Report 2:
My Understanding of Driving Psychology
By: Amy Beeler
Instructions for this report are at: 
I am answering Questions 1,2, 3, 4, and 7.


Step 2: Answering the Questions

The Question I am answering is Question 1: (a) Consider Tables 1, 2, 3, and 4 in the Lecture Notes, in the Section on Driving Psychology Theory and Charts at  Consult the article from which the Tables were taken. (b) Using your own words, describe the three behavioral domains and levels of a driver (nine cells). (c) Illustrate each domain with your own driving behavior skills and errors, or that of another driver you know well, or a driver in a particular movie. (d) Make up a "driving personality makeover" plan for yourself (or another driver you know well), relating specifically to negative thoughts you have about other road users. (e) Discuss the problems you anticipate in carrying out such a plan successfully. (f) Any other comments you wish to make.

(b) Using your own words, describe the three behavioral domains and levels of a driver (nine cells).

The three behavioral domains are the Affective, Cognitive, and Sensorimotor; all of which make up the driver’s threefold-self. This approach deals with not just the external, but internal factors that affect the self. Beginning with the first domain, which is Affective, the driver does a self-witnessing action and tapes a dialogue.  The dialogue may show disapproval of another driver, express fear, hope, anger, or frustration of a particular driving situation, any of which fall under the category of affective behavior.  The internal dialogue can be used as a sort of rolodex of affective states.

Secondly, the domain of Cognitive behavior includes actions such as imagining what other drivers are thinking, feeling, or doing. In addition, attributing errors to oneself, and witnessing and describing one’s reasoning about a particular driving situation, is also an example of the Cognitive self. 

Lastly, the third domain of a driver’s threefold self is the Sensorimotor domain.  Simply defined as actual actions that the driver does while driving, such as waving to thank another driver, or glaring at one that cut you off.  Moreover, if a driver witnesses and describes sensations or motor actions, we can have more clear data on the Sensorimotor behavior. 

The levels of a driver: There are three different sections, each with an example for Affective, Cognitive, and Sensorimotor.  There is a section for Responsibility, Safety, and Proficiency, each with a positive and negative example of behavior. 

First, the section dealing with responsibility: Examples for Affective Responsibility are kindness without immediate gratification (altruism) and Morality, VS. Driving without a conscience, and the notion that you deserve to take your half right out of the middle, regardless of what the other drivers deserve (egotism). For Cognitive Responsibility: either positive dramatizations, (or feelings/opinions about their driving situations…mental health) VS. Negative dramatizations (insanity).  For Sensorimotor Responsibility: satisfaction and enjoyment VS. Depression and stress. 

Next, we look at the Safety section for all three domains.  Affective Safety is driving equally with other drivers, along with defensive driving VS. Opportunism and driving aggressively.  Cognitive Safety is objective attributions VS. Biased Attributions.  Sensorimotor Safety is a Calm, polite exchange with other drivers VS. A rude, impolite, aggressive exchange with other drivers. Lastly, examples of the Proficiency section for all three domains. 

For Affective Proficiency, there is either a respect for the rules and regulations of the road and demonstration of self-control, VS. A lack of self-control and disrespect for regulations and authority.  Examples of Cognitive Proficiency are Knowledge and awareness VS. Faulty thinking and inexperience.  Examples of Sensorimotor Proficiency are correct actions and alertness VS. Inattention and faulty actions.

(c) Illustrate each domain with your own driving behavior skills and errors, or that of another driver you know well, or a driver in a particular movie.

 I will now describe my skills and errors in each of the three domains.  First, for the Affective domain, I am altruistic towards other drivers, at some points of my day.  I like to leave room to let others in, because I believe, that at some point down the road, someone will do so for me.  However, if my day has gone by, and no one else has done things like that for me, I will no longer do it for other people.  The next day I will again, begin with a fresh start and be accommodating to my fellow drivers. 

I demonstrate my Affective domain of the threefold self by verbalizing to myself about this. I tell myself, “no one has let me in today; you (other driver) can wait for someone else to let you in.” I like to drive equally with the other drivers, but this does not always happen, and I become an aggressive driver, who takes opportunities out of turn, and sometimes speed and show disrespect for rules.

        Next, is the Cognitive domain of my threefold self, in which I will describe my skills and errors.  I often have something happen on the road that has endangered me in some way, and I get angry and speculate about what the other driver was thinking, or lack there of in terms of their thinking process in that situation.  This speculation of what the other driver was thinking or feeling is an example of my cognitive process in action.

Sometimes I have negative dramatizations of a particular even, and sometimes I have a positive one.  More often than not, I have biased attributions to what I think about the other driver’s thinking process was when they endangered my life and my property.  I do believe that given the fact that I have been driving a good bit, almost every day of my life since the age of about 16 yrs. old, I have more knowledge and experience than I did then.  However, I think given time, I will improve upon this experience and knowledge. 

