Report 2

My Understanding of Driving Psychology
By Michelle Ching
Instructions for this report are at:


I am answering Questions 2, 4, 5, 7, 10




The Question I am answering is Question 2:

Question 2: 

(a) Give a brief review of our two textbooks: Road Rage and Aggressive Driving (James and Nahl), and Driving Lessons: Exploring Systems That Make Traffic Safer (Peter Rothe, Editor). The reviews should be between 3 and 6 paragraphs for each text.

(b) Select one Chapter from each text and give a summary of it.

(c) Discuss in what way wills these ideas contribute to solving society's driving problems.

(d) Any other comments you wish to make.


(a)     Give a brief review of our two textbooks: Road Rage and Aggressive Driving (James and Nahl), and Driving Lessons: Exploring Systems That Make Traffic Safer (Peter Rothe, Editor). The reviews should be between 3 and 6 paragraphs for each text.


Dixie Camilla Coke Nahl was a foremost critical inciter of aggressive driving.  As the grandmother of Dr. Leon James’s wife, she helped visualize the ideas for Dr. James and his wife, Dr. Diane Nahl, book “Road Rage and Aggressive Driving Steering Clear of Highway Warfare.  Diane who has been married to Dr. James was frightened by the way her husband drove who “flies around the corners so fast.”  Dr. James at this time had an adamant attitude towards change.  He simply did not find a need to change his behavior and that no one should defile his driving abilities.  He felt that the driver was empowered to drive as they please and that passengers should be grateful and cooperative.  Under no circumstance would it be acceptable for a passenger to interfere with the drivers driving style.  A pivotal point that changed his reckless ways was when Dixie Nahl complained that he drives too fast, causing her to hold on for her dear life.  Dr. James realizing that there was a need for change had reformed his driving behavior for the better. 


This book takes a systematic approach to help understand road rage and aggressive driving based off of research studies, government agencies, news media, law enforcement, and citizen groups.  Driving Behavior is broken down by three sub-components:  affective, cognitive, and sensorimotor.  This is also known as the “Driver’s Threefold Self.”  These three domains are interactive with each self.  A driver’s “affective self” will consist of the motivations and feelings during driving.  The “cognitive self” operates with the logic, thinking, and reasoning we do behind the wheel.  Lastly, the “sensorimotor self” is based from the perceptions, sensations and motor actions performed in a driving environment.  The threefold self is a product of many influential factors such as society, culture, scruples, rationality and genetics.  Even young children will model driving styles that their parents, siblings, other adults and characters portrayed in the mass media display.   


The solution to emotional entrapment of road rage thinking is supportive driving.  This is a style of driving that is accepting of the diversity of drivers and styles employed.  Supportive driving recognizes:  “local drivers versus visitors; large vehicles versus smaller ones; healthy, able-bodied drivers versus those who are challenged, ill, in pain, or emotionally upset; sober drivers versus those under the influence of alcohol, drugs, or medication; young drivers with excellent vision and quick reflexes versus those who are older, slower, and less capable; skilled drivers who maneuver quickly and skillfully versus less skilled or inexperienced who are less efficient and more unpredictable; drivers in a hurry versus excessively slow drivers; cool drivers in control of their emotions versus road ragers and self-confident drivers versus drivers who lack self-confidence.”


“Driving Lessons:  Exploring Systems That Make Traffic Safer” by J. Peter Rothe focuses on the issue of traffic safety.  Rothe feels that traditional solutions to fix increasing traffic injuries and fatalities are inept and that perhaps a new approach to resolve these problems needs to be considered.  The first chapter of the book discusses a
”second-generation cybernetic perspective.”  According to cybernetics, society is composed of a number of systems including health, education, the law, economics and the family, which are built on interrelated sub-systems.  The cybernetic approach is designed to promote a clearer understanding of traffic safety as an interactive process created by interacting relationships.


