Report 2:

My Understanding of Driving Psychology

By Leigh-Taina Look

Instructions for this report are at:

www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy24/409a-g24-report2.htm

I am answering questions 1, 3, 4, 5, and 7

 

 

The Question I am answering is Question 1:

 

(a) Give a brief review of our two textbooks: Road Rage and Aggressive Driving (James and Nahl), and Driving Lessons: Exploring Systems That Make Traffic Safer (Peter Rothe, Editor).

 

(b) Select Chapter 8 on Supportive Driving (by James and Nahl) in the Road Rage book and Chapter 14 on Driving Skills (by Lawrence Lonero) in the Driving Lessons book.  Summarize their content.  Be sure to refer to the author’s name(s).

 

(c) Discuss in what way these ideas can help solve society’s driving problems.  Be specific: what are the main problems and how can particular ideas in these chapters help solve those problems.

 

(d) Describe any resistance you experience regarding this orientation, including

 

            (i) the idea that how you drive is a moral issue of human rights

            (ii) the idea of lifelong driver education and the idea of mandatory participation in QDC support groups

 

(e) Describe the reaction of friends when you tell them about driving personality makeovers.

 

ANSWERS:

 

(a) Give a brief review of our two textbooks: Road Rage and Aggressive Driving (James and Nahl), and Driving Lessons: Exploring Systems That Make Traffic Safer (Peter Rothe, Editor).

 

Road Rage and Aggressive Driving: Steering Clear of Highway Warfare

By Dr. Leon James and Dr. Diane Nahl

 

            Road Rage and Aggressive Driving: Steering Clear of Highway Warfare is an excellent book that gives great examples, statistics, and knowledge about today’s road rage problems.  This book includes many stories and personal accounts which help the reader understand certain situations and the solutions to them.  This book also has many checklists and evaluations to help the reader determine his or her weaknesses and strengths as a driver and a way to correct or enhance those strengths and weaknesses.  Dr. Leon James and Dr. Diane Nahl show great understanding on the subject of road rage and offer many great solutions to help reduce traffic incidents today.

 

            Road Rage and Aggressive Driving: Steering Clear of Highway Warfare is divided into three parts: 1) The Conflict Mentality, 2) Driving Psychology, and 3) The Future of Driving.  Under these three parts are many subheadings where Dr. James and Dr. Nahl expand on the types of road rage, the causes of road rage, exercises to diagnose road rage, and what to do to reduce or prevent road rage.  Not only does this book target everyday drivers, it also has information to help soon to become drivers and even our younger children.

 

            The first part of the book, The Conflict Mentality, focuses on road rage itself.  The beginning of the book mentions the hype of media and even different spectrums of cultural expectations when it comes to driving.  The book then goes on to giving detail on aggressive driving and how it can be influenced and how it can be missed.  Aggressive driving is a general term for many types of driving such as road rage, defensive driving, driving impaired, and even rushing while driving.  This first part of the book helps break down these categories of aggressive driving and helps to explain them with examples of real life stories.

 

            The second part of the book, Driving Psychology, is a very important part of the book.  Dr. James and Dr. Nahl introduce this term to help drivers realize that there is more to driving than getting from one place to another.  Driving psychology includes a person’s emotional intelligence and three-fold self.  The three-fold self includes the affective self, the cognitive self, and the sensorimotor self.  Our affective self includes our feelings, emotions, attitudes, and values.  Our cognitive self includes our thoughts, judgments, and knowledge.  Our sensorimotor self includes our vision, motor reactions, fatigue, stress, and pain.  This part of the book also suggests ways to improve our driving such as the “Three-Step Driver Self-Improvement Program.”  This program is also known as the AWM program and it stands for Acknowledging you need a better understanding of the road rage syndrome, Witnessing you driving weaknesses, and Modifying your behavior.

 

            The third part of the book, The Future of Driving, gives information on what is being done to reduce aggressive driving such as police initiatives, aggressive driving bills, traffic enforcement education, traffic calming, electronic traffic surveillance, speed trap registries around the world, and citizen activism.  This part of the book also talks about electronics such as car phones, mobile computing, and intelligent transportation systems that are used while driving.  The book talks about how dangerous driving can be while using these items unless a person is trained to use them while driving.

 

Driving Lessons: Exploring Systems That Make Traffic Safer

Edited By J. Peter Rothe

 

            Driving Lessons: Exploring Systems That Make Traffic Safer breaks down some major systems that are involved in driving.  What impressed me the most is that this book is compiled of different essays written by different people.  This gives you a look at the different perspectives people have on driving.  It also widens the variety of interests and topics in “driving psychology” that we would otherwise not think of.  I appreciate Rothe’s book because I felt like I gained the expertise of not just one author, but many.

 

            This book is also broken up into three parts: 1) Personal Sub-Systems, 2) Institutional Sub-Systems, and 3) Technical Sub-Systems.  As you can see the systems that Rothe speaks about are not necessarily “mechanical,” Rothe is referring to driving as an organization of systems and his three sub-systems being a part of that.  Each of Rothe’s sub-systems help recognize driving weaknesses and also awareness of what needs to be corrected.

 

            The first section of this book, Personal Sub-Systems, is about the resources a driver must have in order to operate a vehicle comfortably and safely.  In the personal sub-system are three more sub-systems: 1) The Health Sub-System, 2) The Social Sub-System, and 3) The Cultural Sub-System.  These other systems are what help and sometimes distract the skills of drivers.

 

            The second section of this book, Institutional Sub-Systems, is about organizations that help organize people towards goals.  These include the government, the courts, the media, and even schools.  Under this sub-system are other sub-systems such as 1) The Economic Sub-system, 2) The Legal Sub-System, 3) The Media Sub-System, and 4) The Education Sub-System. 

 

            The third section of this book, Technical Sub-Systems, is about technology and its effects on driving.  This includes integrated systems to help reduce traffic incidents or devices and/or systems to help reduce speeding and speeders.  Examples of this are cameras to catch speeders or even unique road designs to slow down traffic.  This chapter also talks about electronic devices such as cell phones that could be distractions if not used properly while driving.

 

(b) Select Chapter 8 on Supportive Driving (by James and Nahl) in the Road Rage book and Chapter 14 on Driving Skills (by Lawrence Lonero) in the Driving Lessons book.  Summarize their content.  Be sure to refer to the author’s name(s).