        Finally, I will describe both my skills and errors of my driving in the Sensorimotor domain of my threefold self. I often wave at the other driver when they allow me space to change lanes or merge into traffic.  I do this more often than I used to, because I almost always do it, even if I think that they did not purposely let me in.  I like to acknowledge them because I like it when other drivers acknowledge my efforts towards them.  

I also have been known, from time to time, to make obscene gestures to other drivers when I perceive that they have done wrong by me somehow.  Both actions, positive and negative, are examples of my Sensorimotor domain.  I am usually alert when driving, but sometimes, if I have not had very much sleep, or something is on my mind, I am not as alert and somewhat inattentive.

(d) Make up a "driving personality makeover" plan for yourself (or another driver you know well), relating specifically to negative thoughts you have about other road users.

        My plan for a “driving personality makeover” for myself that specifically deals with my negative thoughts towards other drivers will be in two main stages. Stage One is avoiding being an aggressive driver.  First I will deal with my resistance to change in the Affective level.  I will commit myself to inhibit my feelings of anger and retaliation, make it unacceptable to demean and ridicule other drivers, and activate my higher morals of fairness and kindness to strangers.

To sum up, I will act as I would like others to treat me, as I like to call, “The Golden Rule of Driving.” Also, I will learn to do rational analyses of traffic incidences, and this change will affect my Cognitive level.  I will attribute errors reasonably and unbiased, and acquire more socialized and self-regulatory sentences that I can say to myself in order to stay sane on the road. 

In addition, I will accept the blame for my part in situations, and not be so quick to accuse others of wrongs.  For my Sensorimotor level, I will act out civil behavior.  I will always wave, smile, and show courtesy to my fellow drivers.  I will not crowd, rush in, tailgate, cut-off, and swear. I will not pretend I am in a good mood when I am not, and I will not aggress against my passengers.  To sum up, I will use only positive gestures and actions while driving.

        Stage two of my plan for a “driving personality makeover” will include actions that will make me a supportive driver.  On the Affective level, I will need to maintain a supportive orientation towards my fellow drivers.  This includes being responsible for my own errors, and whenever possible, make attempts to make up for the error.  In addition, I will feel regret when I show unfriendly actions or behaviors to other drivers, I will continue to feel appreciation when others show me courtesy, and continue to feel good when I do the same for someone else.

Most importantly, I will be patient and understanding of other’s mistakes and forgive them for making them.  For the Cognitive level, I will analyze driving situations objectively.  I will not only acknowledge my own driving errors, I will objectively analyze other’s driving errors as well.  I will make every attempt to try and modify my less desirable habits. Lastly, I will behave in a cooperative style on the Sensorimotor level.  I will not only try to anticipate the needs of other drivers, I will accommodate said needs whenever possible.  I will verbalize nice sentiments in order to relax and enjoy the ride as much as possible.

(e) Discuss the problems you anticipate in carrying out such a plan successfully.

I can see many possible problems to carrying out my driving makeover plan.  First, change is not easy, nor is it a quick process.  In order to carry out this plan, it requires constant effort and vigilance.  Sometimes, when things do not change quickly, the first impulse is to give up and regress to former tendencies.  If the effort is not there, the change will never take place.  Also, a vast amount of patience is required to accept to constant mistakes and errors made by other drivers.  Sometimes, after a long day, a person may not feel as if they have the patience to accept several errors that other drivers have made.  I believe that patience and effort are the corner stones of making a driving makeover plan successful.

(f) Any other comments you wish to make.

       I think that a driving makeover would be beneficial to even good drivers, because everyone can improve, regardless of their skill level.  Even Dr. James would probably agree that his driving requires constant effort to maintain his driving goals, and that keeps him safe on the road. 


The Question that I am answering is Question 2:(a) Give a brief review of our two textbooks: Road Rage and Aggressive Driving (James and Nahl), and Driving Lessons: Exploring Systems That Make Traffic Safer (Peter Rothe, Editor). The reviews should be between 3 and 6 paragraphs for each text. (b) Select one Chapter from each text and give a summary of it. (c) Discuss in what ways will these ideas contribute to solving society's driving problems. (d) Any other comments you wish to make.

(a) Give a brief review of our two textbooks: Road Rage and Aggressive Driving (James and Nahl), and Driving Lessons: Exploring Systems That Make Traffic Safer (Peter Rothe, Editor). The reviews should be between 3 and 6 paragraphs for each text.

-Road Rage and Aggressive Driving: Steering Clear of Highway Warfare (By: Dr. Leon James and Dr. Diane Nahl) 

Road Rage and Aggressive Driving by Dr. Leon James and Dr. Diane Nahl, is an informative book that explains thoroughly about exactly what the book is called; road rage and aggressive driving.  However, it is also about so much more.  First it begins describing simply what road rage is, and what aggressive driving is, and how to notice and look for it. 

