Amazonian Blackwater Ecosystems," American Anthropologist 93:361-382.

Moran, E.F., 1993, "Blackwater Ecosystems,"in his Through Amazonian Eyes: The Human Ecology of Amazonian Populations, Iowa City, IO: University of Iowa Press, pp. 35-55.

Padoch, Christine, 1988, "People of the Floodplain and Forest," in People of the Tropical Rain Forest, Julie Sloan Denslow and Christine Padoch, eds., Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, pp. 127-140.

Reichel-Dolmatoff, Gerardo, 1976, "Cosmologies as Ecological Analysis: A View from the Rainforest," Man 11(3):307-318.

Smith, Nigel J.H., 1985, "The Impact of Cultural and Ecological Change on Amazonian Fisheries," Biological Conservation 32:355-373.

Sponsel, L.E., and Paula Loya, 1993, "Rivers of Hunger?: Indigenous Resource Management in the Oligotrophic Ecosystems of the Rio Negro, Amazonas, Venezuela," in Tropical Forests, People and Food: Biocultural Interactions and Applications, C.M. Hladik, et al., eds., Paris, France: UNESCO/Parthenon Publishing Group, pp. 435-446.

Sponsel, L.E., 2004, "Neotropical Rainforests and Religion," in Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, Bron Taylor and Jeffrey Kaplan, General Editors, New York, NY: Continuum Press.
_________________________________________________________________

6Th Issue: Can humans survive by foraging Good
alone in tropical rain forests?

Required:

Good, Kenneth R., 1995, "Yanomami of Venezuela: Foragers or Farmers--- Which Came First?," in Indigeous Peoples and the Future of Amazonia: An Ecological Anthropology of an Endangered World, L.E. Sponsel, ed., Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, pp. 113-120.

Recommended:

Bailey, Robert C., et al., 1989, "Hunting and Gathering in Tropical Rain Forests: Is It Possible?," American Anthropologist 91(1):58-82.

Bailey, Robert C., and Thomas N. Headland, 1991, "The Tropical Rain Forest: Is It a Productive Environment for Human Foragers?," Human Ecology 19(2):261-285.

Headland, T.N., 1987, "The Wild Yam Questiion: How Well Could Independent Hunter-Gatherers Live in a Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystem?," Human Ecology 15:463-491.

Headland, T.N., and R.C. Bailey, 1991, "Introduction: Have Hunter-Gatherers Ever Lived in Tropical Rain Forest Independently of Agriculture?," Human Ecology 19(2):115-122.

Headland, T.N., and L.A. Reid, 1989, "Hunter-Gatherers and Their Neioghbors From Prehistory to the Present," Current Anthropology 30:43-66.

McKey, Doyle B., 1996, "Wild Yam Hypothesis," Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology, David Levinson and Melvin Ember, eds. New York, NY: Henry Holt & Co., 4:1363-1366.

Sponsel, L.E., 1989, "Foraging and Farming: A Necessary Complementarity in Amazonia,"in Farmers as Hunters, Susan Kent, ed., New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, pp. 37-45.

Sponsel, L.E., 1997, "The Human Niche in Amazonia: Explorations in Ethnoprimatology," in New World Primates: Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, Warren Kinzey, ed., Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter, pp. 143-165.

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11T HOLIDAY: Veteran's Day

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13Th Issue: Are indigenous Amazonians Redford
examples of "ecologically noble
savages" or "Homo desastans"?

Required:

Redford, Kent H., 1990, "The Ecologically Noble Savage," Orion Nature Quarterly 9(3):25-29.

Redford, K.H., 1991, "The Ecologically Noble Savage," Cultural Survival Quarterly 9(1):41-44 (reprint).

Recommended:

Alvard, Michael S., 1993, "Testing the `Ecologically Noble Savage' Hypothesis: Interspecific Prey Choice by Piro Hunters of Amazonian Peru," Human Ecology 21:355-387.

Alvard, Michael S., 1995, "Intraspecific Prey Choice by Amazonian Hunters," Current Anthropology 36(5):789-818.