 

Chapter 8: Supportive Driving

By Dr. Leon James and Dr. Diane Nahl

 

            Supportive driving includes many characteristics of driving and of being a passenger.  The ultimate benefit of supportive driving is safety.  Supportive driving helps contain road rage, reduce stress, boosts the immune system, fosters community spirit, protects from emotional or physical injury, and it protects from financial liability.  One way to practice supportive driving is to use motorist-to-motorist communication.  Dr. James and Dr. Nahl use hand motions and certain driving signals to explain motorist-to-motorist communication.  For example, to apologize for something you give the peace sign or to warn a driver you flash your headlights.  Another sign that most people are familiar with is the “Thank You” or “I Understand” sign which is just a simple wave or “thumbs-up” sign. 

 

            Supportive driving can be other things like allowing someone into your lane or allowing someone to pass you.  Controlling yourself and letting other drivers do what they want while you do what you want is a way to train yourself to become a supportive driver.  Being aware of your fellow drivers and making safe driving choices is what constitutes supportive driving. 

 

            There are three levels of driving which characterize drivers.  The first level is the oppositional driving philosophy.  This involves disrespect on highways, intolerance of other drivers, rebelling against authorities, and feeling alienated.  The second level is the defensive driving philosophy.  This involves treating drivers all the same, having a competitive attitude, feeling dissatisfied and stressed, and being vulnerable to anger.  The third level is the supportive driving philosophy.  This includes tolerance of pluralism, accommodation to diversity, shrinking one’s emotional territory, and having a supportive attitude toward other drivers.

 

            The last part of this chapter includes exercises and checklists to help people practice supportive driving.  There is also a section on road rage against your passengers which is very important to learn about.  Many people don’t realize that they are very hostile to their passengers.  Most passengers don’t want to say anything in fear of the reaction of the driver, so they end up holding it in and enduring their rides.  To practice supportive driving, the driver must also respect his or her passenger’s feelings.  Being aware of their feelings and driving in a manner that makes them comfortable is usually a safer form of driving anyway.  There are also some exercises and checklists in this chapter which help fight road rage against passengers.

 

Chapter 14: Driver Skill – Performance and Behavior

By Lawrence P. Lonero

 

            We think of driver skill as just one thing, but Lawrence Lonero breaks down driver skill into many things.  He defines skill as “a learned ability to perform some task effectively and efficiently.”  Lawrence plainly states in this chapter that driving is a skill.  It has both continuous skills and discontinuous skills.  With practice, these skills become automatic like making a car go, keeping it between the lines, and stopping before hitting anything.  But it’s the smooth integration of control skills that is harder to master.

 

Lonero then goes on to explain the basic human capacities that underlie driving skill.  The first aspect of basic human capacity is human information-processing capacities.  It has fundamental limitations that may be exceeded within the range of predictable operational demands.  The second aspect of basic human capacity is that basic sensory, mental, and psycho-physical capacities vary greatly between individuals and within the same individual at different times (Lonero 213).  This supports the idea that driver failure can be due to an overwhelming amount of pressure from driving.

 

            Driving efficiently requires the performance of many driver tasks.  In the book it stated that there is no recent model of these tasks except for the one made by James McKnight and included 1,500 tasks.  Lonero suggested a way of finding out what parts of the driver’s skill is more critical by investigating differences between groups with different crash risks.  By examining incidents, specialists can create a list of tasks required for safe driving in certain areas.  For the young driver age group, experts analyzed data and came to the conclusion that most accidents were speed related, had a loss of control, or occurred in the night. 

 

            Lonero also made a list of driver skill categories which included: knowledge, attention, detection, perception, evaluation, decision, motor skill, imagination, motivation, and responsibility.  These skills represent sensory, mental, and psychomotor functions.

 

(c) Discuss in what way these ideas can help solve society’s driving problems.  Be specific: what are the main problems and how can particular ideas in these chapters help solve those problems.

 

            These two chapters are very different but are very useful to help solve the problem of traffic incidents.  The main problem of drivers today is that they are no aware of driving psychology or the affects of aggressive driving on themselves or other people.  In fact, most of our society practices oppositional driving or defensive driving.  We are not so much concerned about the well being of ourselves or other people, but rather the well being of our egos and pride.  Dr. James and Dr. Nahl’s chapter on supportive driving is a very good lesson for oppositional and defensive drivers so that they can realize their mistakes and try to intervene in their own aggressive behaviors.  Dr. James and Dr. Nahl’s motorist-to-motorist section can also help people learn certain signals and gestures to practice supportive driving and also to minimize confrontations. 

 

            Chapter 14 in Driving Lessons is a good reading to learn about driver skill.  Most people don’t think of driving as a skill and most don’t feel that there is much skill to driving.  For this reason, many people don’t do much to try to perfect their driving or better it.  They just drive the way they want to.  By reading this chapter, a person can learn about the different abilities it takes to operate a vehicle safely and comfortably.  Not only can a person learn about driving skills from this chapter, but he or she can also learn about our basic human capacities when it comes to driving.  This makes a person aware of his or her own capacity to handle some driving skills and from their work on improving them.

 

(d) Describe any resistance you experience regarding this orientation, including

 

            (i) the idea that how you drive is a moral issue of human rights

            (ii) the idea of lifelong driver education and the idea of mandatory participation in QDC support groups

 

            I think that any person would initially put up resistance to change themselves or the way they act.  Most people resist changing when it comes to driving because they don’t think they are doing anything wrong.  Most people look at the positive things about them, not the negative.  If a person is told that they are not a good driver, he or she would probably become very defensive and upset.  This is what people think when they are asked to change something about themselves.

 

(i) the idea that how you drive is a moral issue of human rights

 

            A lot of people on the road today are very egotistic and believe that they are right and everyone else is wrong.  Hardly ever will you encounter a person at a traffic accident boasting about his or her mistake.  People in accidents usually try to put the blame on somebody else or something else.  Unfortunately, a lot of traffic incidents are a violation of morality.  People speed and think its okay; others drink and jump behind a wheel.  But what people forget is that they are not only endangering themselves, they are also endangering everyone else who drives around them.  This is a violation of human rights for those drivers who are being safe and careful. 

