My Understanding of Driving Psychology
By Constance DeCaires
Instructions for this report are at:
I am answering Questions 1, 3, 4, 5, and 7.
The Question I am answering is Question 1.
(a) Consider Tables 1, 2, 3, and 4 in the Lecture Notes, in the Section on Driving Psychology Theory and Charts at www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy22/409a-g22-lecture-notes.htm#Charts Consult the article from which the Tables were taken. (b) Using your own words, describe the three behavioral domains and levels of a driver (nine cells). (c) Illustrate each domain with your own driving behavior skills and errors, or that of another driver you know well, or a driver in a particular movie. (d) Make up a "driving personality makeover" plan for yourself (or another driver you know well), relating specifically to negative thoughts you have about other road users. (e) Discuss the problems you anticipate in carrying out such a plan successfully. (f) Any other comments you wish to make.
(a) To view the tables being discussed in this question click here
(b) The Three Behavioral Domains and Levels of a Driver
The three behavioral domains are affective (A), cognitive(C), and sensorimotor (S).† Within these domains the affective can be seen as the feelings or emotions one experiences, whether they be hostile (ex. ďWhat the heck does that guy think heís doing!?!Ē) or supportive (ex. ďI better be safe and wait my turn to go left, instead of cutting through the street.Ē).† The cognitive domain deals with the mental processes that go on having to do with the biased (ex. ďWomen donít know how to drive.Ē) or unbiased (ex. ďThey look like theyíre is in a hurry, better let them pass.Ē) thoughts a driver might have.† The sensorimotor includes the actions that result from the affective or cognitive, such as a supportive act like slowing down to let some one in or an aggressive one like tailgating and cutting someone off.
There are also three behavioral levels that correspond with the three behavioral domains, responsibility (3), safety (2), and proficiency (1).† Responsibility includes ones virtue, ration, and fulfillment.† The level of responsibility is the last to be met, due to the fact that a person must develop within the other two levels first.† Safety consists of fairness, impartial characteristics, and driving etiquette.† The level of proficiency has to do with the expertise within the individual amongst the different domains. †Proficiency incorporates composure, awareness, and the had-eye-foot coordination required to drive a vehicle so as to keep it out of collisions.
The three behavioral domains and three behavioral levels present a matrix of nine cells.† In each cell is a combination of one behavioral domain (A, C,S) and one behavioral level (1,2,3). Within each cell are two zones that orientate skill (+) and error (-).† With two zones at each of the nine cells we end up with eighteen behavioral zones.†† Each zone is given a corresponding number.
Each zone is numbered from one to eighteen.† Zones one thru nine represent skill (+), and ten thru eighteen error (-).† Zones one, two, and three are in the first behavioral level of proficiency, affective proficiency (i), cognitive proficiency (ii), and sensorimotor proficiency (iii).† The zones of error in within the level of proficiency are numbers x (A), xi (C), and xii (S).† Within the level of safety the zones of skill are number iv (A), v (C), vi (S); and error is numbered xiii (A), xiv (C), xv (S).† At the level of responsibility the zones of skill are vii (A), viii (C), ix (S); and error occupies the last three zones of xvi (A), xvii (C), xviii (S).
(c) My Behavioral Skills and Errors within each Domain
The level of proficiency (1) has to do with the expertise within the individual behavioral domain.† Affective proficiency (A1) can be seen as being able to remain emotionally tactful, composed, and alert.† In order to demonstrate skill in this zone is following the rules and laws of driving and obeying them.† This is something that I make sure I do my best at following, being as though my mother is an enforcer of the law not only with the Honolulu police department, but also even without the handcuffs and side arm at home.† An exhibition of error can be seen within many movies, such as ďThe Fast and the FuriousĒ.† Showing no respect for the law and their enforcers, by endangering yourself and the others around you with unsafe speeding and street racing is almost the epitome of error within the level of affective proficiency
proficiency (C1) is being aware of and understanding what is happening around
you and the other drivers.† Sensorimotor
proficiency (S1) has to do with the actual hand, eye, and foot coordination
that goes into driving and staying out of collisions.† The character
Safety (2) includes a driverís ability to avoid, identify, and react appropriately to the presence of trouble.† Affective proficiency deals with trouble avoidance by driving defensively with impartiality, and not aggressively with opportunism.† I am a defensive driver, and make sure that I am aware of not only what I am doing, but also what the other drivers are doing around me.† Having the knowledge of what he other driver on the road are doing, further helps me be more capable of accomplishing what I need to do, as well as not inhibiting the others around me.† For example, if someone is trying to merge into the same lane that I am in and I am in their way, I would either speed up or slow down to give them the room needed
When it comes to examples of errors in affective safety, I see and deal with them everyday I drive to school.† I see it when someone is cutting me off or trying to merge into an opening between two cars that is dangerously small.† Also when someone is inhibiting another driver like speeding up so that another car is unable to merge in front of you, or cutting off a car coming up from behind by darting into their lane.† Aggressive drivers range from the young to the young at heart.† Aggressive driving comes in many shapes and forms; these are just some of the main ones that I experience on a daily basis.†
When I first received my license I was very arrogant and naive. Rain or shine, night or day I drove as if I was untouchable and invincible.† I didnít pay much attention to the drivers around me, mainly myself.† I drove only looking at the road in front of me, not at the road ahead.† I didnít pay attention to the condition of the road, whether it was wet or dry, bumpy or smooth.† I was more of which demonstrating my lack of skill within the zone of cognitive safety.†
But now, having had my license for going on five years now, I would say that my driving has changed in that I now could be placed within the zone of skill rather than error.† For instance, I now look at not only the road that is directly in front of me, but the road ahead as well.† I pay attention to the road, looking for trash, potholes, random debris, and whether it is wet or dry.† But its not only the road that will throw you curve ball, itís the drivers on the road as well.
Your fellow drivers are something to watch out for as well.† Being as though that you canít read their mind, it is important that you are aware of what they are doing, as well as yourself.† Because there is no documented proof of anyone that is or was telepathic, it is vital that as you are driving if a situation were to arise you would be able to react appropriately.† When I speak an appropriate reaction, Iím not only talking about the driving, but also the driver.† You must not only control your vehicle, but yourself as well.