The book builds upon that initial information and goes even more in depth with the driving issues that plaque the whole world.  It gives startling statistics about deaths and injuries that occur because of negligence or inexperience, or because of anger and loss of control behind the wheel.  As the book progresses further, there are helpful quizzes at the end of chapters that help diagnose an individual’s issues as a driver, and the book does so in a way that is hard to miss the message of.

        Some of the most important aspects of this book are the vast amounts of research done that does not just encompass our country’s driving issues, but those all around the world.  It is hard to ignore a world-wide phenomenon, and this book shows the reader why.  The issue of road rage and aggressive driving is a world-wide issue that demands world-wide solutions.  Another important aspect is the explanations of what it means to be an aggressive driver.  Many people would not think that they would fall into that category, however if they read this book, they would know that most people do fit into it.  The understanding that many, many factors go into becoming a danger on the road, and what those factors are, is the beginning of growth and change for the better. 

        In addition, parents and teachers would benefit greatly from reading this book.  They would come to the realization that they could play an important role in helping the next generation of drivers the values of patience and supportive driving.  Parents need to watch not only what they say in the car, but also what they do, including body language.  Their children are a constant audience to their actions in and out of the car, but it is so easy to forget that once they get behind the wheel and something upsets them.  Showing from the earliest age, how to be a good passenger, leads to learning how to be a good driver, and a supportive driver. 

The book also mentions many times about what it means to be a supportive driver, an important piece of this road rage puzzle.  Being a supportive driver, as opposed to being a defensive driver, promotes more understanding of the other drivers, and more patience towards them as well.  Empathy for your fellow driver is the first, and perhaps the most important, step to being a supportive driver, and hopefully, by teaching more drivers about how to do this, will save lives on the road.

Finally, the book provides valuable, taken right out of real life, examples of what to do, and what not to do on the road.  It gives supporting reasons for why these real life examples are either positive or negative, and gives solutions for each.  In addition, an interactive website accompanies Road Rage and Aggressive Driving: Steering Clear of Highway Warfare, and there are several helpful sources and activities in both the website and the book, with the ultimate goal of safety on the road.


-Driving Lessons: Exploring Systems that Make Traffic Safer (J. Peter Rothe, Editor)

J. Peter Rothe edited the essays in the book, Driving Lessons, but many other people authored the collection of essays.  This book is a bit harder to sum up because it is such a collection of different works, but, like the title suggests, it is a collection of driving lessons.  This book proposes that by asking why we have a huge problem on the road that only seems to be on the rise, in a different and innovative way, we might be better apt to solving it.  By looking at the hazardous conditions that people drive under…not just the physical ones, but the mental ones too, we could gain a better understanding of how to cope with them. 

In addition, there are factors that many of us do not even think or know about.  For example, the unfair and unjust pressures that are put upon the truck drivers that are desperately needed to transport all sorts of goods across our country.  Or the mental faculties that are strained by our stress and impatience, that in turn make us a danger behind the wheel.  This collection of essays helps us to better understand so many of these issues we are not at all aware of.

A number of sub-systems go into the dangers of the road issues.  These systems, more often than not, overlap with each other to form these issues, so to solve them we must figure all of the ones involved in each situation.  These sub-systems include: political, legal, economic, psychological, sociological, and cultural, just to mention a few.  These essays reflect a combination of these systems in the articles that were under discussion at the Traffic Safety Summit ’98, as the editor, J. Peter Rothe says was the sources of this books material.  This ever-growing issue is getting more and more attention, and the word road rage has become an all too common headline on local news reports.

Traffic safety is such a complex issue, that it deserves complex theories and solutions.  That is why this book is a valuable source for the learning of these issues, because the information range is so vast and complex.  As the years go by, the problems of traffic safety change, and just when we think we have invented some sort of miracle safety feature to cram into new cars, the statistics of deaths continue to increase.  This book explores the directions that this issue is going in, and hopes to address the ever growing issues in a new way.

(b) Select one Chapter from each text and give a summary of it.

For the Road Rage and Aggressive Driving book, I chose the chapter entitled: Road Rage Nursery (which begins on Page 151).  I choose this one because its message stuck out at me above any other one in the book.  I truly felt that I grasped that the point was, and saw how important it was to be applied to life.  This chapter discusses the importance of setting a good example for your child, starting with infancy.  At birth, children are brought home from the hospital, riding in the car, most likely with one of their parents driving.  Thus begins the road rage nursery.  If the parent drives with anger, hostility, and frustration, the child will pick up on it and learn it. 

As parents, and other adults driving children around from point A to point B, we can either set a good example, or a bad one.  The chapter illustrates a real life example of when a father got into an altercation with another driver with his three-year-old and five-year-old in the back.  They were telling there dad to “go get him” and egging him on to attack the other driver.  He had already taught them road rage and aggression towards fellow drivers, way before they were able to drive themselves.  The chapter also outlines not only a need to set a good example of driving, but teach children how to be a courteous and respectful passenger, with positive reinforcement of good characteristics, not just negative reinforcement of the undesirable ones. 