This way of thought thereby makes patterns of driver behavior as an adaptive response to change.  Traffic according to Rothe needs to be considered by the following principles:


·        understanding how the parts of traffic relate to each other and constitute the    whole of the roadway as a self-organizing process

·        understanding the interactive processes between different subsystems;

·        understanding the likely effects in the whole of roadway-user behaviors, and vice versa

·        understanding the language and emotions most likely to produce stable sub-systems

·        understanding situational complexity in traffic


Cybernetics provides new perspective in traffic safety by analyzing sub-system interactions when a problem is encountered.  The other sections of the book are divided into three parts personal, institutional and technical sub-systems.  Driving Lessons encourages a proactive stance on reforming driving.





(b) Select one Chapter from each text and give a summary of it.


            Chapter 5 “Emotional Intelligence for Drivers” from Road Rage and Aggressive Driving Steering Clear of Highway Warfare


            This chapter discusses inner power tools, which are techniques smart drivers, use to retrain their emotional intelligence by providing a means to restructure assessments of situations.  Anger is an intensified aggression where judgment becomes impaired.  People deal with anger by venting, a mental mechanism for justifying aggression.  This method of releasing frustrations actually amplifies the situation to epic proportions leading to explosive and impulsive actions.  There are many dire consequences associated with this form of venting such as deep regret, embarrassment, financial loss, depression, injury, or even most seriously death.


            Inner power tools help alleviate negative assessments of occurrences by employing two methods:  relaxation techniques and mental reappraisal of the situation.  Relaxation techniques are used to reduce physical arousal whereas; mental reappraisal of the situation systematically changes the way you observe your thinking. Emotional intelligence is needed for a better understanding of road rage syndrome.  Road rage are the irrational mental habits a person might have including anger and self-righteousness.  Emotional intelligence helps to change this unproductive way of thinking by providing an understanding how anger escalates, how venting keeps it going and how to deflate it through rational counterarguments.  Drivers will have the tools to manage their social relations in a driving environment.  There are six components to emotional intelligence that can be learned with practice:


1.      Reappraising a situation and look for alternative explanations

2.      Self-regulate negative mood shifts

3.      Empathize with “other side”

4.      Persist in plan despite distracting frustrations

5.      Control or neutralize aggressive impulses

6.      Think with positive outcomes


There are varying degrees of emotional intelligence.  The following table describes each level of emotional intelligence.


Emotional Intelligence Level

State of Feelings

Sequence of Thoughts

Type of Actions




Selfish, reckless, impulsive and hostile; constantly expresses criticism; feels insulted and insecure




Suspicious, wary, and competitive, but prudent and restrained; expresses worries and complaints




Helpful and friendly; gives others the benefit of the doubt; expresses enjoyment and optimism



            Chapter 19 from Driving Lessons: Exploring Systems That Make Traffic Safer (Peter Rothe, Editor) is entitled “Is Using a Cellphone Like Driving Drunk?”  This chapter answers the question whether or not talking on a cellular phone is hazardous.  There are many advantages to using a cellphone during driving.  Advocates for cellphone use argue that it allows drivers to call ahead when running lat and travel with increase peace of mind.  This will thereby, reduce the risk of collision.  With the technological advancements of the new millennium studies have shown that collision rates are not causal.  Drivers face other distractions such as the radio, changing cds, looking for items in the car, the ambulance; it is unjustified to single out cell phones.


            Opponents however, feel that because motor-vehicle collisions are the leading cause of mortality and disability any possible factors to this epidemic should be considered.  The primary reason cellphone use is pick on is due to its ability to be studied objectively.  Any small change in our habits of driving might have substantial advantages making big differences in our driving environment.


            There were a couple of case control studies done to predict the degree of dangerousness of cellphone conversation by drivers.  The simplest research looked over individuals who had car telephones and driver who did not have car telephones.  Out of the 498 individuals regarding the overall frequency of traffic collisions, among mobile telephone subscribers the numbers were marginally lower .  When driving simulators were utilized to study cellphone use it had worsened the performances on some indirect measures.  The average participant reaction time increased significantly when using hand-free cell phone.  