 

(ii) the idea of lifelong driver education and the idea of mandatory participation in QDC support groups

 

            I believe that lifelong driver education is a very good curriculum that should be put into the education system today.  I highly doubt that there would be any resistance to this program by parents since they want their children to learn good values while in school.  I do believe that there will be some type of resistance and it would come from the people in charge of funding in the department of education.  I’m afraid that administrators will feel that the program is expendable and refuse to fund it.  But it would be nice for our children to start learning to control their feeling and emotions at a young age so that they will be more in control as drivers when they grow up.

 

            I absolutely believe that there would be a great amount of resistance to the idea of mandatory participation in QDC support groups.  I related QDC support groups to AA support groups or other drug support groups.  I do believe that aggressive driving is a problem with society today and I do believe that QDC support groups help, but I’m afraid other people won’t.  Since QDC support groups are voluntary today, we hardly see them around in smaller areas.  I don’t believe participation in QDC support groups should be mandatory for everyone, only repeat offenders of traffic violations.

 

(e) Describe the reaction of friends when you tell them about driving personality makeovers.

 

            A lot of my girl friends weren’t too resistant to the idea of a driving personality makeover, but most of my guy friends were totally against it.  My guy friends all thought they were good drivers and they all openly admitted to girls being bad drivers.  Of course my girl friends opposed them, but I feel that they were more open to the makeover because they didn’t have much to change.  Most of my girl friends are very cautious drivers and haven’t been in too many accidents.  My guy friends have been in many accidents or unreported incidents and engage in a lot of dangerous driving habits.  This is why I feel they resisted so much to the makeover; they didn’t want to admit to their bad driving habits because there would have been so much for them to change.  I wasn’t able to persuade any of my guy friends to do a makeover, but I did get one of my girl friend to do it.  Today she admits to being a better and safer driver.

 

 The Question I am answering is Question 3:

 

(a) Select three student reports at www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/499s2003/newsgroups.  Be sure you put a link to the report you are quoting from.  Summarize what the three students were trying to do, what methods they used, and what they concluded.

 

(b) Discuss your reactions to what they did – their ideas, their method, and their explanations.  What did they gain from doing their reports?  How do their ideas influence what you yourself think about these issues?

 

(c) Now go to some driving newsgroups by Googling the phrase driving newsgroups.  See if you can corroborate the conclusions of the student reports which were done several years ago.  Is this still going on the same way?

 

ANSWERS:

 

(a) Select three student reports at www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/499s2003/newsgroups.  Be sure you put a link to the report you are quoting from.  Summarize what the three students were trying to do, what methods they used, and what they concluded.

 

Attitudes Driving Newsgroups: On Road Rage

By Mark Jenkins

http://www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/499s2003/newsgroups/newgroups71.html#news1

 

            This person’s report consisted of nine articles of various driving experiences and his reaction, advice, or thoughts of each of the articles.  The articles were relatively short and so were his thoughts after each article.  It seemed that this student gave advice to the articles that ended in a question and reacted to those who just told a story.  I also noticed that he sometimes related some of the stories to himself.  I was a little confused on what his method was with this project because sometimes he would give advice and sometimes he would just summarize an article.  I did notice that he was using terms and concepts from class material and that he was educated about some driving rules or laws.

 

Newsgroups for Drivers: The Psychology of Newgroups

By David Altenburg

http://www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/499s2003/newsgroups/newsgroups1.html#1

 

            This person’s report consisted of 10 articles and his reaction to them.  I liked this guys style of writing because he sounded like he was very interested in his articles and that he understood what the writer was trying to say.  He didn’t write his comments like an advice column but rather incorporated in his reaction to the article.  He also tried to comment on the personality of the writer by the content of the article.  This style of writing really convinced me that he was looking deeper into his articles instead of just understanding the obvious problem. 

 

My Experience with Newsgroups: The Diversity of People’s Thinking

By Janice Kamm

 http://www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/499s2003/newsgroups/newsgroup72.html

 

            This person’s report consisted of four articles and her reactions and suggestions to them.  Her style of writing was more detailed when it came to relating stories to her own life experiences.  What I liked most about her style of writing is how she also incorporated some type of solution to the problem.  She put her own thought into each of her reactions which made her report more personable.  I also enjoyed how she agreed or disagreed with a certain article because it showed that she was not afraid to express her thoughts and emotions too.

 

(b) Discuss your reactions to what they did – their ideas, their method, and their explanations.  What did they gain from doing their reports?  How do their ideas influence what you yourself think about these issues?

 

            I thought that these news reports were very interesting.  It was almost like theses students got a hands on experience with drivers from all over the place.  I liked how each student had a specific topic (which was reflected in their title) that they focused on when choosing their articles.  Some of the students wrote shorter responses with more articles and some students had longer responses with fewer articles.  I personally didn’t prefer one over the other, but I did enjoy reading the array of article in the reports.

 

            Most of the students used the same format for their projects, but there were a few that wrote a quick introduction explaining their reason for the project.  I enjoyed reading these introductions because it told a little about the student.  When I got a sense of the student’s purpose for the project, I felt it was easier to understand their responses.  It was almost like getting to know them.  Their types of explanations were different too.  Some preferred giving advice, some like to just react to the article, some tried to explain why the author of the article was feeling the way he or she was feeling, and some even like relating the article to their own experiences.

           

            I think these students gained a lot from doing these reports because they got to know how other people felt about traffic incidents and aggressive driving.  Since the articles were pulled from all over the place, the students got to learn about traffic laws and incidents from other places besides Hawaii.  The articles the responded too also confirmed everything they learned and read in class.  I felt that the three reports I read were very well done and thought out.  I pretty much agreed with all of their responses and I felt that reading their responses confirmed everything I learned in class this semester.

 

 (c) Now go to some driving newsgroups by Googling the phrase driving newsgroups.  See if you can corroborate the conclusions of the student reports which were done several years ago.  Is this still going on the same way?

 

            After reading some article and their responses to them, I feel that things are still going on the same way.  Some articles are long and some are very short (in forms of questions), and some have two responses while others have 20.  It is amazing how many people are interested in other people’s traffic stories.  The student reports from previous generations are very similar to the other news group postings I read online.  In fact, all of the different types of methods the students used were all used in the news groups too.  Some news groups were very informing with a whole bunch of information about driving laws and websites were you can access driving laws and instructions.  I wouldn’t expect the student reports to include any of that type of information, but the responses they gave were adequate enough.  Most of the writers want feedback from other people to confirm or disapprove of their driving feelings or decisions.  What I didn’t see too much from the online newsgroups was a judgment of character from the responders.  I think I read some something like this in a student report, but I’m pretty sure it was approved in the project guidelines.  Overall, I really feel that the student reports were adequately done compared to a real news group.