For the Driving Lessons book, I chose the chapter on Revisiting Communications and Traffic Safety, because it outlines a problem with in the whole traffic safety issue that I had not even thought about.  The communication that surrounds road phenomena that makes a huge difference in the way we see a situation.  First of all, when developing communication systems, we must do so in order to reach a wide range of individuals.  The communication is lost to most of the audience, if it is geared to reach only one group’s range of understanding. 

In order to get the message across, we must broaden the Field of Relevance to that it reaches a larger audience.  A good way of broadening a Field of Relevance is to make it more personal, and a good way of doing this is with an emotional appeal.  If an individual can see his/her loved one being hurt as a result of their actions, they are more likely to think twice about driving unsafely. 

In addition, by changing the language used to talk about traffic safety issues, then the message and understanding change too.  By calling a car accident a crash instead of an accident, the responsibility of the occurrence remains intact.  An accident implies that there is not fault, and in actuality, most of the time it is due to the driver’s mistake. 

Also, saying things like, “it came out of nowhere” or “the visibility was poor due to weather” imply that the driver could not notice bad conditions or pay as much attention to the road as they should be.  Finally, news reports that say things like “the Chevy cavalier failed to make the sharp turn and went off the road killing its passengers” implies that the car had a will of its own, and the driver had no responsibility.  All of the above are examples of how misleading certain ways of communication can be.

(c) Discuss in what ways will these ideas contribute to solving society's driving problems.

I think that learning about how important examples adults are to children, even at the youngest of ages, will help us to prevent the next generation of aggressive drivers.  It is so easy to forget what examples we are to little ones, but in actuality, we are major ones.  I would hate to think that I am a bad example to my little nephews, and to my own kids some day.  Helping to create good passengers in our kids is a very important step for the future of this problem, and to the future of our safety.

I can completely see how our language and communication sets us back from moving forward towards a safer future.  If we alleviate our responsibility from our car crashes, we do not learn from them, and we continue to cause danger to ourselves and others.  By changing the way we speak, we change the way we act too.

(d) Any other comments you wish to make.

Both of these books, because they are so different in some ways from each other, help to fill in gaps the other leaves.  They are very complimentary of each other, and both have very strong information to convey.


The Question I am answering is Question 3: (a) Discuss these two Web sites: vs. by first describing their overall appearance and purpose. (b) What are their main differences? Be sure to consider at least these areas: (i) articles (ii) newsletters (iii) style (iv) probable audience (v) public relations or policy (vi) advertising (vii) size (vii) ranking (viii) Other sites that link to each. (c) Any other comments you wish to make.

(a) Discuss these two Web sites: vs. by first describing their overall appearance and purpose.

The overall appearance of these two websites is as follows: was fairly colorful and organized, but it seemed to have two distinct purposes, that did not really seem to match.  When initially arriving to the home page, there are two different ways to go: either to information on computer drivers, or information on drivers on the road.  While the two sections have the same “driver” subject, the website does not fit for me, and therefore the appearance, while colorful and well put-together, did not illicit credibility.  The overall appearance of was also very organized and had several eye catching aspects. So advertisements were animated, and the sections were clearly labeled and easy to understand and navigate. This website did not have the conflicting purposes like the first, and so it was much more credible, just based on initial appearance.

(b) What are their main differences? Be sure to consider at least these areas: (i) articles (ii) newsletters (iii) style (iv) probable audience (v) public relations or policy (vi) advertising (vii) size (vii) ranking (viii) Other sites that link to each.

These two websites had several main differences between each other.

(i) Articles: had several articles that discussed a range of car and/or driving related issues.  When I took a closer look and investigated the first three, main articles that they had spotlighted on the front page of the driving section, all three did not seem very well written.  The first article, was discussing what had happened and what was discussed on a call-in show.  It used language like “cop” and “the guy said,” along with others, during the course of the article.  The second and third articles also used language that did not make them sound professional and therefore, not credible. also had a wide variety of articles that were available for the public.  However, what I noticed about these, were that they were written in a more eloquent way, with and by credible sources. These articles range from Legislature choices and rules about driving, to articles about teen and elderly drivers, to ones about ideas for improved safety on the road, all of which was clearly organized. I did not feel that the articles were as clearly organized on the other website.

(ii) Newsletters: I did find a link on for a subscriber to sign up for their monthly newsletter.  While I did not find a similar “newsletter” link on the website, it is clear that one of the, if not THE, biggest reasons for the sight is to counsel their fellow drivers and provide helpful information and materials that will aide them.

(iii) Style: The style of both websites is fairly organized.  However, like I stated in the above paragraph, the clear aim of is to participate actively in helping spread the word and help to fellow drivers.  So the style of that website is helpful and easy to follow and find information.  The style of the other one is more of a barrage of articles and links, with no really clear purpose.