(c)   Discuss in what way wills these ideas contribute to solving society's driving problems.


            Both of these books are valuable resources to reduce inconsiderate driving behaviors, traffic collision injuries and deaths, prevent unproductive attitudes and modify our approaches in the driving realm to become proactive and safe.  Road rage runs rampant in the American society – something must be done to change this.


            Reading these books has altered my own driving habits.  Especially living in Hawaii where congestion and traffic is common no matter what time you drive.  I noticed that some of my reactions towards other drivers were unnecessary and unjustified.  For example, when I was driving to school in the morning a car had abruptly cut into my lane without signaling.  I was of course furious because I had to slam on my brakes.  I had motioned an obscene gesture followed by a negative comment.  In the mist of my anger I was interrupted by the sound of an ambulance.  It then occurred to me that the reason this person had gone into my lane was to get out of the way for the emergency medical technicians.  Fully understanding the situation now alleviated my fury.  This is part of emotional intelligence covered in the road rage book where I had reappraised the situation.



The Question I am answering is Question 4:

Question 4:

(a) Select three of the following student reports from Generation 15:








(b) Summarize each of the three reports. Be sure you put a link to the report you are referring to.

(c) Add a General Conclusion Section in which you discuss your reactions to what they did –

(i) their ideas,
(ii) their method,
(iii) their explanations.

(d) What did they gain from doing their reports?

(e) How do their ideas influence what you yourself think about these issues?

(e) Any other comments you wish to make.




(a)               Select three of the following student reports from Generation 15:


 I have selected to report on the following student reports: 





(b)       Summarize each of the three reports. Be sure you put a link to the report you are referring to.


Jennifer Ah Sing a student of Dr. Leon James’s previous generation 15 discusses the nature of the emotional spin cycle which involves 1)     Emotions are strong feelings that instinctively stimulate the human person to act, 2)     Feelings in its simplest form is a sensation of any degree, 3)     The Three-fold Self a theory created by Dr. Leon James and Dr. Diane Nahl, are the three components that complete an individual; affective behavior (feeling), cognitive behavior (thinking), and sensori-motor behavior (acting), and 4)     The Hierarchy of Motives is a system of measure that evaluates the rank of human motives and categorizes them by the degree of need.  The following link is her website:


            She attempts to test the theories put for by Dr. Leon James, analyzing and modifying her own emotional spin cycle.  Ultimately she concludes that she discovers emotions and feelings that she did not even know existed, gaining a greater awareness of how to deal and cope with different situations, people, and emotions.  Awareness to the mainstream population of the high levels of rage, anxiety, anger, frustration is her objective goal so that a better understanding of ourselves to be able to assist others can be achieved.


            Alyssa Chun’s report was very similar to Jennifer Sing’s where she was unaware of the sensations experienced when she encountered certain situations.  She learned how to recognize and gain insight into her emotional spin cycle.  The assignment to her was worth the time and effort because she learned how to modify her feelings, thoughts and actions.  Her report can be found on:


            Lastly, Natalia Lukey uses the techniques learned from her report and applies it in her day-to-day life, especially the Bridge technique.  She felt that she used to be a very emotional person and reacted several times in very inappropriate, irrational ways, making myself and people around me miserable.  Now when she is raging she automatically becomes aware of her threefold self, bring positive results not only to herself but to everybody around her.  Her report is found on:


(c)        Add a General Conclusion Section in which you discuss your reactions to what they did –

(i) their ideas,
(ii) their method,
(iii) their explanations.


            (i)  For each of the reports I reviewed their ideas were similar in terms of the conclusions they reach regarding the effectiveness of the modifying behavior that was encouraged.  (ii)  The method for these reports is self-reported which can lead to biases and changes in the data.  Each of the reports felt that the self-monitoring required in their method.  (iii)  I felt that Lukey had the best explanation of her understanding on the report.  She seemed to closely monitor her behaviors more closely than the others, leading to a more dynamic comprehension of the study. 


(d)  What did they gain from doing their reports?