 

The Question I am answering is Question 4:

 

(a) Consider Table 5 in the Lecture Notes, in the Section on Driving Psychology Theory and Charts at www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy24/409a-g24-lecture-notes.htm#Charts.  Read the article from which the Table was taken.  Copy and paste the table into your file.  Describe the Table in your own words: what it is for, what it says, what it shows.

 

(b) Copy the table again and paste it again.  But this time delete the examples in each cell and replace them with your own examples that you make up.  Title this Section: My Version of the Table.  Explain what your table shows and how you came up with it.  Discuss your Table with friends.  Summarize their reactions.  Summarize your reactions to their reactions.

 

(c) Discuss why driving is such a big problem in all societies and why no effective solutions have yet been found for them.  Refer to our two textbooks for examples of some of the world wide problems and solutions proposed.  Be sure to refer to the author and page numbers.  What likelihood is there that his approach will be adopted?  Explain.

 

ANSWERS:

 

(a) Consider Table 5 in the Lecture Notes, in the Section on Driving Psychology Theory and Charts at www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy24/409a-g24-lecture-notes.htm#Charts.  Read the article from which the Table was taken.  Copy and paste the table into your file.  Describe the Table in your own words: what it is for, what it says, what it shows.

 

Table 5
Emotionally Intelligent Driver Personality Skills

Driver Competence Skills

Aggressive
NEGATIVE DRIVING

Supportive
POSITIVE DRIVING

Not
Emotionally Intelligent
(REPTILIAN DRIVING)

Emotionally
Intelligent
(CORTICAL DRIVING)

1. Focusing on self vs. blaming others or the situation

"This traffic is impossibly slow. What’s wrong with these jerks. They’re driving like idiots."

"I’m feeling very impatient today. Everything seems to tick me off."

2. Understanding how feelings and thoughts act together


"I’m angry, scared, outraged. How can they do this to me."

"I feel angry, scared, outraged when I think about what could have happened."

3. Realizing that anger is something we choose vs. thinking it is provoked

"They make me so mad when they do that."

"I make myself so mad when they do that."

4. Being concerned about consequences vs. giving in to impulse

"I just want to give this driver a piece of my mind. I just want him to know how I feel."

"If I respond to this provocation I lose control over the situation. It’s not worth it."

5. Showing respect for others and their rights vs. thinking only of oneself


"They better stay out of my way. I’m in no mood for putting up with them. Out of my way folks."


"I wish there was no traffic but it’s not up to me. These people have to get to their destination too."

6. Accepting traffic as collective team work vs. seeing it as individual competition

"Driving is about getting ahead. I get a jolt out of beating a red light or finding the fastest lane. It’s me vs. everybody else."

"I try to keep pace with the traffic realizing that my movements can slow others down—like switching lanes to try to get ahead."

7. Recognizing the diversity of drivers and their needs and styles vs. blaming them for what they choose to do

"How can they be so stupid? They’re talking on the phone instead of paying attention to the road."

"I need to be extra careful around drivers using a hand held cellular phone since they may be distracted."

8. Practicing positive role models vs. negative

"Come on, buddy, speed up or I’ll be on your tail. Go, go. What’s wrong with you. There’s no one ahead."

"This driver is going slower than my desires. Now I can practice the art of patience and respect for the next few minutes."

9.  Learning to inhibit the impulse to criticize by developing a sense of driving humor

"I can’t stand all these idiots on the road. They slow down when they should speed up. They gawk, they crawl, anything but drive."

"I’m angry, I’m mad
Therefore I’ll act calm, I’ll smile and not compete.  Already I feel better.  Be my guest, enter ahead."

10. Taking driving seriously by becoming aware of one’s mistakes and correcting them

"I’m an excellent driver, assertive and competent, with a clean accident record—just a few tickets here and there."

"I monitor myself as a driver and keep a driving log of my mistakes. I think it’s important to include thoughts and feelings, not just the overt acts."

 

          This table shows a list of emotionally intelligent driver personality skills which people can refer to see how they drive.  The first column, called the driver competence skills, contains suggestions to help improve our feelings while driving.  This list gives you the correct feelings we should feel while driving in order to be emotionally intelligent.  It helps drivers learn how to stay in control of their feelings so not to commit aggressive driving.

 

            The second column of the table contains examples of an aggressive driver for each of the listed feelings in the first column.  Other names for aggressive driving are negative driving and reptilian driving.  Those who practice aggressive driving have very low emotional intelligence and often harbor negative feelings.  The examples of a non-emotional intelligent person show anger, fearlessness, and even cockiness.  This sometimes can end up in a confrontation, or even worse, an accident.

 

            The third column of the table contains examples of a supportive driver for each of the listed feelings in the first column.  Other names for supportive driving are positive driving and cortical driving.  Those who practice supportive driving have very high emotional intelligence and often are able to control their feelings whether good or bad.  The examples of an emotionally intelligent person show great responsibility, thought, and management of feelings.  This type of driving often avoids confrontations and traffic accidents.

 

(b) Copy the table again and paste it again.  But this time delete the examples in each cell and replace them with your own examples that you make up.  Title this Section: My Version of the Table.  Explain what your table shows and how you came up with it.  Discuss your Table with friends.  Summarize their reactions.  Summarize your reactions to their reactions.

 

Table 5
Emotionally Intelligent Driver Personality Skills
My Version of the Table

Driver Competence Skills

Aggressive
NEGATIVE DRIVING

Supportive
POSITIVE DRIVING

Not
Emotionally Intelligent
(REPTILIAN DRIVING)

Emotionally
Intelligent
(CORTICAL DRIVING)

1. Focusing on self vs. blaming others or the situation

"Why is it so backed up?  If people would just pay attention to the car in front there would be no traffic!"

"My bad grade really upset me.  Maybe this is why I’m so easily irritated.”

2. Understanding how feelings and thoughts act together

"Holly crap!  Why the hell did she do that?”

"What that lady did frightened my safety and I didn’t like it.”

3. Realizing that anger is something we choose vs. thinking it is provoked

"It pisses me off when people when people drive slow and I miss the light."

"I cause myself to lose my temper when I miss a light."

4. Being concerned about consequences vs. giving in to impulse

"I want this guy to look at me so he knows I’m mad."