(iv) Probable Audience: The audience for the website is somewhat unclear, because of the two separate purposes that it seems to be trying to fit under one roof. It had many links to information on truck driving and other jobs associated with driving, so I would have to assume that they could be the probable audience for that website.  The probable audience for is a range.  It has materials for teachers, parents, and people of all ages who are drivers or passengers. Therefore, the audience for that website is all drivers who are open to change in the way they do things, and may or may not be seeking help to do so.

(v) Public Relations or Policy: For the website, it is stated that, “The company's objective is to disseminate information in this important area and provide a meeting of minds for millions of professionals and non-professionals alike.”

For the website I was able to find a disclaimer, “All information on this site is offered to you as a convenience for free and on an "AS IS" basis. DrDriving(TM), (Dr. Leon James or Dr. Diane Nahl) are not liable for any incidental, indirect, special, or consequential damages, including lost profits or unforeseen consequences, arising from your use of guides, recommendations, techniques, or the content available on this site or the sites for which hypertext links are included on this site, even if advised of the possibility of such damages.   Please note that all DrDriving letters are posted as is unless you explicitly request anonymity.”


(vi) Advertising:  For the website, there was a plethora of links to jobs available that are related to driving, as well as a posting of a tire advertisement at the top of the articles.  There are obvious links to ways that companies and individuals could advertise on their website.  Also, there is a whole other portion of the sight that deals with computer drivers.  Most of the advertising that is done on is for books that were written by “drdriving” and other learning materials including other books and videos.


(vii) Size/Ranking: is about midsize, meaning it has some links to articles and other areas such as job acquisition and advertising, and it also has the part of it that deals with computer drivers.  The website is rather large in comparison. It has many more links to articles, and contains more of its own information about driving psychology within it. More information comes up when searching for driving related information in search engines.


(viii) Other Sites that Link to Each: Several other sites do link to each website. I am not positive on how you find out for sure how many other sites link to and  What I did was type in both in Yahoo Search and found many other websites that link to both, although the links for did out number the other websites.


(C) Any other comments you wish to make.

The only other comment that I would like to make about these two websites, would be that overall, if I was looking on the web for information on driving issues, I would use more information and links that I got from, than from  Like I said initially, the credibility of that site over the other seems very different.


The Question I am answering is Question 4: (a) Select six student reports on driving psychology from Generation 20, as listed in the Readings Section of the Lecture Notes.  You must select any two students from Report 1, two different students  from Report 2, and two still different students from Report 3. So there will be a total of six different students, two students for each report. (b) Summarize each of the six reports. Be sure you put a link to the report you are referring to. (c) Add a General Conclusion Section in which you discuss your reactions to what they did – (i) their ideas, (ii) their method, (iii) their explanations. (d) What did they gain from doing their reports? (e) How do their ideas influence what you yourself think about these issues? (e) Any other comments you wish to make.

(b) Summarize each of the six reports. Be sure you put a link to the report you are referring to.

Report 1:

The first report that I looked at was by Shari Arakawa-Longboy, called Driving Psychology: Theory and Application.  Her report deals with traffic psychology, and what she has learned by taking that class.  She states that even though she did not enter the class thinking that she needed help with driving, she felt that the class really opened her eyes to her own issues on the road.  Because of the extensive reading and research that was required of her to give the definitions of several points in her paper, she felt that she left the class with a lot of useful knowledge that she hopes to pass on to others. After her completion of the class, Shari felt like she would now spend less time getting frustrated at other’s mistakes, and be more aware of her own.  Below is a link to her report:

The second report I looked at was one by Jenny Arakaki on Driving Psychology: Theory and Application.  She described in her report, that Driving Psychology is how to manage your thoughts and emotions while driving on the road.  She said that it is a life-long process that needs to be taught to every individual, whether they are young or old.  She went on to define some terms and concepts, as did Shari in the report I summarized above.  All in all, Jenny felt that her time in the class would help her become a more patient and courteous driver, and that it would be overall beneficial to society, so that everyone would learn that too. A link to her report is located directly below this paragraph.

Report 2:

Now I will briefly summarize two different people’s reports for the Report 2 assignment. First, I looked at, My Driving Personality Makeover Project, by Ikue Fukushima.  She described briefly about her report 1, and how the assignment applied and prefaced the report 2, because the first report gave her good background knowledge and information.  She then lead into her report 2, which primarily dealt with her diagnosis of her boyfriend’s aggressive driving.  She had him take several of the exercises that are provided in the Road Rage and Aggressive Driving book, and showed the results of each.  She analyzed his threefold self as it applied to driving, and explained why she felt that the activities were beneficial for him.  A link for this report is found below:

Next, I will summarize a report 2 written by Chris Concepcion, also entitled My Driving Personality Makeover Project.  In this report, Chris describes his experience with identifying his aggressive driving via the questionnaires in the Road Rage and Aggressive Driving book.  Chris states that he took the exercises that were best able to help him diagnose his driving problems with aggression and rage.  He posted the results within his report, and he went on to discuss what the results meant to him.  He saw that his selfish ways would only contribute to the constant problem of aggressive driving.  Chris stated that he knows bad habits are very difficult to break, but that he was on his way to improving. 