For example, the night before I was with my boyfriend and we were returning home after having picked up our dinner.† In order to do so, we would need to turn left.† Having assessed the road and its drivers, my boyfriend cautiously drove out of the driveway and proceeded to turn left on to the road.† As we were turning a truck that was in the lane we were to turn in to, sped up.† Given that we didnít have enough time to make it into he lane before the truck reached us, we pulled into the median and was going to wait till it passed, which would have left us with a clear lane to drive into.†
But as quickly as the truck sped up, it also came to a stop right in front of us attempting to turn left into the driveway we had just come from.† So at the moment my boyfriend and I are stuck in the middle of the road, because this truck, instead of turning left before my car on the passenger side, chose to turn left in front of us on the driver side.† This choice prohibited us from pulling all the way into the median, which left the back half of my car in the road.† So at the moment we were stuck half way in and out of the median, perpendicular to the road, which was causing us to block traffic.†
We identified some trouble as that we had to turn left, and there was an on coming car in the lane that we were to turn.† So in order to avoid such trouble, instead of gunning it for the lane we had planned to pull into the median and wait until that car had passed and then merged.† But even more trouble had come about, because the on coming driver wasnít planning on passing us by, rather that it sought out a left turn of its own into the place we had just left.† How would one react to such a predicament?
A persons first instinct may be to overreact, give a scornful look, and yell a couple of obscenities.† From there, there would be an exchange of these explicative words, and maybe a few hand gestures on top of that.† Someone who would act out like this would definitely be presenting his or her error within the domain of sensorimotor safety.† Fortunately that isnít how either my boyfriend or eye reacted.† The only scornful look that had been exchanged was the one coming from the woman driving the truck that cut us off.† My boyfriend and I stayed calm, as my boyfriend maneuvered the car as to get us out of that situation safely.† Although I did feel it was rude to be cut off, and stranded in the road blocking traffic, it was brushed off as we made our way home.†
Responsibility is labeled so as to reflect the morality one should have in keeping themselves accountable for their actions, even if those actions result in the hurting or injuring of another person (affective responsibility).† This would then affect the way a person may think about their future actions, resulting in these thoughts being more pro-social rather than anti-social (cognitive responsibility).† And because of these positive dramatizations and mental health there would be pleasure and fulfillment within the act of driving rather than stress and dejection (sensorimotor responsibility).
Being held accountable for your actions is something that we all struggle with, no matter what age you are.† And the crashes and accidents that happen to include the driving of motor vehicles, is even harder to take responsibility for.† Iíve been in two accidents since Iíve gotten my license.† The first occurred I the fall of my senior year in high school.† I was hit from behind, as a result of the car that had hit me was hit from the rear by another car.† In that these-car accident I was not the one at fault.† The man who had hit the car that hit me was ultimately the person at fault.†
To portray skill at the level of affective responsibility, given these circumstances, the man that initiated the collisions would have taken full responsibility for his actions.† In the beginning this was not the case, because the man was no taking responsibility for the crashes.† In the end it wasnít his decision to make, it was up to the insurance companies, and they did hold him responsible for rear-ending the car in front of him as well as my car, which was a result of the first rear-ending.† In the end everything was paid for, I had a few neck and back injuries that I am still till this day, three years later, recovering from.
The second accident that I was in left me to be the one at fault, due to the fact that I was following the car in front of me too closely, resulting in me tapping in to his bumper at two miles an hour.† Two miles an hour may not seem to be very fast, but when I hit that car, I jolted as if I was on the bumper car ride at the carnival.† We pulled over into a nearby parking lot to assess the damage.† Neither of our cars or persons appeared to have any damage.† At the time I was a little flustered and forgot the number one rule my mom had taught, being as though if I had ever been in an accident.† I didnít call the police.†
I do remember trying to exchange information, but that didnít happen.† Reason being, which I found out later, was because some of his papers on his car werenít current.† So at the risk of being ticketed the man just wanted to go our separate ways.† My conscience was really killing, and I didnít let the man leave without my cell number.† He ended up calling later that evening complaining of his neck being sore, and I filed a police report the next day.† Sometimes I wish that I hadnít given him my number to call, but on the other hand I learned a lot from this incident.†
For example, I learned to appreciate other peoples boundaries, as well as my own on the road.† I donít invade other peoplesí space.† I respect it by giving them the allotted amount of space necessary.† For instance, when I am driving on a highway at 45 mph, instead of having one car length between me and the car in front of me, I make sure there are around four to five car lengths in between us.† I also show my respect for other peoplesí space when I am changing lanes.† I always make sure to signal for the necessary 100 feet, and check to see if it is clear, before I consider changing lanes.†
Such a thought process is an example of cognitive responsibility, and the actions that follow are also an example of sensorimotor responsibility.† Because these actions, which not only help keep my passengers and I safe, help me enjoy driving more.† Where as it once was a rushed chore, I now see driving as potential time to spend with myself, whether it is singing with the radio or even with the window down and the wind in my face.†
(d) My Driving Personality Makeover
STEP 1- Acknowledging that I have this particular negative habit. (A)
††††††††† I regret that I sometimes act out on impulse without thinking my actions all the way through.
STEP 2- Witnessing myself performing this negative habit. (W)
††††††††† I have done this most recently as I was exiting the Safeway parking lot.† I had to make a left turn on to the road, and instead of waiting for a safer opening I bolted in to the road and sped up in order to catch up with the rest of traffic.† I remember feeling as soon as I had darted into the road this feeling of regret and disgust.† Wondering why did I take such a dumb risk, which endangered myself as well as everyone around me.† I remember feeling angry with myself for doing something so selfish.†
STEP 3- Modifying this habit. (M)
††††††††† In order to change this particular behavior I plan on being more alert to my feelings and thoughts, in that I will work to find a balance between the amount of concentration I give to everyone else and myself.† And I will continue to follow up these behaviors with feelings of regret and disgust, so as to discourage them from happening any further.
(e) Anticipated Problems
I do expect some problems as I head into the modifications needed in order to change from an aggressive driver to a supportive driver.† This transition will not be easily accomplished overnight, because it has taken years for these habits to form unconsciously.† But I hope that because I am now making an absolute conscious effort to correct the maladaptive habits, they wonít take as long to break as they did to make.
The Question I am answering is Question 3.
(a) Discuss these two Web sites: drivers.com vs. drdriving.org by first describing their overall appearance and purpose. (b) What are their main differences? Be sure to consider at least these areas: (i) articles (ii) newsletters (iii) style (iv) probable audience (v) public relations or policy (vi) advertising (vii) size (vii) ranking (viii) Other sites that link to each. (c) Any other comments you wish to make.
