Table 3

Two Stages of a Driving Personality Makeover Plan


Stage 1--Avoiding Being an Aggressive Driver

Affective Level
Overcoming my resistance to change


Cognitive Level
Learning to do rational analyses of traffic incidents

Sensorimotor Level
Acting out civil behavior


  • committing myself to inhibit or mitigate states of anger and retaliation
  • making it acceptable for passenger to complain or make suggestions
  • making it unacceptable for myself to ridicule or demean other drivers
  • activating higher motives within myself such as love of order and fair play, public spiritedness, charity, kindness to strangers

          reasoning against  my attribution errors (It's always their fault.  It's never my fault)

         counteracting my self-serving bias in how I view incidents

         acquiring more socialized self-regulatory sentences I can say to myself

         waving, smiling, signaling

         not crowding, not rushing in, not swearing

         not aggressing against passengers

         pretending that I'm in a good mood even when not



Stage 2--Becoming a Supportive Driver

Affective Level
Maintaining a supportive orientation towards other drivers


Cognitive Level
Analyzing driving situations objectively

Sensorimotor Level
Behaving in a cooperative style


        feeling responsible for errors and seeking opportunities to make reparations

        feeling regret at my unfriendly behaviors and impulses

        feeling good about behaving with civility or kindness

        feeling appreciation when being given advice by passenger

        being forgiving of others' mistakes and weaknesses

        acknowledging and knowing my driving errors

        planning and rehearsing the modification of those habits

        analyzing other drivers' behaviors objectively or impartially



        anticipating the needs of other drivers and being helpful to them

        verbalizing nice sentiments

        enjoying the ride and relaxing