Balee, William, 1998, "Historical Ecology: Premises and Postulates," in Advances in Historical Ecology, W. Balee, ed., New York, NY: Columbia University Press, pp. 13-29.

Beckerman, Stephen, and Paul Valentine, 1996, "On Native American Conservation and the Tragedy of the Commons," Current Anthropology 37(4):659-661.

Brosius, J. Peter, Anna L. Tsing, and Charles Zerner, 1998, "Representing Communities: Histories and Politics of Community-Based Natural Resource Management," Society and Natural Resources 11(2):157-169.

Buege, Douglas J., 1996, "The Ecological Noble Savage Revisited," Environmental Ethics 18(1):71-88.

Conklin, Beth A., and Laura R. Graham, 1995, "The Shifting Middle Ground: Amazonian Indians and Eco-Politics," American Anthropologist 97(4):695-710.

Denevan, William M., 1992, "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492," Annals of the Association of American Geographers 82(3):369-385.

Denevan, W.M., 1996, "Pristine Myth," in Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology, David Levinson and Melvin Ember, eds., New York, NY: Henry Holt and Co. 3:1034-1036.

Diamond, Jared, 1986 (November 6), "The Environmentalist Myth," Nature 324:19-20.

Diamond, J., 1ii2, "The Golden Age That Never Was," in his The Third Chimpanzee, New York, NY: Harper-Collins Publishers, pp. 317-338, 386-388.

Ellen, Roy, 1986, "What Black Elk Left Unsaid: On the Illusory Images of Green Primitivism," Anthropology Today 2(6):8-12.

Galvin, Kathleen A., 2001, "Hunter-Gatherer Societies, Ecological Impact," in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Simon Asher Levin, Editor-in-Chief, San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 3:411-415.

Gomez-Pompa, Arturo, and Andrea Kraus, 1992, "Taming the Wilderness Myth," BioScience 42(4):271-279.

Grande, Sandy Marie Anglas, 1999, "Beyond the Ecologically Noble Savage: Deconstructing the White Man's Indian," Environmental Ethics 21(3):307-320.

Guha, Ramachandra, 1997, "The Authoritarian Biologist and the Arrogance of Anti-Humanism: Wildlife Conservation in the Third World," The Ecologist 27:14-20.

Hagan, William T., 1980, "Justifying Dispossession of the Indian: The Land Utilization Agrument," in American Indian Environments: Ecological Issues in Native American History, Christopher Vecsey and Robert W. Venables, eds., Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, pp. 65-80.

Hames, Raymond B., 1979, "A Comparison of the Efficiencies of the Shotgun and the Bow in Neotropical Forest Hunting," Human Ecology 7(3):219-252.

Hames, R.B., 1991, "Wildlife Conservation in Tribal Societies," in Biodiversity: Culture, Conservation, and Ecodevelopment, Margery L. Oldfield and Janis B. Alcorn, ed., Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 172-199.

Headland, Thomas N., 1997, "Revisionism in Ecological Anthropology," Current Anthropology 38(4):

Jackson, Jean E., 1995, "Culture, Genuine and Spurious: The Politics of Indianness in the Vaupes, Colombia," American Ethnologist 22(1):3-27.

Johnson, Allen, 1989, "How the Machigenga Manage Resources: Conservation or Exploitation of Nature?," Advances in Economic Botany 7:213-222.

MacDonald, D.R., 1977, "Food Taboos: A Primitive Environmental Protection Agency (South America)," Anthropos 72(5/6):734-748.

Nugent, Stephen, 1997, "The Coordinates of Identity in Amazonia: At Play in the Fields of Culture," Critique of Anthropology 17(1):33-51.

Parker, Eugene, 1992, "Forest Islands and Kayapo Resource Management in Amazonia: A Reappraisal of the Apete," American Anthropologist 94:406-428.

Parker, E., 1993, "Fact and Fiction in Amazonia: The Case of Apete," American Anthropologist 95:715-723.

Posey, Darrell A., 1982, "Keepers of the Forest," Garden 6:18-24.