            Each of the students gained a valuable tool that affected their affective, cognitive, and sensorimotor behaviors.  They were able to self-witness what they were thinking, feeling and behaving.  This ultimately impacted their relations with others, where they were able to connect the positive side of the emotional cycle. 


(e)   How do their ideas influence what you yourself think about these issues?


I was influenced by their conclusions, where each person had felt that they were gaining a valuable tool:  being more aware of when and how their emotions are being influenced.  Relating to someone who has been in a similar position as you makes the subject matter of something more relevant and meaningful.   I felt this way regarding the melancholy period some of the students experienced.  Therefore, their conclusions are more readily accepted to me.


The Question I am answering is Question 5:

Question 5:

(a) Consider Table 5 in the Lecture Notes, in the Section on Driving Psychology Theory and Charts at 

(b) Consult the article from which the Table was taken.

(c) Copy and paste the table into your file. Now delete the examples in each cell and replace them with your own examples that you make up.

(d) Discuss why driving is such a big problem in all societies and why no effective solutions have yet been found for them.

(e) Discuss the solutions offered by Dr. Leon James ( What likelihood is there that his approach will be adopted? Explain. (f) Any other comments you wish to make.


(c) Copy and paste the table into your file. Now delete the examples in each cell and replace them with your own examples that you make up.



Table 5
Emotionally Intelligent Driver Personality Skills

Driver Competence Skills



Emotionally Intelligent


1. Focusing on self vs. blaming others or the situation

“Why did that guy slow down we could have made it through this light”

“I left late and now I am feeling pressured for time.

2. Understanding how feelings and thoughts act together

“I can’t believe that just happened, I could have died, people are such bad drivers”

“I am concerned about what just happened and wonder how I could have avoided that situation”

3. Realizing that anger is something we choose vs. thinking it is provoked

“Why did he have to make me so mad?”

“Why did I choose anger as my reaction to this?”

4. Being concerned about consequences vs. giving in to impulse

“I could kill him right now”

“I am riled up and need to control my actions”

5. Showing respect for others and their rights vs. thinking only of oneself

I do not have the patience for these old drivers, I have places to be”

“Everyone has their unique driving style”

6. Accepting traffic as collective team work vs. seeing it as individual competition

“I am going to beat that red car through this light”

“He is in a hurry, I should let him pass me”

7. Recognizing the diversity of drivers and their needs and styles vs. blaming them for what they choose to do

“Why are these people so rude, why can’t they get out of my way if they don’t know where they are going”

“Drivers from out of town stop quickly and drive slowly, I would do the same in a town I did not know”

8. Practicing positive role models vs. negative

“What is this guy’s problem, hurry up”

“This driver is being cautious, I should too.

9.  Learning to inhibit the impulse to criticize by developing a sense of driving humor

“Stupid jerks, why don’t they pay attention”

“Knew I should have bought the ambulance instead so people would notice me”

10. Taking driving seriously by becoming aware of one’s mistakes and correcting them

“I am the best driver I know, just look around at these idiots”

“I know I make mistakes and put forth effort to witness and correct them.”

The above comes from: 

(d)   Discuss why driving is such a big problem in all societies and why no effective solutions have yet been found for them.


Driving is a universal problem in all societies primarily because every individual vehicle handler has a different style of driving.  Each of us will come into contact with a person who has a different method of driving and how we handle the interaction will determine either a smooth and favorable outcome or one that is marked with regret.  There are many factors to the problems in driving from the consumption of alcohol, sleep deprivation, bad moods, music, traffic, speeding, lack of experience in driving, health ailments and even switching the radio station.  Any of these problematic areas could greatly affect the way we drive and for varied these reasons it is a dilemma all societies face.

(e)   Discuss the solutions offered by Dr. Leon James ( What likelihood is there that his approach will be adopted? Explain.