(a) The first site drivers.com specializes in information based on driving, driving behavior, and traffic safety.† It exists in order to provide the public or private parties a resources and information regarding the latter.† Theyíre a source for articles about traffic safety around the world, as well as proving links for things you can put in your car to either make it safer or easier to drive.† The main colors that are used are grays and dark blues, which gives the site a very serious sort of overly professional type feel.† They also had links to professional driving jobs, as well as information and links about computers, and advertisements for software.
The second website drdriving.org appears at first to be much brighter, as it is outlined in a pastel orange/yellow border with a cartoon caricature of Dr. Leon James driving in a little red car, circled in wreath of white and yellow flowers.† The colors alone give it a warmer and more inviting feel to the site.† This site provides extensive knowledge about the psychology of driving, as well as an impressive list of links to other sites, a search engine, and published articles about this relatively new psychology.
Drivers.com has a lot of articles whose topics are related to driving, ††† like gas prices and road regulations.† Whereas drdriving.com articles focus on the actual behavior, feelings, and thought process going on within the mind of a driver.
Drivers.com sends out a monthly email newsletter, which appears to be free.† All you have to do is enter in your name and email address and theyíll send you an email every month with new articles and updates within the site.
Each site has their own individual style and look.† If these two sites were coffee shops drivers.com would be star bucks and drdriving.org would be the little coffee shop around the corner that you go to because when you go for coffee here you not only get a jolt of caffeine, but a few words of wisdom as well. †Drivers.com has a very slick big business approach to it, with all of its generally appealing articles.† Where drdriving.org on the other hand has a very specialized focus which lets you know what itís all about in the first sentence at the top of the page
(iv) Probable audience
I think people who would use drivers.com are those who are looking for current events related to driving in general, whether itís about gas prices, tires, safety on the roads, or new car models.† On the website it says that it provides such information for public speakers, researchers, policy makers, and the like.† I think that those are more or less its hopeful audience rather than its actual audience, I Ďm not sure.† There is something for everyone on this website which is its biggest positive as well as negative.† ďThe jack of all tradesĒ as my grandmother likes to say.
Drdriving.org is more for the researcher who is specifically looking for information about the behavioral psychology behind the wheel.† As well as for those who are looking for answers about their own driving behavior. You can obtain surveys and tests, as well as statistics and access to the man behind the curtain via email.† The information for the site is much more specified which helps the surfer determine within an instant whether or not this is what they are looking for.†
(v) Public relations or policy
Along with its information I think the PR that drivers.com does is mostly general, in its catering to anyone and everyone.† But as far as someone being able to contact anyone affiliated with that website I donít think that it would be as quick or proficient as drdriving.org.† Because I know that you can actually send an email to the people who run drdriving.org and get a sincere and well thought response it keeps its connections to the public much more personal and welcoming.
Drivers.com has a lot of advertisements ranging from jobs to books, drivers education, and software.† And Iím sure that there is more advertisement than that.† Drdriving.org really only has that one link to Amazon on it, which is for his book ďRoad Rage and Aggressive Driving.Ē
Drivers.com is much larger than drdriving.org, due to the fact that it founders have much more access to many different resources.† But whether not they have more quantity, it doesnít add to the quality of that information.† Drdriving.org holds more quality within their boundless information.†
I couldnít find either sites official ranking (if that exists).† But if I had to rank them I would hold drdriving.org above drivers.com, because to me I really hold quality over quantity.† What good is it if you have a lot of something, but donít know how to use it.†
(ix) Other sites that link to each
Drivers.com has a few links that are on its pages, one of which is a link to a truck driving school, several others for car parts that also link you to drivers.com.† Drdriving.org has a few links that take you from the website, but the only link that I can think of that would take you to the drdriving.org site are those that are on the class home pages.
The Question I am answering is Question 4
(a) Select six student reports on driving psychology from Generation 20, as listed in the Readings Section of the Lecture Notes. www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy22/409a-g22-lecture-notes.htm#g20-reports †You must select any two students from Report 1, two different students from Report 2, and two still different students from Report 3. So there will be a total of six different students, two students for each report. (b) Summarize each of the six reports. Be sure you put a link to the report you are referring to. (c) Add a General Conclusion Section in which you discuss your reactions to what they did Ė (i) their ideas, (ii) their method, (iii) their explanations. (d) What did they gain from doing their reports? (e) How do their ideas influence what you yourself think about these issues? (f) Any other comments you wish to make.
Report 1A Shari Arakawa-Longboy
Report 1B Jenny Arakaki
Report 2A Ikue Fukushima
Report 2B Chris Concepcion
Report 3A Jesse Chang
Report 3B Jeremy Kubo
Report 1A Shari Arakawa-Longboy
She then went on to discuss what traffic psychology is and how it related to her and everyone else who slid behind the wheel.† She defined the drivers three fold self before she went on to quickly talk about self-witnessing methodology, road rage, aggressive driving legislation, the driverís emotional intelligence and emotional spin cycle, lifelong driver education, theory of driving, and automatization of driving behavior.
The drivers three fold self consists of the affective (affections, emotions, motives), cognitive (understanding, reasoning, decision making), and sensorimotor (sensory input and motor output, or action).
Self-witnessing methodology is being able to truly witness yourself in every aspect as a driver, by being completely honest with one self and exploring the deeper side of your emotional reactions and motives.
Road rage is a habit of aggressive driving and is a result of losing your patience and having too much pride.† It appears in three forms verbal (yelling, searing, honking), quiet (complaining, rushing, competing), and epic (cutting someone off, chasing, fighting, and shooting).
Aggressive driving legislation is a way for states to reduce aggressive driving, by passing laws that are specifically aimed at aggressive drivers.† Main problem with this is that there is no agreed upon definition of aggressive driving, therefore how can you fight something of which you have no understanding of.
The driverís emotional intelligence is having control over ones emotions and knowing what to do when you become emotionally aroused.† It is also being able to think rationally and objectively, rather than emotionally and subjectively.
The driverís emotional spin cycle involves the way each individual reacts to daily events, which can either be in a positive manner or a negative manner.
Lifelong driver education consists of an on going learning process, which includes adapting old skills and learning new ones in every aspect.
Theory of driving consists of an external (situation) and internal (disposition) component.† Situation + Disposition = Theory of driving.
Automatization of driving behavior is formed when driving becomes a habituated behavior, such as reactions and responses learned through experience and observation.