Posey, D.A., 1985, "Indigenous Management of Tropical Forest Ecosystems: The Case of the Kayapo Indians of the Brazilian Amazon," Agroforestry Systems 3:139-158.

Posey, D.A., 1989, "Alternatives to Forest Destruction: Lessons from the Mebengokre Indians," Ecologist 19(6):241-244.

Posey, D.A., 1992, "Reply to Parker," American Anthropologist 94:406-428.

Posey, D.A., 1996, "Protecting Indigenous Peoples' Rights to Biodiversity," Environment 38(8):7-9, 37-45.

Posey, D., and W. Balee, eds., 1989, "Resource Management in Amazonia: Indigenous and Folk Strategies," Advances in Economic Botany, volume 7.

Redford, Kent H., 1992, "The Empty Forest," BioScience 42(6):412-22.

Redford, K.H., and John G. Robinson, 1985, "Hunting by Indigenous Peoples and Conservation of Game Species," Cultural Survival Quarterly 9(1):41-44.

Redford, K.H., and J.G. Robinson, 1987, "The Game of Choice: Patterns of Indian and Colonist Hunting in the Neotropics," American Anthropologist 89:650-667.

Redford, K.H., and Allyn M. Stearman, 1993, "Forest-dwelling Native Amazonians and the Conservation of Biodiversity: Interests in Common or in Collision?," Conservation Biology 7(2):248-255.

Redford, K.H., and A.M. Stearman, 1993, "On Common Ground:Response to Alcorn," Conservation Biology 7(2):427-428.

Smith, Eric Alden, and Mark Wishnie, 2000, "Conservation and Subsistence in Small-Scale Societies," Annual Review of Anthropology 29:493-524.

Sponsel, L.E., 1992, "The Environmental History of Amazonia: Natural and Human Disturbances, and the Ecological Transition," in Changing Tropical Forests: Historical Perspectives on Today's Challenges in Central and South America, Harold K. Steen and Richard P. Tucker, eds., Durham, NC: Forest History Society, pp. 233-251.

Sponsel, L.E., 1997, "The Human Niche in Amazonia: Explorations in Ethnoprimatology," in New World Primates: Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, Warren Kinzey, ed., Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter, pp. 143-165.

Sponsel, L.E., 2004, "The Noble Savage," in Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, Bron Taylor and Jeffrey Kaplan, General Editors, New York, NY: Contiuum Press.

Stearman, Allyn M., 1992, "Commercial Hunting by Subsistence Hunters: Siriono Indians and Paraguayan Caiman in Lowland Bolivia," Human Organization 51(3):235-244.

Stearman, Allyn M., 1994, "Only Slaves Climb Trees--- Revisitng the Myth of the Ecologically Noble Savage in Amazonia," Human Nature 5(4)::339-357.

Turner, Terence, 1995, "An Indigenous People's Struggle for Socially Equitable and Ecologically Sustainable Production: The Kayapo Revolt Against Extractivism," Journal of Latin American Anthropology 1(1):98-121.

Vickers, William T., 1991, "Hunting Yields and Game Composition Over Ten Years in an Amazonian Indian Territory," in Neotropical Wildlife Use and Conservation, John G. Robinson and Kent H. Redford, eds., pp. 53-81.

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18T Open

20Th Open

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25T Issue: What are the human and environmental consequences of oil exploration and development
in the Amazon? What are the benefits and
costs of economic development in the Amazon?

Video: Amazon: The Invisible People
[Ecuador] (16117)

 

Recommended:

Appell, George N., 1988, "Costing Social Change," in The Real and the Imagined Role of Culture in Development, Michael R. Dove, ed., pp. 271-284.

Barbosa, Luiz C., 1996, "The People of the Forest Against International Capitalism: Systematic and Anti-Systemic Forces in the Battle for the Preservation of the Brazilian Amazon Rain Forest," Sociological Perspectives 39(2):317- .

Bewonder, B., 1985-86, "Environmental Conflict Resolution," Journal of Environmental Systems 15(4):361-379.