Also, he noticed that the type of music he listened to affected his overall mood when driving. Overall, he felt that his emotional intelligence was on the rise due to his self-learning on his driving style and philosophy. A link to his report can be found below:

Report 3:

Finally, I examined two still different student’s reports for the Report 3 assignment.  The first of which was that of Jesse Chang’s report entitled, My Proposal for Lifelong Education.  In it, Jesse outlines what he feels would prevent the “road rage nursery” which is something that is basically defined as the process in which a parent passes on their aggressive driving and road rage to their children at the earliest of ages…birth. 

Jesse shows several stages in which a child, depending on age, should be looked after and taken care of, while in the car.  Beginning when their children are just infants, a parent should watch what they say and what they do in front of them.  Even sighing at something that has upset them is something to omit whenever possible, because the baby can pick up on the slightest change in their parent’s mood.  When the child gets a bit older, parents can talk with them about dangerous behaviors and actions, and also about rules of the road, all this being age appropriate, of course. A link to Jesse’s report can be found below:

Next is Jeremy Kubo’s report 3, also entitled, My Proposal for Lifelong Education.  In it, Jeremy talks about similar points that Jesse did in his report 3, as he also begins his paper discussing what some of the proposals and actions that certain areas have made in order to make learning how to drive more age appropriate by implementing different steps and actions that are more age-appropriate.  While he did not break up his steps in quite the same way as Jesse did, he did outline many of the same important actions to be done by parents and other adult drivers around those who are observers (children up to elementary and middle school) and those who become the trainees behind the wheel. 

What seems to be forefront of importance in both reports, is the idea of setting a good example at all times, for even if the adults do not realize, they are being watched.  In the end, he felt that his new awareness of how societal attitudes and actions play such a huge role in teaching the future generations of drivers, that will be beneficial in his overall driving health.  A link to this report may be found below:

(C) Add a General Conclusion Section in which you discuss your reactions to what they did – (i) their ideas, (ii) their method, (iii) their explanations.

        (i) Their ideas:  I found that I agreed with all of the students who wrote reports that I discussed above.  There are such valuable lessons to be learned in this class, and the effects of which can be even more meaningful if passed on to others in my life.  Both Jeremy Kubo and Jesse Chang discussed, at length, about the importance of teaching children correctly and techniques in which to do so.  I thought they both, while stating the ideas in different ways, conveyed a valuable message about the stages in which children and young adults progress, and how at different ages, they have different needs.

(ii) Their method: I enjoyed how Ikue Fukushima would snap a rubber band around her boyfriend’s wrist when she was trying to prove her point on when he preformed an undesirable driving trait.  I found her negative reinforcement to be a creative way to get a point across, and honestly, I had to laugh when I read that portion of her report!  Also, every student’s report that I examined, seemed to show that they were honestly trying to assess their driving in a way that was truthful.  I think that, the honest effort made by everyone to acknowledge their faults is really something positive.

(iii) Their explanations: Every one, for the most part, explained their experiences and ideas in a way that I found to be interesting and thoughtful.  I saw that they really put a tremendous amount of time explaining their ideas in an eloquent way.  I especially noticed the time and thought that had to have been put into Jesse Chang’s report 3.  He had several steps just in early childhood that he separated and explained in a very clear and thought out way.

(d) What did they gain from doing their reports?

What did they gain from doing their reports?  Each and every person stated that they gained quite a lot of knowledge and understanding during the class.  I feel the way Shari did when she stated in her report 1 that she came into the class, not seeking any specific help or understanding of her driving problems.  She entered not really thinking that she had any problems when it came to driving, and her opinion really changed by the end.  I strongly feel that I was in exactly the same position she was, because I did not feel that I was a particularly aggressive driver, nor did I feel that needed any sort of help in that arena. I have really opened my eyes during this class.

(e) How do their ideas influence what you yourself think about these issues?

Their ideas, especially those of Jeremy Kubo and Jesse Chang, just re-iterate what I think about this class and what it has to offer people.  Jeremy and Jesse both explain in detail about how we should be teaching our children more beneficial driving techniques and lessons.  I strongly believe that sometimes we just do not realize how much of our actions are passed along to the future driving generations, and I am very cautious about what I do in front of young ones, now not just outside the car, but inside as well.

(e) Any other comments you wish to make.

It was interesting to read prior generations reports on what they learned.  It is always interesting, if for no other reason, than because I go from feeling alone in my feelings and assumptions, to feeling like I am in good company.


The Question I am answering is Question 7: (a) Our textbook Road Rage and Aggressive Driving has exercises in several chapters. Do the following four exercises: (i) Exercise on scenario analysis on p. 129; (ii) Exercise on self-assessment on p.134; (iii) Exercise on identifying assumptions on p. 131; and (iv) Exercise on negative vs. positive driving on p. 122. (b) What were your reactions to the exercises? (c) Discuss how these exercises help you to become more aware of yourself as a driver. (d) Do some of the exercises with another driver you know. How do they help you understand some principles of driving psychology mentioned in the book? (e) Any other comments you wish to make.