Report 1B Jenny Arakaki
Jenny begins with †some examples from previous generations.† Such as how society is going at such a fast pace that as everyone rushes around to get where they need to be theyíre forgetting to enjoy the ride.† (How symbolic of life itself.)† Also the accordion affect, which is what occurs when one person steps on their brake which in turn creates a chain reaction which will continue for many miles along the road, whose representation further displays the fact that one persons action affects everyone and everything.
Some of the terms that she defined in which I will reiterate for you are:
The driver's threefold self is your driving personality which consists of you affective self (emotions and attitudes), cognitive self (thinking and reasoning), and sensorimotor self (perceptions and motor skills).
Self-witnessing methodology is witnessing a scenario and at the same time thinks aloud the feelings and thinking of the part that is witnessing.† This is done so as to modify yourself as a driver.
Road rage is when a driver reacts with anger toward another driver and the anger is expressed overtly and communicated to the other, causing unruly conduct or unsafe behavior.† This can come in three forms verbal, quiet, and epic.
Aggressive driving legislation is an establishment set to make rules and guidelines for drivers to follow† They take in to account such things as behavior to better define the rules so that law enforcement can punish such violators.
The driver's emotional intelligence provides an understanding of how anger occurs and how you have choices to analyze the situation.
The driver's emotional spin cycle consists of two sides a positive (which includes feelings of self-confidence and enthusiasm) and a negative (including depression and self-destructive behavior).† In which those sides are constantly turning and customizing our behavior.
Newsgroups for drivers are forums which allow various people to discuss their problems or solutions on the web to each other and obtain feedback from various readers.† (Kind of like a blog, except it specifically discusses driving.)
Lifelong driver education suggests that the instilment of good driving behavior is a continuous process.
Scofflaw is the tendency to automatically disregard certain traffic laws, regulations, and signs.† It is more or less a disregard for authority in its many forms, whether such actions are passive or aggressive.
Left Lane Bandits are hard-headed people who stay in the left lane going only a couple of miles over the speed limit.
Report 2A Ikue Fukushima
In report two each student was to go through a complete driver personality makeover.† But because Ikue did not have her permit or drivers license she decided to make over her boy friend.† She was to first assess his problem areas and did so by having him do some of the tests and activities in the road rage book.† After gathering all such information, she then analyzed it in order to understand her boyfriends three fold self.† And by understanding she can begin to work with him to modify these areas.
It was determined that her subject was to work o his cognitive and affective self. †One of the main problems was swearing, so she had him record himself as he drove and record the amount of profanities used at the end of the day.† Also while listening to his comments he would rephrase them so as to reflect emotional intelligence.† She also had him wear a rubber band around his wrist so that she could snap it if he swore or complained while he was with her, she would snap the rubber band.
In the end there were gradual improvements in all areas.† Ikue found that it was it was much more successful to engage her boyfriend in the experiment, rather than just conducting it on him.
Report 2B Chris Concepcion
Unlike Ikue, Chris had his license and conducted the experiments upon himself.† In the end of these tests he discovered that he was guilty of being passive aggressive, rushing maniac, aggressive competitor, an having verbal road rage tendencies.† He also recognized a pattern of unsupportive driving behaviors throughout the test results.† He then placed these behaviors into the correct domains of the affective, cognitive, and sensorimotor.
He then started a driving diary, and kept track of all the bad behaviors he caught himself doing by putting beads of different colors into a cup while he was driving.† Each color signified a different behavior and at the end he would record these s behaviors in his diary.† After tracking his behaviors without any implemented modifications for the first week he then decided that every time he caught himself behaving in such a manner he would remind himself how selfish his ways would only make traffic worse.†
He also tried to listen to different music to see if that too would affect his behavior.† But in the end, it wasnít the music that reduced his negative tendencies, but his conscious negative reinforcement, which resulted in, what he says, a raise of his emotional intelligence.
Report 3A Jesse Chang
An important key term discussed in this report is Quality Driving Circles (QDC), which are groups of two to ten people that meet together with the purpose of sharing and discussing their driving experiences.†
In this third report Jesse develops a proposal for a lifelong driverís education.† He has seven stages; infancy (0-24 months), toddler (2-3 years of age), early childhood (3-6 y.o.a.), middle childhood (6-12 y.o.a.), adolescence (13-18 y.o.a.), adulthood (19 y.o.a. and up), elderly.†
In the first two stages, it is assumed that, most learning about driving comes from observation.† So in order to set a good and positive example you start at the first drive home from the hospital.† The drivers should be aware of their tones of voice and keep them calm and under control.† As the child grows into their toddler years, the driver should be aware of the childís functioning emotional capabilities, and should be taught to take responsibility for ones actions by leading with example.
As they grow into their childhood years, everything being done previously should still remain incorporated; start to embark on a journey of redirection with them.† As they go thru new and different emotions, if their behavior is not appropriate, redirect it and reinforce this redirection with approval of the appropriate behaviors.
When they reach their middle childhood encourage them to verbalize the dangers that they see on the road, and help them come up with ways to prevent this type of an action or behavior.† As they become more aware of their mental and emotional processes in adolescence, they should be acquired to practice such techniques in a class especially designated for such in intermediate and high school.
During adolescence, teenagers would have to go through an extensive learning program which is identical to the material covered in Dr. Leon James PSY 409a.† This course would be incorporated in to school curriculum, and only those students who demonstrate a true understanding of the curriculum would be able to obtain their license.† In this perfect world the penalties for breaking the law by speeding or driving recklessly, would result in the revocation of that driverís license.† This would be done in order too further enforce the fact that driving and having your license to drive is a privilege not a right.
In adulthood those obtaining their license for the first time would have to go through a mandatory private version of the PSY409a driving course.† If there were any violations, the driver would have to attend a QDC (quality driving circle) for a set amount of time.† Each driver would also need to refresh their knowledge of the roads and the mind on the road with updated courses every three years.† Participating in these refresher courses would benefit them in income tax and insurance cost reduction.
An elderly personís cognitive and affective self may be well enough to drive, but a test would be needed to determine their physical capabilities.† Once a person reaches the age of 65 they would from then on be required to under go a regular yearly physical examination.† The purpose of which would be to check reflexes, sight and coordination.† The doctor would determine the individual physically fit or not.