Borman, Randall B., 1996, "Survival in a Hostile World: Culture Change and Missionary Influence Among the Cofan People of Ecuador, 1954-1994," Missiology XXIV(2):185-200.

Clay, Jason W., 1993, "Looking Back to Go Forward: Predicting and Preventing Human Rights Violations," in State of the Peoples: A Global Human Rights Report on Societies in Danger, Marc S. Miller, ed., pp. 64-71.

Fuller, Maj-Lis, 1995, "Future Health of Indigenous Peoples: A Human Ecology View and the Case of the Amazonian Shipibo-Conibo," Futures 27(9-10):1005-1023.

Hecht, Susanna, and Alexander Cockburn, 1990, "The Ecology of Justice," in their The Fate of the Forest, New York, NY: Harper Perennial, pp. 193-209.

Katz, Eric, and Lauren Oechsli, 1993, "Moving Beyond Anthropocentrism: Environmental Ethics, Development, and the Amazon," Environmental Ethics 15(1):49-59.

Kimerling, J., 1996, "Oil, Lawlessness and Indigenous Struggles in Ecuador's Oriente," in Green Guerillas, H. Collinson, ed., New York, NY: Monthly Review.

Oliver, Martin, 2003 (July/August), "Double Jeopardy" [oil in Ecuador], The Ecologist 33(6):44-48.

Sponsel, L.E., 2004, "Introduction," in Yellow and Black Gold in Amazonia: Gold, Oil, Environment, People and Rights, L.E. Sponsel., ed. (under review by prospective publisher).

Thomson, Koy, and Nigel Dudley, 1989, "Transnationals and Oil in Amazonia," The Ecologist 19(6):219-225.

Watts, Michael, 2001, "Petro-Violence: Community, Extraction, and Political Ecology of a Mythic Commodity," in Violent Environments, Nancy Lee Peluso and Michael Watts, eds., Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, pp. 189-212.

Wood, Charles H., and Marianne Schmink, 1993, "The Military and the Environment in the Brazilian Amazon," Journal of Political and Military Sociology 21(1):81- .

Zirker, David, and Marvin Henberg, 1994, "Amazonia: Decmocracy, Ecology, and Brazilian Military Prerogatives in the 1990s," Armed Forces and Society 20(2):259-281.

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27Th HOLIDAY: Thanksgiving
_________________________________________________________________

PART V - YANOMAMI

December
2T Issue: Are the Yanomami
really "the fierce people"?
How have the Yanomami been represented
and misrepresented?

Video: Warriors of the Amazon (18554)

Recommended:

Davis, Shelton H., 1976, "The Yanomamo-- Ethnographic Images and Anthropological Responsibilities," in The Geological Imperative: Anthropology and Development in the Amazon Basin of South America, Shelton H. Davis, and Robert O. Mathews, pp. 7-23.

Heider, Karl G., 1988, "The Rashomon Effect: When Ethnographers Disagree," American Anthropologist 90(1):73-81.

Ramos, Alcida R., 1987, "Reflecting on the Yanomami: Ethnographic Images and the Pursuit of the Exotic," Cultural Anthropology 2:284-304.

Sponsel, L.E., 1997, "Yanomami: An Arena of Conflict and Aggression in the Amazon," Aggressive Behavior 24(2):97-122.

Sponsel, L.E., 2004, "Yanomami," in Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, Bron Taylor and Jeffrey Kaplan, General Editors, New York, NY: Continuum Press.

Sponsel, L.E., 2004, "The Noble Savage," in Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, Bron Talor and Jeffrey Kaplan, General Editors, New York, NY: Continuum Press.
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4Th Issue: Is animal protein scarcity Good, Holmes an adequate causal explanation for
Yanomami aggression? What are the
alternative explanatory hypotheses?

Required:

Good, Kenneth R., 1995, "Yanomami of Venezuela: Foragers or Farmers--- Which Came First?," in Indigenous Peoples and the Future of Amazonia: An Ecological Anthropology of an Endangered World, L.E. Sponsel, ed., Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, pp. 113-120.