The solutions provided by Dr. Leon James first attack beginners, novices who are just starting to drive.  By raising drivers who are more competent at a young age, we can prevent bad habits that might develop.  The training used to restructure their driving paradigm is to become a “supportive driver.”  The effects of being a supportive driver are greatly advantageous allowing a harmonizing flow of traffic, where everyone is working with each other not acceptance.   The only set back to this solution is the implementation.  Not everyone will agree to the criteria of this plan nor will everyone adopt it. 



The Question I am answering is Question 7:

Question 7:

(a) Our textbook Road Rage and Aggressive Driving has checklist exercises in several chapters. Do the following four exercises:

(i) Exercise on How Passenger-Friendly Are You on p.184-5
(ii) Exercise on Witnessing Your Aggressive Driving on p. 140-3
(iii) Exercise on Your Road Rage Tendency on p. 40-42
(iv) Exercise on Your Verbal Road Rage Tendency on p. 91

(b) What were your reactions to each exercise?

(c) Discuss how these exercises help you to become more aware of yourself as a driver.

(d) Do some of the exercises with another driver you know. How do they help you understand some principles of driving psychology mentioned in the book? Discuss and illustrate.

(e) Any other comments you wish to make.




(a)  Our textbook Road Rage and Aggressive Driving has checklist exercises in several chapters. Do the following four exercises:

(i) Exercise on How Passenger-Friendly Are You on p.184-5
(ii) Exercise on Witnessing Your Aggressive Driving on p. 140-3
(iii) Exercise on Your Road Rage Tendency on p. 40-42
(iv) Exercise on Your Verbal Road Rage Tendency on p. 91


(i)                 How Passenger-Friendly Are You?

1.      T  I always consider my passenger’s feelings

2.      T  I adjust my driving to accommodate to my passengers’ comfort

3.      T  I let my passengers influence my driving for the better

4.      T  I want my passengers to think of me as a good and save driver

5.      T  I try to avoid making driving mistakes even more when I have passengers

6.      T  I think that passengers should just sit back, relax, and leave the driving to me.  But if they feel more comfortable participating, I let them if it’s   safe. 

7.      F  My passengers can control the air conditioning and windows

8.      T  Passengers have the right to criticize the driver’s behavior

9.      T  I want my passengers to be grateful and show appreciation, but if they don’t I won’t resent it or hold it against them

10. T  My passengers can select the music


(ii)               Exercise on Witnessing Your Aggressive Driving

Witnessing Your Emotions:

1.      X  Getting angry when forced to brake by another motorist

2.      X  Feeling insulted and furious hen a driver revs the engine in passing

3.      X  Feeling hostile when your progress is impeded by congestion

4.      O  Being suspicious when a driver doesn’t let you change lanes

5.      X  Feeling justified in retaliating when another driver insults you

6.      O  Enjoying thoughts of revenge and torture

7.      O  Enjoying the role of being mean behind the wheel

8.      X  Feeling satisfaction when expressing hostility against other drivers

9.      O  Fantasizing racing other road warriors

10. O  Enjoying stereotyping and ridiculing certain drivers

11. X  Constantly feeling like rushing, even when you’re not late

12. X  Striving to get ahead of every car

13. O  Being pleased when getting away with breaking traffic laws

14. O  Enjoying the feeling of risk or danger when moving fast


Witnessing Your Thoughts:

1.      X  Justifying rejection of the law that every lane change must be signaled

2.      O  Thinking that it’s up to you to choose which stop signs should be obeyed

3.      O  Thinking that there is no need for speed limits

4.      X  Being ignorant of safety rules and principles

5.      O  Thinking that it’s not necessary to figure out the route before leaving

6.      O  Not leaving early enough; thinking you can make up time by driving faster

7.      X  Thinking that some drivers are fools, airheads, rejects, and so on

8.      O  Thinking that some drivers are out to get you

9.      O  Believing that passengers have fewer rights than drivers

10. O  Thinking you can handle drinking and driving due to your special ability to hold your liquor

11. X  Thinking that you can use in-car communication systems safely without having to train yourself

12. X  Believing that pedestrians shouldn’t have the right of way when jaywalking

13. O  Believing it’s OK not to wear a seat belt since you probably won’t need it

14. O  Thinking it’s best to get ahead of others even if you cause them to slow down


Witness Your Actions:

1.      X  Not signaling when required by law

2.      X  Lane hopping to get ahead rather than going with the flow

3.      X  Following too close for the speed

4.      O  Gap closing to prevent someone from entering your lane

5.      X  Turing right from the middle or left lane

6.      X  Blocking the passing lane, not moving over as soon as possible

7.      X  Speeding faster than the flow of traffic

8.      O  Shining high beams to annoy a driver

9.      O  Honking to protest something when it’s not an emergency

10. O  Gesturing insultingly at another driver

11. X  Speeding up suddenly to make it through a yellow light

12. X  Making rolling stops when a full stop is required

13. X Threatening pedestrians by approaching them quickly

14. O  Illegally parking in a marked handicap space

15. O  Parking or double-parking where it’s illegal

16. O  Playing the radio loud enough to be heard by other drivers

17. O  Taking a parking space unfairly or opportunistically

18. X  driving under the influence of alcohol or medication

19. O  Bad mouthing other drivers when kids are in the vehicle

20. O  Ignoring the comfort of passengers or verbally assaulting them when they complain about your driving

21. X  Failing to yield


(iii)       Exercise on Your Road Rage Tendency

1.      I swear a lot more in traffic than I do elsewhere.  Y

2.      I normally have critical thoughts about other drivers.  Y

3.      When a driver in a parking lot tries to steal the space I’ve been waiting for, I get furious.  Y

4.      I fantasize about doing violence to other drivers but it’s just fantasy.  Y

5.      When drivers do something really “stupid” that endangers me or my car, I get furious, even aggressive.  Y

6.      It’s good to get your anger out because we all have aggressive feelings inside that naturally come out under stressful situations.  Y

7.      When I’m very upset about something, it’s a relief to step on the gas to give my feeling an outlet.  Y

8.      I feel that it’s important to force certain drivers to behave appropriately on the highway.  N

9.      Pedestrians shouldn’t have the right to walk slowly in crosswalks when cars are waiting.  N

10. Pushy drivers really annoy me so I bad-mouth them to feel better.  N

11. I tailgate when someone drives too slowly for conditions or in the passing lane.  Y

12. I try to get to my destination in the shortest time possible, or else it doesn’t feel right.  Y

13. If I stopped driving aggressively, others would take advantage of my passivity.  N

14. I feel unpleasant emotions when someone beats me to the light or when someone get through and I’m stuck on red.  N

15. I feel energized by the sense of power and competition I experience while driving aggressively.  N

16. I hate speed bumps and speed limits that are set too low.  Y

17. Once in a while I get so frustrated in traffic that I begin to drive somewhat recklessly.  Y

18. I hate large trucks and I refuse to drive differently around them.  N

19. Sometimes I feel that I’m holding up traffic so I start driving faster than feels comfortable.  Y

20. I would feel embarrassed to “get stuck” behind a large vehicle on a steep road.  N


(iv)       Exercise on Your Verbal Road Rage Tendency

1.      X  Hey fool, get out of the way!

2.      X  What’s wrong with this driver?  I can’t believe how slow he’s going!

3.      X  Nope, I won’t let you sneak into my lane.

4.      X  Hey, what’s the big rush?  Don’t be so pushy!

5.      X  I’d like to see you squirm, you pushy geeks.

6.      O  Did that scare you?  Good.  I hope it teaches you a lesson

7.      O  I’m tailgating you now.  Pay you back.  So who’s the smart one, huh?

8.      O  Figures, it’s a woman.  Women can’t drive for #%@!

9.      O  I hope you break your neck!

10. X  Who do you think you are, creep?

11. X  Get a life!

12. X  Look, that airhead left his blinker on!

(b)  What were your reactions to each exercise?