Report 3B Jeremy Kubo
Jeremyís lifelong driver education program exists in four groups; infancy through elementary (age 0 Ė 12), intermediate (age 13 Ė 14), high school (age 15 Ė 18), and post-high school (age 18+).† In the first phase the children learn how your become aware of their feelings.† The ideas of sharing, peacefulness, and sacrifice should be instilled as they grow and interact with their peers.† It is also important that positive meanings be placed upon the task of driving, so that they learn of its possibilities of being an enjoyable experience rather than dreadful.
In the second phase the cognitive self is coming into play, where the child is becoming more able to consciously distinguish right from wrong on their own, rather than being told how it is.† While still incorporating the tools learned from affective self in the previous stage, the children are taught to engage in mock self witnessing.† For instance, how should someone react given such circumstances?† How could have this been prevented?† What would you be feeling or thinking in this type of situation?
By the time of the high school phase these teens may already be on road.† This is when the sensorimotor self would be developing.† One would also be expected to implement the information acquired along the way about the cognitive and affective self.† It is also important that each driver implement the three step improvement program, in that they should acknowledge, witness, and modify negative behaviors.
After high school drivers would still be encourage to continue implementing the three self improvement program.† There would also be QDCís made available for those who would like to participate.
(c) My concluding reaction to-
(i) their ideas
In report one I liked the new terms I learned form the definitions that the girls were giving about the aggressive driver legislation, scofflaw, and left lane bandit.† These are terms that will be incorporated indefinitely in to my vocabulary.†
In the second set of reports, in report 2A I really liked the rubber band experiment that she implemented, and also that she brought her boyfriend into the experiment, instead of just conducting it on him.† I also thought it was pretty creative how the person in report 2B tracked his behaviors with colored beads and a diary.† The methods in 2A could be used for helping to makeover a love one, where as keeping a diary is a convenient way of tracking your personal progress.
In the third report, I like how the lifelong driver education program of 3A was strict and meticulous about the steps within each stage.† Despite from being strict, the requirements werenít left without rewards such as the awarding of ones license after completing the required courses, or receiving income tax and insurance deductions for participating in QDCís.
(ii) their methods
I really visually enjoyed the reports whose information was separated and organized.† It was much easier to read those reports whose font was at least a size twelve, along with paragraphs that were not endless, but neatly arranged so that each point was made in no more than seven lines.† This made it easier to understand what the person was saying, as well as helping me determine important focus points of the report.† Overall in their method of information delivery I favored quality over quantity, because what does it matter if you have plenty of something without the knowledge to use it.
(iii) their explanations
Iím glad that we had to read two different reports within each section, as well as not being able to use the same person in any of the sections.† I fell this way because reading the different interpretations gave me a broader idea of the definitions and possible explanations of some the main ideas and terminology of this course.† I really liked the different examples that were provided, especially if they were personal experiences that enabled me to relate to it more easily.
Granted that it was time consuming to read six different reports it balanced out, because where one person was lacking in information or interpretation I would find understanding in another.† So you could really get a better grasp on what was trying to be explained and put across.
(d) What did they gain from doing this report?
In the words of
With Ikue (report 2A) the assignment helped her with her driving skills and become more aware of her bad habits.† She became more consciously aware of the ways that she was choosing to act and react.† Through the experiments Ikueís boyfriend was able to become aware of his aggressive habits, and also discovered that his philosophy in driving was very selfish.† And for this he was becoming a better and safer driver.
Chris (report 2B) was able to identify his driving style and philosophy, as well as realize how unsupportive he really is on the road.† And by identifying these traits within in himself, he an see it in others as well, which results in him not wanting to act like that since he knows what it looks like.
In report three both Jesse (report 3A) and Jeremy (report 3B) believe that by changing themselves and educating those around them is one of the first steps in eliminating the vicious learned cycle of road rage.† They have both become a calmer driver because of this education, and feel it will have the same affect on others.†
(e) How did their ideas influence what I think of these issues?
I think that a lot of the ideas presented within all of the reports were very sound.† The amount of work and effort needed in modifying the individual is extensive, but is well worth benefits it reaps.† There has to be a realistic understanding of how long of a timeline it would take to implement things, but I believe the opportunities are there and it can be done.† But it seriously has to start with ourselves.† When it comes to modifications of the individual in any way, I firmly believe that it starts when you lead by example.† And thatís where I began.
The Question I am answering is Question 5
(a) Consider Table 5 in the Lecture Notes, in the Section on Driving Psychology Theory and Charts at www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy21/409a-g21-lecture-notes.htm#Charts (b) Consult the article from which the Table was taken. (c) Copy and paste the table into your file. Now delete the examples in each cell and replace them with your own examples that you make up. (d) Discuss why driving is such a big problem in all societies and why no effective solutions have yet been found for them. (e) Discuss the solutions offered by Dr. Leon James (www.DrDriving.org). What likelihood is there that his approach will be adopted? Explain. (f) Any other comments you wish to make.
(a) This article introduces the reader to the ideas of driving psychology, and defines the terminology to be used within the charts
(b) For further understanding on the charts and information that precede and follow this chart click here
The above comes from: www.drdriving.org/articles/driving_psy.htm
(d) Discuss why driving is such a big problem in all societies and why no effective solutions have yet been found for them.
I think one of the main
reasons why driving is such a big problem is that there isnít a clear
understanding of what driving truly requires.†
It is such a complicated and risky process that we take so lightly.† In
With all this technology being neatly built-in to our cars, we only end up throwing more caution to the wind.† Which I feel is going to end up where weíre driving completely naked, so to speak.† It doesnít help that populations all over the world only continue to get larger, as each society tries to fix the problems they have, by the time they have come up with a solution it has become out dated because the population and problems have doubled.† I think weíre all thinking too small in that weíre trying to fix yesterday today, when we should be working today to fix tomorrow.
Within each given society they need to come up with an agreement on the terms of what needs to be corrected.† They need to identify the problems, agree that those are problems, and then decide o how to act upon it.† Sometimes you canít always expect the leaders to be the men and women of today.† Sometimes you need to have the boys and girls of tomorrow take the first step and lead by example.† Teach the children and the children will teach us.† It is harder to change the world when itís already started on the wrong foot, than it would be to help the next generation put the correct foot forward to begin with.
(e) Discuss the solutions offered by Dr. Leon James (www.DrDriving.org).† What likelihood is there that his approach will be adopted? Explain.