Holmes, Rebecca, 1995, "Small Is Adaptive: Nutritional Anthropometry of Native Amazonians," in Indigenous Peoples and the Future of Amazonia: An Ecological Anthropology of an Endangered World, L.E. Sponsel, ed., Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, pp. 121-148.

Recommended:

Baksh, Michael, 1985, "Faunal Food as a "limiting Factor" on Amazonian Cultural Behavior: A Machiguenga Example," Research in Economic Anthropology 7:145-175.

Beckerman, Stephen, 1979, "The Abundance of Protein in Amazonia: A Reply to Gross," American Anthropologist 81:533-560.

Chagnon, Napoleon A., 1996, "Chronic Problems in Understanding Tribal Violence and Warfare," in Genetics of Criminal and Anti-Social Behaviour, G.R. Bock and J.A. Goode, eds., pp. 202-236.

Chesser, R.T, and S.J. Hackett, 1992, "Mammalian Diversity in SOuth America," Science 256:1502-1504.

Colchester, Marcus, 1984, "Rethinking Stone Age Economics: Some Speculations Concerning the Pre-Columbian Yanoama Economy," Human Ecology 12(3):291-342.

Ferguson, R. Brian, 1992, "Tribal Warfare," Scientific American 266(1):108-113.

Ferguson, R.B., 1992, "A Savage Encounter: Western Contact and the Yanomami Tribal Zone," in War in the Tribal Zone: Expanding States and Indigenous Warfare, R.B. Ferguson and Neil L. Whitehead, eds., Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research, pp. 199-227.

Good, Kenneth R., 1995, "Hunting Patterns and Village Fissioning among the Yanomami: A Cultural Materialist Perspective," in Science, Materialism and the Study of Culture, M.E. Murphy and M.L. Margolies, eds., Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press, pp. 81-95.

Good, Kenneth R., 1995, "The Yanomami Keep on Trekking," Natural History 104(4)56-64.

Gross, Daniel R., 1975, "Protein Capture and Cultural Development in the Amazon Basin," American Anthropologist 77:526-549.

Hames, Raymond, 1988, "Time, Efficiency, and Fitness in the Amazonian Protein Quest," Research in Economic Anthropology 11:43-85.

Johnson, Allen, 1982, "Reductionism in Cultural Ecology: The Amazon Case," Current Anthropology 23:413-428.

Linares, Olga, 1976, "Garden Hunting in the American Tropics," Human Ecology 4:331-349.

Lizot, Jacques, 1977, "Population, Resources, and Warfare Among the Yanomami," Man 12(3/4):497-517.

Lizot, J., 1993, "Yanomami Natural Resource Use: An Inclusive Cultural Strategy," in Tropical Forests, People and Food: Biocultural Interactions and Applications to Development, C.M. Hladik, et al., eds., Paris, France: Parthenon/UNESCO-MAB, pp. 479-486.

Messer, Ellen, 1986, "The "Small but Healthy" Hypothesis: Historical, Political, and Ecological Influences on Nutritional Standards," Human Ecology 14(1):57-75.

Ross, Eric B., 1978, "Food Taboos, Diet and Hunting Strategy: The Adaptation to Animals in Amazonian Cultural Ecology," Current Anthropology 19:1-36.

Smole, William J., 1989, "Yanomama Horticulture in the Parima Highlands of Venezuela and Brazil," Advances in Economic Botany 7:115-128.

Spath, C.D., 1981, "Getting to the Meat of the Problem: Some Comments on Protein as a Limiting Factor in Amazonia," American Anthropologist 83(2):377-379.

Sponsel, L.E., 1983, "Yanomama Warfare, Protein Capture, and Cultural Ecology," Interciencia (Caracas) 8(4):204-210.

Sponsel, L.E., 1986, "Amazon Ecology and Adaptation," Annual Review of Anthropology 15:67-97.

Vickers, William T., 1984, "The Faunal Components of Lowland South American Hunting Kills," Interciencia 9(6):366-376.