            I am considered passenger friendly based off of “How Passenger-Friendly Are You?”  The only thing that I had put false to was “my passengers can control the air conditioning and windows.”  My passengers can control the windows but not the air conditioning.  I do not think it is prudent for a backseat passenger to dictate the controls of my air conditioning.  Primarily because air conditioning guzzles gas and the gas prices are not reducing so conserving my money and gas is my first concern.


From “Exercise on Witnessing Your Aggressive Driving” I found that in the three sections where I had witnessed my emotions, actions and thoughts during driving I was more aggressive and agitated than I thought.  This is probably due to the rose colored lens used when analyzing my own behaviors.  After some inner self-probing and admittance, I had acknowledged my negative driving attributes.


These tests “Exercise on Your Road Rage Tendency” and “Exercise on Your Verbal Road Rage Tendency”, allowed me to recognize what are road rage tendency and whether or not I exhibit this characteristic.


(c)  Discuss how these exercises help you to become more aware of yourself as a driver.

            These exercises helped me identify and recognize negative characteristics.  This made me take an active approach to educating me on driver education.  By targeting each area that I need to improve I can readily make the proper adjustments.  The most focused area where these exercises helped me was the road rage portion.  Not believing that I had road rage tendencies and having concrete evidence in front of me denying my stubborn belief, curbed my needless aggression.


(d)  Do some of the exercises with another driver you know. How do they help you understand some principles of driving psychology mentioned in the book? Discuss and illustrate.


I had my good friend Jenine take these tests to measure her driving tendency and behaviors.  Honestly, Jenine is a poor driver.  Throughout my rides with her I had feared for my life.  She constantly yells at other drivers, meagerly avoids accidents, hits parked cars, and is easily distracted but she does nothing to improve her ways.   After finishing the exercises, Jenine actually mentioned that perhaps her driving skills were not the most refined.  I had quickly agreed with her and said that it is probably worst than a novice driver.  Her driving characteristics are dangerous not only to herself, but myself and other drivers so I had to tell her candidly how I felt about her driving.  She is now moderately changing her unsafe driving by refraining from yelling and trying hard not to tailgate and cut other people off.


The Question I am answering is Question 7:

Question 10:

(a) Explain the "supportive driving" orientation in relation to the driver's threefold self. Refer to our book on Road Rage and Aggressive Driving where this concept is discussed.

(b) Describe any resistance you experience regarding this orientation, including

(i) the idea that how you drive is a moral issue of human rights
(ii) the idea of lifelong driver education and the idea of mandatory participation in QDC support groups

(c) Describe the reactions of friends when you tell them about driving personality makeovers

(d) Anything else you have to say.



            The support driver orientation is an accommodating style that centers on adjusting to the wide range of highway users and avoiding emotional entrapments caused by road rage mentalities. In chapter 8 of the “Road Rage” book, Dr. James tackles what it means to be a supportive driver.  Every driver defines their emotional boundaries, what is considered reasonable give a certain circumstance and what is also considered arbitrary.  Hawaii is known for its ‘Aloha Spirit’, representing an attitude of mutual acceptance and chivalry. 

            The threefold self is an explanation of human nature where there is a will, an understanding, and actions of an individual.  These three distinct groups correspond to our behavior translating these human capacities as the affective, cognitive, and sensorimotor behaviors.  Pertaining to the affective behavior would include affections, feelings, motive, needs and everything that is related to the goal-directedness of people’s actions.  The cognitive encompasses cognitions, thoughts, reasoning and everything that is relevant to decision-making and analyzing aspects of people’s actions.  Lastly, the sensorimotor or psychomotor  consist of all experiences that is mediated through sensory and motor channels. 

            Becoming a supportive driver would affect each realm of the threefold self where a person would improve each of these distinguished segments.  For example a supportive driver will signal before changing lanes.  This aspect of the individual is embedded in the affective context:  the driver maintains the motive of sidestepping driving errors.  The cognitive context is also associated where the driver is processing information by common sense logic that is considerate and courteous. 