"I shouldn’t show my anger to this person because I don’t want to cause a confrontation."

5. Showing respect for others and their rights vs. thinking only of oneself

"That car shouldn’t be in the left lane.  She should get out of the way.”

 

"Maybe this lady isn’t driving slow; maybe I’m driving too fast.  I better check my speed.”

6. Accepting traffic as collective team work vs. seeing it as individual competition

"As soon as you get on the freeway, get into the left lane no matter what.  It’s the only way you can get past all of the slow drivers in traffic.”

"I only change lanes if there is enough room and I always try to allow people who need to get into my lane in.  I would want the same help from other people.”

7. Recognizing the diversity of drivers and their needs and styles vs. blaming them for what they choose to do

"Older people driver so slow!  They shouldn’t even be on the road.”

“Older people probably driver slower to be safe.  I try not to intimidate them by driving a little quicker than them.”

8. Practicing positive role models vs. negative

"I cannot believe this person pulled out in front of me and is driving at a way slower pace.  I’m going to tail him to make him go faster.”

"I better slow down my pace to the person in front of me so I don’t intimidate him.”

9.  Learning to inhibit the impulse to criticize by developing a sense of driving humor

"What an idiot!  We’re stopped at this corner when we could have turned already.”

"This guy must think we can’t turn.  I’ll just wait, it’s not like it’s an eternity.”

10. Taking driving seriously by becoming aware of one’s mistakes and correcting them

"Everyone else drives crappy.  I never make mistakes and I drive efficiently.”

"Sometimes I make mistakes and I always say sorry for them.  I try to remember them so that I don’t do them again.”

 

            My table shows pretty much the same thing as the other table except I put in my own examples for my feelings.  At the beginning of the course I was an aggressive driver.  All of the examples I listed are all thoughts I have previously had while driving.  After I learned about my low emotional intelligence, I tried to correct my problems.  The third column gives examples of thoughts I now have while driving.  I feel better and safer in my car while driving now.

 

            When I showed this table to my friends they didn’t believe that I had written my own thoughts as examples.  But after they read the table again they agreed that sometimes they too feel the same way.  Some of my friends thought that I was mean and said that they wouldn’t want to drive next to me on the road.  I honestly believe that my friends that said that I was mean were just in denial of their own aggressive driving.  What my friends don’t understand is that just by thinking negatively is an aggressive act.  Most people don’t understand or even know about driving psychology and this makes them naïve to the problem of aggressive driving. 

 

(c) Discuss why driving is such a big problem in all societies and why no effective solutions have yet been found for them.  Refer to our two textbooks for examples of some of the world wide problems and solutions proposed.  Be sure to refer to the author and page numbers.  What likelihood is there that his approach will be adopted?  Explain.

 

            Driving is such a big problem in all societies because first, a lot of people are egotistic and only concerned with themselves, and second, people are unaware about all aspects of aggressive driving.  Most of our society does not know what driving psychology is or our growing problem with aggressive driving.  I believe that no effective solutions have been found for them because not enough people are paying attention to the problem.  The few people who have proposed some solutions to our societies driving problem have come up, I felt, some very effective ones.  The reason why they are not so widely used is because a lot of people refuse to try them on their own and a lot of states have no yet put force on their repeat offenders to try them.  A lot of people are unaware of driving problems so they don’t feel there is a need for a solution.

 

            From our texts I feel that there is one approach which I feel very affective.  I have tried it on myself and I feel that it has helped me greatly. It is called the Three-Step Driver Self-Improvement Program, otherwise known as the AWM program.  Dr. Leon James and Dr. Diane Nahl describe this program on page 133 in their book Road Rage and Aggressive Driving: Steering Clear of Highway Warfare.  A stands for acknowledging your problem, W stands for witnessing your problem, and M stands for modifying your problem.  The chances of this program being adopted all depends on our society and traffic laws.  If people are willing to try the program, then I think it can do great things.  If states enforce their repeat traffic offenders to use this program to try to correct their driving problems, then maybe their behaviors will be corrected. 

 

The Question I am answering is Question 5:

 

(a) Our textbook Road Rage and Aggressive Driving has checklist exercises in several chapters.  Do the following four exercises:

 

            (i) Exercise on Aggressive Thoughts and Feelings on p. 65-66

            (ii) Exercise on Are You an Aggressive Competitor on p. 104-5

            (iii) Exercise on Positive Driving Behaviors on p. 212-3

            (iv) Exercise on Your Passive Aggressive Road Rage Tendency on p. 88-9

 

(b) Discuss your reactions to each exercise?  How do you explain your answers?  You can give your answers in their entirety or you can make selections.  What do they show about your driving personality?  Where did you get this style of reacting and driving?  Discuss how these exercises help you to become more aware of yourself as a driver.

 

(c) Do some of the exercises with another driver you know.  How do they help you understand some principles of driving psychology mentioned in the book?  Discuss and illustrate with specific examples.

 

ANSWERS:

 

(a) Our textbook Road Rage and Aggressive Driving has checklist exercises in several chapters.  Do the following four exercises:

 

            (i) Exercise on Aggressive Thoughts and Feelings on p. 65-66

            (ii) Exercise on Are You an Aggressive Competitor on p. 104-5

            (iii) Exercise on Positive Driving Behaviors on p. 212-3

            (iv) Exercise on Your Passive Aggressive Road Rage Tendency on p. 88-9

 

(i) Exercise on Aggressive Thoughts and Feelings on p. 65-66

 

            When I first did this exercise earlier in the semester, I had a lot more answers checked off.  But now that I have taken it again, I noticed that I don’t feel as much aggressive thoughts anymore.  Before, I agreed that I would feel like ramming into a car that cut me off and then slowed down.  Now I don’t feel that way anymore.  But even though I have shown some improvements, I still have some aggressive thoughts and feelings while driving.  For instance, I still get nasty thoughts about drivers who force their way into my lane, especially without signaling.  I also don’t think passengers should tell me how to drive and I still let them know if they try.  This shows that I still have some work to do to reduce these thoughts down to nothing.  I believe that I gained this style of reacting and driving from my parents.  My dad and step-dad were both aggressive drivers and often spoke what they thought.  I’m glad I completed these exercises because I am now aware of my thinking and feeling flaws.