I think that that is a brilliant idea.† And the reason that I am so enthusiastic is because I know that it works, because I do this when Iím driving.† If people were able to keep the appropriate distances between cars we wouldnít have to deal with a five mile long accordion affect.† This accordion occurs when someone has to slow down in order to let some one into their lane, which causes the hundred of people behind them to apply their breaks in a domino affect.† Having just lost their momentum, it takes up at least a minute for the person who just entered the lane to get up to speed, as well as another minute for everyone behind them to catch up.†
If you think about it, if you were to have one person cut for every mile you travel, and you were traveling ten miles in traffic, you would have spent twenty extra minutes on catch up time alone.† Twenty minutes!
Despite the brilliance and obviousness of this solution, I am not sure how many people would be willing to adopt this modification.† Other than myself, I donít see anyone else keeping any space between the person in front and themselves.† It feels like everyone is driving for themselves and doesnít want to give any space for fear of it being taken advantage of.† I would hope that something so simple could be done, but the reality is that people are resistant to change.
The Question I am answering is Question 7.
(a) Our textbook Road Rage and Aggressive Driving has exercises in several chapters. Do the following four exercises: (i) Exercise on scenario analysis on p. 129; (ii) Exercise on self-assessment on p.134; (iii) Exercise on identifying assumptions on p. 131; and (iv) Exercise on negative vs. positive driving on p. 122. (b) What were your reactions to the exercises? (c) Discuss how these exercises help you to become more aware of yourself as a driver. (d) Do some of the exercises with another driver you know. How do they help you understand some principles of driving psychology mentioned in the book? (e) Any other comments you wish to make.
(a) The following exercises are located in Road Rage and Aggressive Driving.†
††††††††† Given a statement from each oppositional symptom area I will designate the subjective and objective parts of the statement, as well as identify the wrong assumptions made.† Then I will discuss the associated remedies and benefits of these remedies.
Oppositional Symptom: Obsessing about slow traffic
Statement: ďWhat a royal waste of my timeóI canít stand this waiting!Ē
††††††††† The waiting in traffic may be a waste of time, making this part of the statement true and objective.† But it is not a ďroyalĒ waste, due to the fact that there are many more worse things that you could be doing that wastes you time just as much or even more.† So it is wrong to assume that your time is wasting away in the worst possible manner.† You are also absolutely able to stand waiting in traffic, because youíre doing it at the moment.† Whether or not you want to be is a different story.
††††††††† Identify the true problems that underlie the surface ones.† Are you obsessing over slow traffic because youíre pressed for time?† If so, manage your time better so that you can have the allotted amount of time needed for your travel.† If even after this adjustment you still find yourself rushing out of habit, distract yourself by listening to calm music or just enjoying the ride along with the scenery it provides.† With these modifications you can put yourself in a more positive mindset so as that you donít always have to dread any drive.
Oppositional Symptom: Feeling combative with self righteous indignation
Statement: ďI donít deserve to be pushed around!Ē
††††††††† Your right about no one deserving to be pushed around (objective), but the error lies in that you assume that youíre the only person getting pushed around (subjective).† The truth is that everyone is getting pushed on the road.† Think about what really made you angry.† Was it the fact that what that driver did was unsafe and/or disrespectful?†
If it was because of safety, then recognize that and make sure that you are a safer driver and donít repeat such actions to anyone else.† If was because of respect, acknowledge the fact that the whole world is not going to bow to your feet.† Instead you can make up an excuse for these driversí actions or make funny animal noises to yourself.† This will distract you from overreacting, and help you stay focused on the task at hand.
Oppositional Symptom: Feeling excessively competitive
Statement: ďHow come that lane is faster than this one?Ē
††††††††† There are many factors in which can attribute to the swiftness of each lane.† For instance, the amount of cars in it, where it is located, the condition of the road, what type of driver is in it, and etc.† The lane isnít necessarily faster, it happens to be different in a manner from yours, which resulted in its speediness.† Understand that when it comes to racing with cars the only places appropriate for that are affiliated with NASCAR.† There is the first assumption in that it is a race.† It is not a race!
††††††††† Think of why youíre getting irritable.† If it is because youíre thinking of it as a race, remind yourself that it isnít.† And that wherever it is that you need to will still be there when you get there.† Remind yourself that it feels good to be civil and helpful.† By putting yourself into a calmer state of mind, youíll enable yourself to be more aware of what is going on around.† Helping to ensure a safer ride to your destination.
Oppositional Symptom: Being over critical
Statement: ďHe canít pay attention to the road if heís babbling on the phone.Ē
††††††††† Part of this statement is true, in that someone on the phone pays less attention to the road because of it.† But whether or not he is babbling is unknown.† You donít know what heís talking about, he could be a doctor talking someone through an important procedure.† You never know.† Donít worry more about what the person in front of you is doing in their car, rather than what theyíre doing with their car.†
††††††††† Remember that heís human and makes mistakes.† And recognize that you too have been guilty of driving and talking.† And if its really bothering you, you can always maneuver away from that car.† Spending all that time acknowledging someone elseís distraction turned out to be distracting you.† Handle the problem appropriately with the given suggestions and refocus your attention o n the road.
Oppositional Symptom: Love of risk taking
Statement: ďI like to go fast, but Iím careful.Ē
††††††††† True, you like to go fast (objective).† And you think youíre careful while youíre doing it (subjective).† But is it really safe when you ever speed?† No, thatís why speeding is against the law!† Speeding not only gets you into trouble, but you can also seriously injure yourself.† Understand that the set speed limits are give to keep you and everyone else safe. So technically even if you think youíre being careful when youíre speeding, youíre really not.
††††††††† Acknowledge that the limits that are set are done so as to keep you safe.† Think about how you would feel if you did something that hurt someone.† Or how your loved ones would feel if something terrible ever happen to you.† When you feel yourself feeling the urges to put the petal to the metal, remember that the choices you make affect everyone around you.†
My Best Driving Traits According to Myself
1. I have good spacing between the car in front of me and myself.
2. I use my turn signal.
3. I let people merge or turn left.
4. I show my appreciation.
5. I come to a complete stop where and when necessary
My Worst Driving Traits According to Myself
2. Blind spot
3. Make biased comments
4. I study while Iím driving.
5. I donít wear my seat belt.
My Best Driving Traits According to My Passenger
1. excellent reaction time
2. smooth driving
3. good at anticipating things that happen
4. always use my turn signal
My Worst Driving Traits According to My Passenger
1. I hunch over the wheel.
2. I am tense when I drive.
3. I hate stupid drivers.
4. I voice sarcastic comments.
My Best Driving Traits According to My Passenger
1. I am a smooth driver, no jerking.
2. I use my blinkers.
3. I donít race any other cars
My Worst Driving Traits According to My Passenger
1. I do too quick of a head check.
2. I yell obnoxious comments about other drivers.
3. I fool around with the radio, which makes me loose eye contact with the road.
††††††††† One of the first incorrect assumptions he makes is that because he was not blocking traffic by parking off to the side instead of in a designated parking spot that he wasnít in the way of any other drivers.† And because everyone else was just going around him for the past half of an hour, that he was in no way hindering the path of any other driver.† Also when approached by the safety officer he neglected to acknowledge his position or authority, and decided to be rude and disrespectful by honking in return and later leaving his car to verbally confront the officer.† He also thinks that because he only drove his car a few feet and not a few miles it isnít considered driving under the influence.