            I do not have much resistance towards being a supportive driver.  It seems to be a good solution to the debacles of road rage.  The only setback to this theory is the enforcement.  The supportive driver style is an individual change that needs to be done in order for it to be successful.  In addition it needs to be consistent, otherwise it will change other drivers’ views and perhaps even fuel their need to lash out during driving if a negative action was observed.  Supportive driving rests on a reactionary inspection, where if a person is nice and kind then the person who is involve with their interaction will react and reciprocate the deed.  This however, is not the case for everybody. There are people who are mean-spirited and uncaring regardless of other people’s polite suggestions.

            The idea of lifelong driver education and mandatory participation in QDC support groups is again ideal for rectifying the status quo but not everyone will acquiesce to such a long committed requirement.  How often will the lifelong driver education be? Once a month?  Every month?  Once a year?  Then the question of its effectiveness comes into play.  The same goes for QDC support groups.  You can only gain from this sort of program by what you put into it.


            Most of friends feel that driving personality make over     is a Christian view dipped into the driving sector.  This is clearly evident in the supportive driver orientation where the benefit of the doubt is given to fellow drivers and that empathy rather than apathy is harvest.  Although this way could be beneficial to all of those involved in the driving environment, this ideal state is extremely difficult and nearly impossible to achieve in every single driver.  Having an understanding of the threefold self and reasons having a supportive driver perspective is helpful but can only make small meager changes.

My Report on the Previous Generation:


Add a Section called "My Report on the Previous Generation." Select 3 students from G22 and summarize what they did for their Report 2. Their class folder is at:


I chose the following reports: - Constance DeCaires - Robert Lee - Kyle Santos

            In Constance DeCaires’s report, she provided a very descriptive analysis of the three fold self.  This clearly displayed her understanding of the concepts very well.  Under her behavioral skills and Error within each Domain she goes into detail for this section talking about the proficiency, safety and responsibility affected.  Overall I felt that her report was comprehensive and organized in an understandable manner.  Her advice to the future generations is to remain positive, be persistent with your work and if you encounter a concept you do not understand ask for help either from your professor or a classmate.


            Robert Lee’s report was not as explanatory as the first report I reviewed.  This is not to say that his work was lesser in quality.  He had answered each question with sufficient explanation without rambling.  His report in comparison was more concise and exact, not straying beyond what was necessary for each answer.  His advice is to remain disciplined with your report.  Consistently, keeping up with each question because each one takes time and effort to organize your thoughts and compile the appropriate information that is needed.


            Kyle Santos’s report seemed to have a clear understanding of driving behavior.  In the first section of his report he describes the three behavioral domains and levels of a driver.  He then summarizes reports from a previous generation, discusses some exercises done in the book, compares the website and and lastly considers table 5 Emotional Intelligent Driver Personality Skills. His advice to the future generations, which I am sure is echoed throughout each generation is not to procrastinate.  I definitely agree.



Advice to Future Generations:


             One main critical piece of advice I can give is this:  Do not procrastinate!  This report requires a lot of time, planning, thinking and reading.  In my opinion, it is best to do this report in moderate doses consistently throughout the semester.  If you are diligent and persistent enough you can finish this report without excessive stress and worry as opposed to waiting the night before the report is due.  Waiting until the last minute leads to rapid writing and hasty reports because of the lack of time.  This can deduct valuable points from your report that could have easily been avoided.  Luckily, I have learned my lesson from last semester where I had delayed writing my report until I was left with only three days.  Although better than having just a day to write my report, I found the work overwhelming and at times disparaging.  I feel that if I had just started earlier I could have improved the quality of the report by a significant amount. 


            Another area that you can improve to become more efficient with your time on this report is to read the instructions carefully.  After finishing all five of my answers for each question I re-read the instructions for report 2 to make sure I had done everything correctly.  After comparing the instructions to my report I found that I had formatted each of my paragraphs incorrectly.  I had paragraphs that exceeded seven lines, which under the instructions for report 2 is not permissible.  I had to go back into my document and change each paragraph that violated this stipulation.  This waste of time could have easily been avoided if I had read the instructions thoroughly. 



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