Vickers, W., 1988, "Game Depletion Hypothesis of Amazonian Adaptation: Date from a Native Community," Science 239:1521-1522.

Werner, Dennis, 1978, "Trekking in the Amazon Forest," Natural History 87:42-55.

Werner, D., et al., 1979, "Subsistence Productivity and Hunting Effort in Native South America," Human Ecology 7:303-315.

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9T Issue: What are the human and
environmental consequences of gold
mining in the Amazon? What are
the causes and consequences of
resource conflict and militarization
in the Amazon?

Video: Contact: Yanomamo Indians
of Brazil (4962)

Recommended:

Albert, Bruce, 1992, "Indian Lands, Environmental Policy, and Military Geopolitics in the Development of the Brazilian Amazon: The Case of the Yanomami," Development and Change 23:35-70.

Albert, Bruce, 1994, "Gold Miners and the Yanomami Indians in the Brazilian Amazon: The Hashimu Massacre," in Who Pays the Price? The Sociocultural Context of Environmental Crisis, Barbara Rose Johnston, ed., Washington, D.C.: Island Press, pp. 47-55.

Alvarez, Maria D., 2003, "Forests in the Time of Violence: COnservation Implications of the Colombian War," in War and Tropical Forests: Conservation in Areas of Armed Conflict, Steven V. Price, ed., Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press, pp. 49-70.

Cleary, Rachel M., 1991, "The International Community's Claim to Rights in Brazilian Amazonia," Political Studies 36(4):691-707.

Cleary, David, 1995, "After the Frontier: Problems with Political Economy in the Modern Brazilian Amazon," Journal of Latin American Studies 25(2):331-349.

Conklin, Beth A., and Laura Graham, 1995, "The Shifting Middle Ground: Amazonian Indians and Eco-Politics," American Anthropologist 97(4):695-710.

Conklin, Beth A., and Laura Graham, 1997, "Body Paint, Feathers and VCRs: Aesthetics and Authenticity in Amazonian Activism," American Ethnologist 24(4):711-737.

Engracia de Oliveira, Adelia, 1994, "The Evidence for the Nature of the Process of Indigenous Deculturation and Destabilization in the Brazilian Amazon in the Last Three Hundred Years," in Amazonian Indians from Prehistory to the Present: Anthropological Perspectives, Anna Roosevelt, ed., Tuscon, AZ: University of Arizona Press, pp. 95-119.

Fisher, William H., 1994, "Megadevelopment, Environmentalism, and Resistance: The Institutional Context of Kayapo Indigenous Politics in Central Brazil," Human Organization 53(3):220-232.

Godfrey, Brian J., 1992, "Migration to the Gold-Mining Frontier in Brazilian Amazonia," Geographical Review 82(4):458-469.

Greer, Jed, 1993, "The Price of Gold: Environmental Costs of the New Gold Rush," The Ecologist 23(3):91-96.

Hildyard, Nicholas, 1989, "Adios Amazonia?: A Report from the Altamira Gathering," The Ecologist 19(2):53-62.

Hoope, A., 1992, "Mining in the Amazonian Rainforests," Nature 355:593-594.

Johnston, Barbara Rose, 1995, "Human Rights and the Environment," Human Ecology 23(2):111-123.

Klare, Michael, 2001a (May-June), "The New Geography of Conflict," Foreign Affairs 80(3):49-61.

Maybury-Lewis, David, 1985, "A Special Sort of Pleading: Anthropology at the Service of Ethnic Groups," in Advocacy and Anthropology: First Encounters, Robert Paine, ed., pp. 130-161.

Maybury-Lewis, David, 1996, "Indigenous Rights," Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology, David Levinson and Melvin Ember, eds., New York, NY: Henry Holt & Co., 2:638-641.

Messer, Ellen, 1993, "Anthropology and Human Rights," Annual Review of Anthropology 22:221-249.

Nietschmann, Bernard, 1987, "Militarization and Indigenous People," Cultural Survival Quarterly 11(3):1-16.