(a) Do the following four exercises: (i) Exercise on scenario analysis on p. 129; (ii) Exercise on self-assessment on p.134; (iii) Exercise on identifying assumptions on p. 131; and (iv) Exercise on negative vs. positive driving on p. 122.

        (i) Page 129: Scenario Analysis to Modify Oppositional Thinking. This exercise calls for the participant to look at several common scenarios that can, and do, occur while driving and try to find what is wrong in each statement example that fits with each scenario.  For example: In a section about obsessing about slow traffic, “at this rate, we will never get there!”  This statement is false, at some point, you will get there, but maybe not at the desired time.  In addition, if you wanted to try to avoid this, you could leave earlier, so that if there is an unforeseen holdup, you can remain calm because you have allowed more time. The patience is lost when the above statement is made, and being able to retain patience is an important aspect of driving safely.

        (ii) Page 134: Assessing Myself as a Driver.  In this exercise, you are asked to think about your driving over the past few weeks.  Then you are to make a list of your best traits, and your worst traits.  Then you must ask someone else who has driven with you to make a list of the same things about your driving.  When I did that, I found that I always waived to people who let me in, and my passenger agreed.  I also let many people into my lane, and my passenger also agreed on this for my positive traits.

However, for my negative traits, I get frustrated with people who tailgate me, or show me no courtesy while on the road.  My passenger stated that I usually drive a little fast; about 10 miles over speed limit.  She also said that I tend to speak about what the other drivers are doing wrong, although she said I only did this once to her recollection.

(iii) Page 131: Identifying Wrong Assumptions.  The participant is asked to read a letter about being arrested for a DUI, and when finished, reread each paragraph and identify the wrong assumptions this young man who wrote it makes. I found the letter to be one-sided and show the writer to either be unwilling or unable to see it from a perspective other than his own.

        (iv) Page 122: Negative Verses Positive Driving.  For this Exercise, the participant must review the contrasts between antisocial and prosocial driver orientations in the table provided.  Then you must describe the difference in each example, and show how they differ in terms of the focus.  For Example: “This traffic is impossibly slow! What’s wrong with these fools? They’re driving like nutcases!”  VS. “I’m feeling very impatient today. Everything seems to tick me off.”  The difference lies in the blame and responsibility in each statement. 

The first statement is antisocial because it speaks negatively about the other drivers, with no evidence and no blame or responsibility on the person making the statement.  In their mind, they are the only one on the road whom is right, and everyone else is wrong, just because there is frustrating traffic.  The second statement voices frustration in the situation without making silly accusations and negative statements about the other drivers, who are probably just as annoyed.  The second statement acknowledges their own impatience and does not alleviate them from blame or responsibility of the situation, nor does it place the blame on other drivers.

(b) What were your reactions to the exercises?

My reactions to these exercises were that of learning.  I thought that some of my comments that I make to myself on the road were examples of harmless venting.  I learned that there is actually a difference between positive and negative statements and therefore, my venting is not positive. As with the exercise above from page 122, I say things out of frustration that are not constructive.  They are actually making me more upset, as I tend to lay my anger for the traffic on other people, and not on myself.  For some reason, most drivers (including myself) feel like they are entitled to get where they need to go in a timely way, and other drivers are constantly coming between us and the destination. In truth, no one has any more or less right to be on the road than I do.  

(c) Discuss how these exercises help you to become more aware of yourself as a driver.

Like I stated above in my reactions, I do feel like these exercises helped me to become more aware of myself as a driver.  Like in the exercise where I was to asses myself as a driver, it opened my eyes to some of the things that I just do without even thinking twice about. My passenger called me out on my constant speeding, which I justify because I feel like I go the speed that I am comfortable with, that I can control if something were to come up unexpectedly.  Really, there are speed limits for everyone’s safety, including pedestrians, and it is not optional for people like me who need to get somewhere quickly.

Examining my driver’s threefold self, I realize that my problems do not just lie in what I say or do in the car, but what I think in the car as well.  I have identified my sensorimotor problems which are in my gestures, my cognitive problems which are in my opinions on other drivers, and my affective which are my sporadic instances of disrespect for the rules of the road.  I must work on all corners of myself in order to effectively change my driving.

(d) Do some of the exercises with another driver you know. How do they help you understand some principles of driving psychology mentioned in the book?

After I did some of the exercises with my husband, I really saw the principles of being a supportive driver being important.  He is a worse road rager than I, and just the other day, when someone was demonstrating how not to be a supportive driver to him, he retaliated.  When I saw on paper, how much he and I need to work on, and it really made me think about what I have learned this semester.  I saw my desire to change after doing these exercises with him.

(e) Any other comments you wish to make.