ďIím angry, scared, outraged!† How can they do this to me?Ē
ďI feel angry, scared, and outraged when I think about what could have happened.Ē
††††††††† In the first statement there is no display of any responsibility assumption.† The person is blaming everyone else for their feelings, which says that they have no control over how he or she may feel.† This displayed loss of control can be very maladaptive in that it could promote this type of thought process to result in their actions.† In the second statement there is an ownership over their feelings, as well as an acknowledgement of the things that are triggering such feelings.
Realizing that anger is something that we choose versus giving into impulse.
ďThey make me so mad when they do that!Ē
ďI make myself so mad when they do that.Ē
††††††††† The first statement is another example of a lack of ownership over ones feelings, in that there is the blaming of someone else for the way that person chose to feel in response.† In the second statement there is an acknowledgement on how that person chose to respond to such actions with that feeling.† Giving away such control over yourself to something or someone else can be very dangerous when it comes to other times that may arrive where decisions need to be made.
Being concerned about consequences versus giving into impulse
ďI just want to give that driver a piece of my mind!† I just want him to know how I feel!Ē
ďIf I respond to this provocation, I lose control over the situation.† Itís not worth it.Ē
In the first statement the there is a need for retaliation for the respect lost from whatever incident that occurred.† With also a disregard for the consequences to follow if one carries out such negative behavior.† In the second there is an acknowledgement of their feeling and an awareness of the destination of the emotionally charged path one could choose to take.† Considering their options, they make a conscious choice to not head down such a path.
ďTheyíd better stay out of my wayóIím in no mood to put up with them! Out of the way folks!Ē
ďI wish there was no traffic, but itís not up to me.† These people have to get to their destinations too.Ē
In the first statement there is a total disregards for the needs of the other drivers.† The only needs that this driver is aware of is his or her own.† In the following statement youíre able to see not only the acknowledgement of the other drivers, but an awareness of their needs as well.† With this awareness come an appreciation and respect of those needs.
Accepting traffic as collective teamwork versus seeing it as individual competition
ďDriving is about getting ahead.† I get a jolt out of beating a red light or finding the fast lane.† Itís me versus everyone else.Ē
ďI try to keep pace with the traffic, realizing that my movements can slow others downólike switching lanes to get ahead.Ē
In the first statement the ideology present is total egocentrism.† The only people running through their mind is me, myself, and I.† In basketball weíd call this person a ball hog.† Their thoughts, feelings, and actions are totally unsupportive as a result of this self-centeredness.† In the next statement there is an attentiveness to needs of the other drivers.† Such a thought reflects a supportive cognitive self, which is probably seen in their feelings and actions as well.
Recognizing the diversity of driver and their needs and styles versus blaming them for what they choose to do
ďHow can she be so stupid?† Sheís talking on the phone instead of paying attention to the road!Ē
ďI need to be careful around drivers using handheld cellular phones, since they might be distracted.Ē
In the first statement there is an assumption of the other persons capabilities, in that they a very low.† They assume that the person on the phone does not have the capacity to multi-task.† In the second statement there is a recognizing of the other drivers choice to talk on the phone.† Which is then followed by a decision to respect such a choice by being more aware of their own driving.
ďCome on, buddy, speed up or Iíll be on your tail!† Go, go!† Whatís wrong with you?† Thereís no one ahead!Ē
ďThis driver is going slower than Iíd like.† Now I can practice the art of patience and respect for the next few minutes.Ē
In the first statement you can see the choice that person makes to become impatient and irritated, as well as the premeditated unsupportive actions to follow.† In the following statement, the driver recognizes their situation and adapts to it rather than trying to force the situation to adapt to him/her.
Learning to inhibit the impulse to criticize by developing a sense of humor versus giving in to impulse
ďI canít stand all these bozos on the road!† They slow down when they should speed up!† They gawk, they crawl; anything but drive!Ē
ďIím angry.† Iím mad.† Therefore Iíll act calm.† Iíll smile and not compete.† Already I feel better.† Be my guest; enter ahead.Ē
In the first statement, the driver criticizes hi fellow neighbors of the road for the flaws within driving styles and techniques.† It almost seems as though that they donít realize that no one is perfect, not even them.† In the second statement the driver acknowledges their feeling, chooses not to act on them, but instead stay calm.† And decided to work with the other drivers not against them.
Taking driving seriously by becoming aware of mistakes and correcting them versus being uncritical of self
ďIím an excellent driver; assertive and competent, with a clean accident record and hardly any tickets.í
ďI monitor myself as a driver and keep a driving log of my mistakes.† I think itís important to include thoughts and feelings, not just the overt.Ē
In the first statement the driver unrealistically sound in their opinion of the driving.† By not acknowledging any of their flaws, they just as well closed of their mind and learning capacity to new skills or points of views.† Theyíre also unaware of the responsibility fused with driving.† In the following statement the driver is constantly observant of their driving.† They acknowledge their mistakes, as well as how the affective and cognitive play a role in their decisions.
(b) Reactions to Exercises
I really liked the exercises, because through them was able to obtain a better understanding of the power held within our thoughts and feelings.† They were kind of confusing at first, but I was able to get the hang of it faster when there was an example present.† I also learned about the many incorrect assumptions a driver can make about themselves in certain situations.† I also feel that I was able to correctly identify my weaknesses as a driver, because when I spoke with my passengers they gave me the same answers that I gave myself.
(c) How these exercises help me become a more aware of myself as a driver
Because I was able to successfully identify some of my driving weaknesses, I can better prepare myself to witness and modify them.† I am also now more conscious about the roles thoughts and feelings play in behavior.† And understanding how the three are intertwined and constantly working together will help me make the appropriate modifications to the needed area.