Peluso, Nancy Lee, and Michael Watts, 2001, "Violent Environments," in Violent Environments, N.L. Peluso and M. Watts, eds., Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, pp. 3-38.

Posey, Darrell A., 1990, "Intellectual Property Rights: What is the Position of Ethnobiology," Journal of Ethnobiology 10:93-98.

Sponsel, L.E., 1994, "The Yanomami Holocaust Continues," in Who Pays the Price? Examining the Sociocultural Context of Environmental Crisis, Barbara Rose Johnston, ed., Washington, D.C.: Island Press, pp. 37-46.

Sponsel, L.E., 1995, "Relationships Among the World System, Indigenous Peoples, and Ecological Anthropology," in Indigenous Peoples and the Future of Amazonia: An Ecological Anthropology of an Endangered People, Leslie E. Sponsel, ed., Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, pp. 263-293.

Sponsel, L.E., 1996, "Human Rights and Advocacy Anthropology," in Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology, David Levinson and Melvin Ember, eds., New York, NY: Henry Holt & Co., 2:602-607.

Sponsel, L.E., 1997, "The Master Thief: Gold Mining and Mercury Contamination in the Amazon," in Life and Death Matters: Human Rights and the Environment at the End of the Millennium, Barbara Rose Johnston, ed., Thousand Oaks, CA: AltaMira Press, pp. 99-127.

Sponsel, L.E., 2001, "Advocacy in Anthropology," International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, N.J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, eds., Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press, pp. 204-206.

Treece, Dave, 1989, "The Militarization and Industrialization of Amazonia: The Calha Norte and Grande Carajas Programmes," The Ecologist 19(6):225-228.

Turner, Terence, 1991, "Representing, Resisting, Rethinking: Historical Transformations of Kayapo Culture and Anthropological Consciousness," in Colonial Situations: Essays on the Contextualization of Ethnographic Knowledge, George W. Stocking, Jr., ed., Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, pp. 285-313.

Uryu, Y., O. Malm, I. Thornto, I Payne, and D. Cleary, 2001, "Mercury Contamination of Fish and Its Implications for other Wildlife of the Tapajos Basin, Brazilian Amazon," COnservation Biology 15: 438-446.

Wright, Robin M., 1988, "Anthropological Presuppositions of Indigenous Advocacy," Annual Review of Anthropology 17:365-390.

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11Th Issue: What are the ethical
concerns in the controversy over
Darkness in El Dorado? What
responsibilities do anthropologists
have to the people they study?

Recommended:

Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn, 2002 (March), "A Century of Ethics and Professional Anthropology," Anthropology News 43(3):20.

Fluehr-Lobban, C., 2003, "Darkness in El Dorado: Research Ethics, Then and Now," in Ethics and the Profession of Anthropology: Dialogue for Ethically Conscious Practice, C. Fluehr-Lobban, ed., Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press, pp. 85-106.

Sponsel, L.E., 1985, "Ecology, Anthropology, and Values in Amazonia," in Cultural Values and Human Ecology in Southeast Asia, Karl Hutterer, A. Terry Rambo, and George Lovelace, eds. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan South and Southeast Asia Studies Center, pp. 77-122.

Sponsel, L.E., 1992, "Information Asymmetry and the Democratization of Anthropology," Human Organization 51(3):299-301.

Sponsel, L.E., 1995, "Relationships Among the World System, Indigenous Peoples, and Ecological Anthropology in the Endangered Amazon," in Indigenous Peoples and the Future of Amazonia: An Ecological Anthropology of an Endangered World, L.E. Sponsel, ed., Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, pp. 263-293.

Tierney, Patrick, 2000 (October 9), "The Fierce Anthropologist," The New Yorker, pp. 50-61.

Wong, Kate, 2001 (March), "Fighting the Darkness in El Dorado," Scientific American pp. 26-28.

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18Th FINAL EXAMINATION DUE (Portfolio)

Oral summaries of the final research report will also be scheduled for other students to share information in a class meeting from 9:45-11:45 a.m.

Students who wish to have their portfolio returned at the end of the semester should provide a self-addressed and stamped envelope.

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