I do think that my husband and I could benefit from completing even more of the exercises in the book, and then making an effort to modify our driving.  We are both dangerous at times, and I think we should think about doing something about that.


Step 3: My Report on the Current Generation

1.) On April 11, 2005, Malia Tarayao gave a presentation of “A view of Global Road Accident Fatalities.”  Her three main concepts were: Under-reporting Fatalities, Fatality Forecasts, and Economic costs of Road Accidents.  She was unaware that her first concept, under-reporting fatalities, was even an issue.  Apparently, under-reporting of accidents does occur, and more so in developed countries.  She was surprised that it happened so much, and she couldn’t see why police wouldn’t be reporting these fatalities, or what they could possibly have to gain by not doing so. 

For her second concept on Fatality forecasts covered how hard it is to even predict how many traffic fatalities there will be in the future, mainly because of the many variables that affect it.  Malia was struck by how many fatalities are predicted for the year 2010…between 1 and 1.3 million.  Her final topic dealt with the economic costs of road accidents.  The costs of road accidents should be a strong deterrent for the lack of safety on the road, but it isn’t.  She found this interesting because it has been estimated that on average 1% of a countries gross national product is spent on this.

        The content of her presentation overlaps what I said in my discussion of the answers above, especially when discussing different ways that the Driving Lessons book shows us to look at the traffic safety issue.  The cost of road fatalities and incidents is astronomical, but many people are not even aware of the issue.

2.) On April 4th, 2005, Kyle Takashima gave an oral presentation on Cell Phones and safety.  First he gave a bit of a background on cell phones and when they were introduced.  The cell phone growth rate of 40% per year…and growing, and in the year 2000, there were about 80 million cell phone users.  Most of which, also drive a car, and at one time or another, use them when they are in the car.  Talking on your phone in the car may equal being more at risk for a car crash, but cell users are over and under reported.  Cells make the car a mobile office, with new capabilities that make them more and more useful to those in the car.  Many have internet capabilities and some even have fax, in addition to the usual voicemail and paging. 

Kyle said that he felt that he was not really unsafe when using his phone in the car, but that others he has seen are.  He went on to say that he rides his motorcycle a lot, and the most dangerous to him on the road is the “soccer-mom on the phone in the SUV” because they do not seem to be paying much attention, and can easily miss a motorcycle next to them.

        The content of his presentation overlaps what I was saying about safety on the road in the above questions.  Being on a cell phone is just another factor in the traffic safety plague.  Although somewhat difficult to have extremely accurate numbers, the cell can and does affect the sensorimotor action of driving, and it can be dangerous.

3.)  On March 14th, 2005, Jadine Makinano gave an oral presentation of Stress factors Experienced by female Commercial Drivers in the Transportation Industry.  Jadine seemed to have strong opinions towards what she was talking about, which makes it easier to understand what her opinions are on her information.  She discussed the impact of stress on truck drivers, on how they have to work under impossible deadlines and while having disagreements with supervisors over these impossible quotas that they must meet, if they want to keep their job. 

In addition, woman drivers must deal with the added stress of discrimination, which Jadine seemed to really be able to assimilate with, on account of her previous job conditions.  In addition, the work hours and conditions take a toll on the mental and physical health of drivers.  They are often driving while sleep deprived, stressed out about meeting deadlines, and missing families.  She expressed worry about being on the road with such sleep deprived drivers.

        This information overlaps what I said in the above questions about truck drivers working under very difficult condition, and how it is just one more aspect of the traffic safety issue that never seems to decrease or disappear.  With so many points that contribute to the problem, it becomes that much clearer that that problem is huge and complicated.  Obviously, just one solution will not help the problem, it will take many, many solutions to even make a dent in the issue.

Step 4: My Advice to Future Generations

        The best advice I can offer to future generations is to stay on top of your assignments in this class, otherwise you will definitely have some frustrating and stressful nights.  While the assignment that Dr. James gives may seem like it is not really that big of deal, when you sit down to do it, you will find that completing just a piece of it can be a several hour task.  I would also suggest finding someone in the class that you can exchange phone numbers or email addresses with, because if you need help, it will be a good shoulder to lean on. 

        The information in this class will prove valuable in your life, even if you do not chose to implement it right away.  At first I understood the driving issues put forth, but it wasn’t until later on, when I felt myself putting others in danger by my aggression, that I decided to actually try to change.  There is such a problem out in our world on traffic safety that I decided I no longer wanted to add to it.  Like I said, this decision may not come right away, but I found it to be a good one in the end.

        Lastly, if you take nothing else from this class, you will take some computer know-how with you…mostly because you are forced to learn it to pass this class.  It is frustrating at first, but Dr. James will insist you keep trying, and at some point, this light will come on in your head, and you will get it.  Then you will not understand how you did not get it before!  Computer know-how does come in handy at some point in your life, it is really inescapable.  Besides, if you really do struggle with the time-consuming projects and the computer issues, this is only a semester long class.  It will eventually end!

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