 

(ii) Exercise on Are You an Aggressive Competitor on p. 104-5

 

            Out of the 10 questions on this checklist, I checked off three.  When I first read the title of the checklist, I knew I wasn’t that much of an aggressive competitor.  I might have some competitive characteristics, but I feel that they are not that significant.  In fact, the three checks I made were actually kind of “iffy”.  I’m not one to race in my car and I hardly ever feel like I need to beat the cars I’m driving around.  I usually only worry about where I need to go.  I usually have children in the car with me so I don’t like to race or drive recklessly just to beat the car next to me.

 

(iii) Exercise on Positive Driving Behaviors on p. 212-3

           

            I chose all 14 driving behaviors as those that I would be willing to adopt.  I don’t think that I may have checked them all off in the beginning of the semester, but now I am willing to.  I believe that all of the positive driving behaviors are very important for people to practice today to be safe, to avoid road conflicts, and to relieve stress.  I am glad that chose to check all 14 behaviors because it lets me know that I am willing to change or that I have already changed. 

 

(iv) Exercise on Your Passive Aggressive Road Rage Tendency on p. 88-9

                   

            Thankfully I only checked off one of the 10 passive aggressive examples on this list.  I know it would be better to have no check marks for this one, but I still have a problem with making gestures and facial expressions to myself to show my disapproval of pushy drivers.  I know this is a problem, but most of the time I don’t even realize that I’m doing them till it’s too late.  I’m sure I look so silly in the car, but it’s almost like an automatic reaction.  I try not to do this anymore, but this is one feat that is taking me a little longer to accomplish.  I guess showing my disgust in my face gives away the problems I still have with my feelings and thoughts.  I probably picked up this habit from all of the drivers I’ve ridden with.  I know that a lot of people make gestures and faces of disapproval on the road.  This is just one thing I need to keep working on.

 

(c) Do some of the exercises with another driver you know.  How do they help you understand some principles of driving psychology mentioned in the book?  Discuss and illustrate with specific examples.

 

            I did some of these exercises with my boyfriend who is an aggressive driver.  I didn’t give the title of the checklists to him at first, but instead just read off the choices to him.  After he completed the checklists, I told him the title of each exercise.  We went through his results and found that he had a lot of checks for passive aggressive road rage tendencies and aggressive thoughts and feelings.  He did have about half of the checks for positive driving behaviors and only some for an aggressive competitor.  Going through these checklists with him made him realize the things he shouldn’t be doing on the road.  In fact, he was shocked to see how aggressive his driving actually was.  Just from doing these exercises my boyfriend learned what an aggressive driver was and what a supportive driver was.  He said that relating it to himself made it easier to understand.

 

The Question I am answering is Question 6:

 

 (a) Search the Web and the University of Hawaii Library Electronic Resources of full text journals to find out what is known about how cell phone use affects people’s driving.  Summarize some of this literature.  Be sure you have articles from both the Web and the Library Electronic Journals Databases.  Give the full reference and link for each article.

 

(b) Use the theory in the Lecture Notes to explain what drivers need to learn about themselves in order to be able to handle the proper use of cell phones while driving.  Is it better to train drivers to use cell phones properly or is it better to outlaw the use of any cell phones while driving?  Discuss the solutions.

 

ANSWERS:

 

(a) Search the Web and the University of Hawaii Library Electronic Resources of full text journals to find out what is known about how cell phone use affects people’s driving.  Summarize some of this literature.  Be sure you have articles from both the Web and the Library Electronic Journals Databases.  Give the full reference and link for each article.

 

“Cell Phones and Driving”

http://www.iii.org/media/hottopics/insurance/cellphones/

 

            This article is written by the Insurance Information Institute and is against using cell phones while driving.  Their report states that the Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association reported over 212 million people used cell phones as of April 2006 compared with approximately 4.3 million in 1990.  According to the Insurance Information Institute, there are two dangers with cell phone use while driving.  The first is that drivers take their eyes off of the road to dial numbers.  The second is that people talking on their cell phones are distracted due to their involvement in their conversation. 

 

            The article also gives information that the use of hand-held cell phones was the most common distraction while driving, just ahead of drowsiness.  But it is not the distraction with the highest rate of an accident.  Reaching for a spilling cup had a higher rate of an accident at 5 while using cell phones was just at 1.3.  The site also gives information about studies showing insignificant results between using a hand-held cell phone compared to a hands-free cell phone.  I guess this means that the problem is not the cell phone but just the distraction of talking.

 

            The rest of this article lists states that have started to enforce new driving laws where cell phone use is prohibited.  The fines that can be ticketed range from $100 to $500. 

 

“Cell Phone Use and Traffic Accidents, Revisited”

By Fred Hooven, M.S., and Sandra Sulsky, Ph.D., Applied Epidemiology, Inc.

http://www.nsc.org/issues/idrive/cellfone.htm

 

            I chose this article to summarize because their findings surprised me and I haven’t read this in any online article yet.  They claim that their epidemiological studies have found indications of a link between cell phone use and car accidents, but they haven’t been able to establish a causal relationship.  This means that cell phone use and car accidents may be related, but cell phone use while driving doesn’t necessarily cause the driver to be in a car accident.

 

“The Impact of Cell Phones on Driver Safety”

By Larry R. Moore and Greggory S. Moore

http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=4571738

 

            This article was interesting because it not only listed cell phones as a growing problem, but also other electronic devices too.  They stated that the New England Journal of Medicine found that out of 699 collisions due to cell phone use, 72% of them were men and 28% of the were women.  24% of them were professionals while the rest were labeled as other than professionals.  Those with 30 years or more of driving experience were in the least number of accidents while 10-19 years of experience were involved in the most accidents.  I liked this study because it gave information on the ages of people who were in accidents and there occupation.

 

            The rest of this article is about U.S. restrictions on cell phone use and driving and also what preventative measure can be taken to reduce the number of accidents while talking on the cell phone.  This site gives these options: use a hands-free cell phone, turn off your phone till you reach your destination, and suspend all conversations when approaching an area with high pedestrian traffic, heavy traffic, or severe weather.

 

(b) Use the theory in the Lecture Notes to explain what drivers need to learn about themselves in order to be able to handle the proper use of cell phones while driving.  Is it better to train drivers to use cell phones properly or is it better to outlaw the use of any cell phones while driving?  Discuss the solutions.