(d) Do some of the exercises with another driver you know.† How do they help you understand some principles of driving psychology mentioned in the book?
In talking some of these exercises through with my family I was obtain a fuller understanding of the ideas from the book being expressed through the exercises.† I needed to be able to explain the concepts to my family in a manner that they would understand.† So I had to get creative in the way that I would associate things in order to help them grasp it more easily, so as to keep them motivated to continue working with me on these exercises.†
I had to really engage them and bring them into the material, instead of just lecturing to them.† By helping them discover the meanings to these concepts, I inadvertently increased my understanding as well as theirs.† I think that if you really want to understand something, you should try to teach it, because it forces you to have a genuine understanding.
My Current Generation
On the 24th of January Dorcas K. Cashman gave a presented information regarding pages 46-57 in the book titled Road Rage and Aggressive Driving.† The three main topics of discussion were the influences of television and video games, common occasions for expressing hostility and aggression on highways and streets, and the profile of the aggressive driver.
She first discusses how our culture condones the way we express anger and promotes it.† And our sensitivity to this type of cruelty is reducing from the constant exposure to it.† Children watch theses aggressive and bullying behaviors and then act them out on each other.† The graphic nature and content of our video games are much more intense, with the more blood and carnage the better.† These interest rate highest within the demographic of males 18-25, which also happens to be the same demographic with the highest number of traffic fatalities.
There are fifteen different aspects of traffic which are known to be triggers of stress.† They are immobility, restriction, regulation, lack of personal control, being put in danger, territoriality, diversity, multitasking, denial, negativity, self serving bias, venting, unpredictability, isolation, and emotional changes emotional changes.† I know that one of my main triggers is being put into danger.† One thing common in all these stressors is anger.
The average profile of an aggressive driver is a male under the age of twenty-six.† He has a type A personality, as well as displaced anger or projected rage.† Is known to be passive-aggressive, and display that thru his Jekyll and Hyde personas.† I find this information frightening because my boyfriend is within this age group and despite how well you think you now someone, you never really know who they are until you hide in their backseat while theyíre driving.
I feel that this presentation can really be put in to perspective in that it agrees with the theory of driving, which is disposition plus situation equals theory of driving.† Our driving opinion begins forming as we are exposed to whatís around us in movies, video games, and our peers.† This opinion becomes an echo of our disposition.† Given a situation and the stressors it provides, when we put it together with out disposition, we create our theory of driving.
On the 28th of February Amy Beeler presented information regarding pages 151-167 in the book titled Road Rage and Aggressive Driving.† The three topics she discussed were road rage nursery, teaching a new generation, and children against road rage.
A road rage nursery can be seen as the backseat of the mini-van that every parent carts their children in.† Itís based on the idea of RR being a tradition that is passed down from generation to generation.† As such behavior displayed by the parents is seen and mimicked by their children.† Monkey see, monkey do.† For the decade and a half before they get behind the wheel, the values displayed before them by their parents is carefully studied and reproduced when it comes to their turn to take the wheel.
In teaching a new generation, focus needs to be put on how children learn to interact with drivers on the road while theyíre still very young passengers.† Itís much easier to begin a good habit than to break an old one.† We need to help them develop their emotional intelligence by displaying ours and rewarding theirs.† Children are always watching and learning, which leaves me to believe that maybe it is us who should be on our best behavior.
Children against road rage (CARR) is an organization that was founded in 1997 which started as a workbook for children, which was later transformed in to an interactive website that now collects and promotes a driving psychology curriculum for kids.† The site is filled with activities for parents and teachers to help their children under stand passenger awareness, supportive driving attitudes and concepts, and etc.†
This helps further validate on the ideas of improving tomorrow today, instead of just worrying about yesterday today.† If weíre to make a difference, I strongly believe that we have to start earlier.† Learn the correct habits, so as to eliminate the difficult task of breaking a bad habit to learn a new.† We can to work smarter, and not harder if we donít have to.†
Also on the 28th of February Kyle Takeshima presented information regarding reference one.† His three topics of discussion were movies and cartoons, commercials/advertisement, and media/video games.
In his first topic, movies and cartoons, he discussed movies for children not only contain reckless driving, but intentions of hurting others with their vehicles, for example 101 Dalmatians, Toy Story, and Clueless.† There also films which encourage speeding and exhibit dangerous driving stunts, such as The Fast and the Furious and Biker Boyz.† We can find reckless and crazy driving in cartoons on television like The Simpsons and Batman.
In commercials and advertisements you will almost always see the care that is being advertised speeding and maneuvering in and out of winding turns.† Even if the commercial isnít selling a car you would see that for tire, oil, or even soda commercials.† Advertisements with speed insinuate that that is a desired form of power, and it is, but the thing that the companies forget to include is the responsibility that comes with such power.
Within the video that the children are playing today, they are teaching themselves how to drive, as well as learning the idea of actions without consequence.† Games in this category are Grand Theft Auto and Need for speed Underground, just to name a few.† These games can be fun forms of entertainment, but can be harmful if there isnít any reinforcement about how the reality of the game is completely the opposite of that in real life.
I think that this helps emphasize the point that the learning process is a long on going thing, and that it doesnít stop when your kids jump out of the min van when you get home.† There needs to be constant reinforcement of the skills and behaviors that one hope to learn and acquire.† Its not easy, but sure is better off in the long run.†
Advice for the Future
My advice for all of those brave souls to wander in to these classes is to make sure you stay on top of your assignments.† There is a lot of information thatís going to be thrown at you, and by now Iím sure youíve figured out that itís rather challenging.† But stick with it, because in the end youíll learn more about yourself in this driving class than you did your 5 years in high school.† Donít tease I know people who were in high school for five years.† (LOL).† The best way to get your work done is to set a goal and plant yourself down in front of the computer until you get it done.† Thatís what I did, and it seemed to work for me.†
And donít be afraid to ask questions.† Ask the professor, ask your classmates, ask anyone and everyone.† Try to stay positive.† For example if youíre the last to complete your report, you can always look at some one elseís to better understand what needs to be done.† Or if youíre the first one done, donít stress if you didnít have anything to compare it to, because chances are everyone else is going to copy yours which will make you look like the genius.†
So stay positive and keep your sense of humor.† And if you donít have much of a sense of humor, develop one quick, because itís much easier to going through life with the ability to laugh at yourself.
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