 

            I think that the most important things drivers must learn about themselves in order to be able to handle the proper use of cell phones while driving comes from the basic principles in driving psychology.  Number nine in this list states, “Driving is a semi-conscious activity since much of it depends on automatized habits acquired through culture and experience over several years.  Number ten in this list states, “Driving inherently involves taking risks, making errors, and losing emotional self-control.  Thus, drivers need to be trained in risk taking, error recovery, and emotional control under emergency or provocation conditions.  This means that if people know that using cell phones can be hazardous and they train themselves to talk on the phone while driving, then they can avoid being in an accident.  I don’t think it is better to outlaw the use of cell phones while driving because there are some discrepancies with the reasons.  First, if holding the cell phone is a problem, then get a hands-free phone.  Second, if talking is the problem, then it’s not fair to band phone use and not chatting in the car.  Training to use the cell phone while driving is the best solution I have come across; people just need to teach themselves to be safe.

 

For Extra points – Question Number 2:

 

(a) Discuss these three Web sites: drivers.com vs. drdriving.org vs. a third one you select that you find related to these two.  What are their main differences?  Be sure to consider at least the following areas listed below.  In your answer, keep the sub-division as indicated below.  Be sure to answer each one.  In order to write a good answer you will need to consult some articles as to how to evaluate a Web site.  Google the words evaluating Web sites or pages and learn how to do it.  Give a link to the article if you find one that’s helpful.

 

            (1) content of articles

            (2) content and tone of newsletters, when present

            (3) style of the site

            (4) probable audience

            (5) public relations or policy, etc.

            (6) advertising (if any)

            (7) size

            (8) ranking (see Google or Alexa)

            (9) Other sites that link to each

            (10) …

 

ANSWERS:

 

 http://www.drivers.com/

 

(1) content of articles – This website contained articles about all sorts of issues and concerns with driving.  Some of the latest articles are about highway mega projects and foreign ownership, satellite navigations, and even the urbanization ideas of a recently deceased woman. 

 

(2) content and tone of newsletters, when present – There newsletter can be subscribed to which is sent through email.  It is sent several times per year and can be cancelled at anytime.

 

(3) style of the site – The style of the site is very simple and straight to the point.  All of the links to other parts of the site are located on the left hand side while all of its recent articles are listed in the middle of the page.  They have related links with each topic or section of the website to help direct you to other resources too.

 

(4) probable audience – The probable audience of this website contains auto drivers and computer people.  On the home page there is a choice you make between the auto drivers and computer drivers.  The auto drivers section is subtitled: Cars, Trucks, Driving, and Trucking Jobs.  The types of drivers this website has information for are for old, young, and professional drivers.

 

(5) public relations or policy, etc. – I didn’t see an area where you needed to sign up to use the site.  The only place you had to give some information was if you wanted to receive their newsletter.

 

(6) advertisingThere was some advertising on the website and it was located on the right hand side.  Most of them had to do with trucking jobs.  There is also a link to where you can sign up to post an ad.  You must pay for your advertisement with Google Adwords.

 

(7) sizeI don’t know the exact size of this site but I can tell it’s pretty big.  The reason I believe the site is big is because of all of the different subtopics you can link to and also all of the related links that are given.  The site also has many supporting sites and organization that have information on the drivers.com site. 

 

(8) rankingAccording to alexa.com, the traffic rank for drivers.com is 128,478.

 

(9) Other sites that link to each – Each subtopic on the website has a list of about five sponsored links.  Even some of the article have links to refer to information sited.

 

(10) … - I liked this site very much because it seemed to have a little bit for everyone.  The article were diverse and not only about traffic incidents and such.  It talked about and had information about all sorts of driving related issues like the building of highways and highway tolls.  I feel this site is credible because of all of the sponsored links it had.  It was easy to get information not only from the site, but also its extended resources.

 

 http://www.drdriving.org/

 

(1) content of articles – The articles on this website contain content about road rage and aggressive driving.

 

(2) content and tone of newsletters, when present – There is no newsletter for this site.

 

(3) style of the site – This site is very simple to understand and use.  You have your menu with options, your list or articles, some explanations, and then the related links.

 

(4) probable audience – The probable audience for this site are people with road rage and aggressive driving problems, people who know people with road rage and aggressive driving problems, or professionals who are looking into road rage and aggressive driving problems.

 

(5) public relations or policy, etc. – I don’t think this site has a policy.  There is no where to sign up for membership and access to all of the articles is free.

 

(6) advertisingThere is no advertising on this website.

 

(7) sizeThe size of this site is pretty good but I don’t think that it is as big as drivers.com. 

 

(8) rankingAccording to alexa.com, the traffic rank for drdriving.org is 408,909.

 

(9) Other sites that link to each – There are related links on the site for statistics, a video course, to order a text, to read interviews, and even to contact the web-master of the site.

 

(10) … - I thought this site had more specialized information; for road rage and aggressive driving.  It also had more academic information and research for people who are really trying to correct a driving problem.  There were no advertisements which tells me this site is more serious than drivers.com.

 

http://www.drivehomesafe.com/

 

(1) content of articles – The contents of the article on the site mainly have to do with teen drivers and what parents can do to keep them safe.

 

(2) content and tone of newsletters, when present – The site does have a link to obtain five free newsletter articles for parents with a teen driver but you have to login to a Yahoo! Account.

 

(3) style of the site – The style of this site was a bit confusing to me.  There was information all over the place.  The home page is separated into three columns which really confuses me about where I want to get my information.  There are also advertisements that are stuck into just any old place.

 

(4) probable audience – The probable audience for this site are teen drivers and parents with teen drivers.

 

(5) public relations or policy, etc. – There is no place to sign up for anything except to get the five free newsletter articles.

 

(6) advertisingThere is advertising on the site that have to do with car sales and information about cars and road side assistance.

 

(7) sizeThe size of this site is not that big because the only other outside links from the home page are to the articles.

 

(8) rankingAccording to alexa.com, the traffic rank for drivehomesafe.com is 1,144,070.  I think there are a lot of concerned parents out there.

 

(9) Other sites that link to each – There are links on the site in each article and some advertising links on the home page.

 

(10) … -  I think that I would be visiting this site if my child were at driving age.  But other wise, I didn’t like the organization of the site because it seemed too busy and disorganized.  I would have rather used the other two websites.  I think the rank of this site is so high because of its content to help teen drivers.

 

For Extra points – Question Number 7:

 

(a) Find 3 road rage newspaper stories on the Web that give enough detail that you can reconstruct enough of the interaction to do a scenario analysis of events (you can use google New for this).  The Road Rage and Aggressive Driving book gives some examples (see the Book Index under Scenario analysis).  There is also an example in the Lecture Notes in the Section on Charts at Table 6 – see www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy24/409a-g24-lecture-notes.htm#Charts

 

(b) Try to reconstruct the interactions of each News story you selected by making a list or table of the steps, as illustrated in our textbook.  Apply driving psychology principles to explain what’s going on and whether this is necessary or avoidable outcome.

 

ANSWERS:

 

Cops: Suspect created his won drive-thru Minivan driven through Sunrise Highway storefronts in domestic dispute

By Mike Schnitzel

http://www.zwire.com/site/news.cfm?newsid=16546121&BRD=1601&PAG=461&dept_id=479861&rfi=6

 

Steps that contributed to problem

 

1) brooding over a statement which challenged offender

2) followed his ex-girlfriend and her boyfriend to Quiznos

3) ramming his mini-van into the ex-girlfriend and her boyfriend’s van

4) backing into the store front trying to pin his ex-girlfriend’s boyfriend

5) going after the boyfriend with a bat

 

Smarter behavior

 

1) letting the comments made to him go

2) went home and not followed his ex-girlfriend and her boyfriend

3) instead of ramming the van, speaking to the boyfriend

4) not backing into the store front for it endangered many people’s lives

6) not going after the boyfriend in a physical way, instead just to talk

 

            Although this offender was not playing games, he was reckless.  By not controlling his anger he decided to use his vehicle as a weapon.  He had very poor emotional intelligence and committing the crime he did showed weakness in his affective, cognitive, and sensorimotor selves.  This was an avoidable outcome.

 

Convergence of Driver, Bicyclist Ends in Arrest

Bystanders Track Alleged Assailant

By Petula Dvorak

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/07/01/AR2005070101881.html

 

Steps that contributed to the problem

 

1) stopping the car in front of the bicyclist

2) refusing to move the car

3) yelling back and forth

4) getting out of the car

5) shoving the bicyclist

 

Smarter behavior

 

1) keeping the car not so close to the bicyclist

2) if blocking the way, moving the car so that bicyclist can get through

3) no yelling, just speaking calmly

4) staying in the car

5) absolutely no physical contact with the bicyclist

 

            I don’t know exactly what happened or what words were being exchanged between the two people, but I don’t believe it was enough for this man to physically shove the bicyclist.  This showed me that both the driver of the car and the cyclist both did not know how to control their emotions or how to figure a simple problem out.  This was an avoidable outcome.

 

Road Rage incident on I-985 lands two men in jail
By Judd Hickinbotham

http://www.accessnorthga.com/news/hall/newfullstory.asp?ID=103180

 

Steps that contributed to the problem

 

1) cutting the other person off

2) trying to force each other off the road

3) pointing a pistol at the other driver

 

Smarter behavior

 

1) using your blinker to change lanes and making sure you have enough room to do it

2) avoid eye contact with the other driver and just continue driving safely at the correct speed limit

3) don’t pull out and show any weapon, instead just continue driving as if nothing happened

 

            These two drivers obviously have issues with their anger and emotions.  They also both were interested in revenge.  This shows very poor emotional intelligence and negligence to their safety and to others on the road.  I also believe that a person who needs to pull out a pistol to show he’s powerful needs some type of rehabilitation other than driving modification.  This was absolutely an avoidable outcome.

 

My Report on the Previous Generation

 

Report 2: My Understanding of Driving Psychology

By Chris Nerona

http://www.soc.hawaii.edu/leon/409as2005/nerona/409a-g22-report2.htm

 

            Chris did a pretty good job with his report.  I thought he was thorough enough to where I could understand his thoughts on each of the topics.  Chris defined in his own words the three-fold self which included the affective self, the cognitive self, and the sensorimotor self.  He also gave his own examples to help explain table 5’s emotional intelligence chart.  I liked his examples because he gave it a little “local” style.  Although I thought his report was a little shorter than it was supposed to be, it was still adequate enough for me.

 

Report 2: My Understanding of Driving Psychology

By Jordyn Shark

http://www.soc.hawaii.edu/leon/409as2005/Shark/409a-g22-report2.htm

 

            Jordyn’s report was easy to understand because of the tables that were put into it.  I thought the tables organized the points very nicely.  I also liked how Jordyn had many links to the works that were being cited.  This made it easy for me to just click on the link and see the article or website for myself.  The last thing I liked about this report is the “My Comments” sections.  I liked reading these because I got to find out how another student felt about the work we were assigned.  It made me feel less alienated.

 

Report 2: My Understanding of Driving Psychology

By Karis Amano

http://www.soc.hawaii.edu/leon/409af2005/amano/amano-409a-g23-report2.htm

 

            I liked this report because it was more similar to what we just did this semester.  This student was very thorough with answers to the questions and I liked the colored table that was put into the report.  It drew my attention and it made me want to read all of the boxes.  I noticed that this report also had a section on “my comments.”  This student also typed out all of the exercises which made it easy for me to understand what she did and didn’t check off. 

 

Report 2: My Understanding of Driving Psychology

By Ashley Hooks

http://www.soc.hawaii.edu/leon/409af2005/hooks/hooks-409a-g23-report2.htm

 

            I thought that this report was the most thorough out of all of the reports I read.  Ashley made 17 pages out of her report which ultimately tells me that she was detailed with her answers.  Unfortunately, I think her answers may have been too detailed for I remember reading an instruction to have our paragraphs no more than seven lines long.  At least this student had a good understanding about this subject.  Her tables were colored too, which drew my attention and I liked how she mentioned how she spread out this report over time so she could finish.  Too bad I didn’t do the same.

 

My Advice to Future Generations

 

            I know this has become redundant since all the other reports say the same thing, but take it from someone who has to turn in this report late…..DO NOT PROCRASTINATE!!  I underestimated the time it would take to complete this report thoroughly and believe me, you do not want to stress out.  If you manage your time and the work for the class, it should be as easy as cake.  The material is interesting and you tend to carry “driving psychology” with you everyday (for those who drive that is).  And if you really want to apply yourself to the class, complete the exercises and try to modify yourself.  It is the best tool I had to learn from Dr. James. 

 

Class Home Page: www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy24/classhome-g24.htm

 

My Home Page: http://www.soc.hawaii.edu/leon/409as2006/look/look-home.htm