Stop being so Autocentric!

 

This is Report 3

Malia Blumhardt, Jackie Bartold, Jennifer Long

Psy 409a, Spring 2008, Generation 27

Dr. Leon James, Instructor, University of Hawaii

Class homepage

 

Section 1: LectureNote by Malia Blumhardt

 

Dr. James in class lecture

 

Taxonomy of Driving Behavior: Affective, Cognitive, Sensorimotor

 

As Dr. James points out, we have become autocentric as a nation. This applies to mopeds and bicycles, anything restricted to streets and regulated by the government, but most are cars. Statistics reveal that 86% of people use a car for personal trips putting 125 million licensed drivers in the US on the road everyday.

 

As psychologists, we need to understand our roles as drivers, passengers, and pedestrians. Some kind of stress will be produced during our daily travels, its up to us to address these stressers. Dr. James Leon focused on a list of 15 things that make driving dangerous and stressful. Due to a limitation in time, he was only able to complete six of the fifteen.

 

  1. Immobility: The driver sits behind the wheel. Their limited ability to move around allows them only to glance around. As drivers, they also have the responsibility to take care of dangerous situations. All these factors create a situation that’s in itself stressful.
  2. Constriction: Motor Vehicles are restricted to “narrow” lanes on a highway and street lanes. A driver feels may also feel constricted by other drivers who are in the way of their path. Anxiety forms causing a driver to possibly perform risky or aggressive maneuvers.
  3. Regulation: The government regulates driving. People feel the need to rebel by breaking traffic laws. By breaking these laws, they are “hurting morality” to some extent.
  4. Lack of Control: We expect to be in control while driving, but it’s not always possible. An example Dr. James used was traffic waves. No matter how we drive, it’s not possible to beat traffic waves. This lack of control can create frustration and stress that may lead to bad driving decisions.
  5. Being Put in Danger: Traffic congestion can lead to accidents. Having many near-miss incidents can cause a driver to become stressed. By being an altruistic driver, safety can be maintained and the happiness of the driver can remain intact.
  6. Territoriality: Drivers tend to see the insides of their cars as their own territory. Outside of the car is common territory. This false idea can bring us trouble. By seeing ourselves independent of other people on the road, we become selfish and thus are more likely to participate in aggressive driving.

 

As a driver, it’s important to realize these conflicting aspects of driving. By tuning ourselves into our cognitive states of mind, we can begin to take action, ultimately becoming better drivers in the process.

 

Section 2: Readings

 

“Driving Lessons,” by J. Peter Rothe: Chapter 8, Risky Vehicles, Risky Agents, pages 105-120.- Malia Blumhardt

 

Autocentric Transport Systems

 

The United States has the most autocentric transport system in the world.  Autocentric is characterized by a high dependence on the auto for daily transport. Alternative modes of mobility are neglected and underutilized. With this mentality, auto traffic tends to dominate all other transport space, and other means of mobility.

 

In order to support this type of system, certain things are required:

 

  1. Roadways: vast network of roads
  2. Parking: storage space as well as designated areas
  3. Land: large amounts
  4. Money: taxpayers money goes to increased need for the police department and department of highway and transport

 

Statistics indicate that times have changed.

 

  • 86% of all person-trips per household in 1995 were by auto
  • In the US, between 1977-1995, the number of vehicles per household increased by a modest 12%, while the daily vehicle trips per household increased by 61% and the daily vehicle miles increased by 65%
  • The average occupancy for all car trips declined from 1.9 to 1.6 persons

 

Fatalities and Injuries

 

Having so many people on the road, its only natural we’d see an increase in fatalities and injuries.

 

  • Traffic accidents lead to approximately 40,000 deaths per year in the US.
  • The world toll in 1999 was 1 million deaths and 40 million injuries
  • In 2020, the worldwide death toll from traffic accidents is expected to rise to about 2.3 million

 

During our presentation, I had a slide titled “1 million=”. I asked the class to picture what 1 million dead bodies would look like had I placed a picture of that on the slide.

 

Traffic Statistics

 

More people died from traffic accidents than from one of the following:

 

  1. Sexually transmitted diseases
  2. HIV
  3.  Malaria
  4. Breast & Prostate Cancer
  5. Cirrhosis of the liver
  6. Violence
  7. War
  8. Self-inflicted injuries

 

Road accidents are the leading cause of death for males 15-44.

 

Pedestrians and cyclists accounted for 19.3% of all traffic fatalities in the US and 13 Western European nations in 1992.

 

Risky Vehicles: The Ecology of Vulnerability

 

Increased safety has been counterbalanced by increased auto use. Nowadays, people are increasingly purchasing “hard” means of mobility or large and heavy vehicles capable of moving at high speeds. By favoring these hard means, we put other people at risk, making them more vulnerable.

 

Hard means produce a greater sense of security. This sense of security is affected by “crush space” which is defined as amount of material capable of absorbing impact before it reaches a vehicle’s occupant. Protecting oneself is one thing, but this idea of crush space and having hard means comes from a very selfish stance. As statistics indicate, it’s the people with soft means that are paying the price for this new sense of security. Hard means also lead drivers to engage in riskier behavior.

 

Risky Agents: The Politics of Consciousness

 

While driving, it is important to remember who’s on the road.

 

Knowing that the US is an autocentric country, it’s up to us whether or not we seek to change that. We can look at alternative modes of driving for instance.

 

We can also push our politicians to factor in mass transit systems.

 

“Road Rage”, by Dr. Leon James and Dian Nahl: Chapter 4, The Road Rage Spectrum, pages 84-108- Jennifer Long

 

Chapter four discussed the different personalities drivers possess while on the road.  The Jekyll and Hyde Syndrome talks about how very nice people in regular everyday life can become crazy road raging maniacs while driving.  There are many different road rage personalities that people possess and these personalities.  These personalities can change depending on the current circumstances the driver faces.

 

Passive-Aggressive Road Rage

 

Passive-aggressive road rage can be defined as, “a reactionary protest against feeling thwarted, coerced, mistreated, or repeatedly wronged, characterized by feelings of rancor and resentment against other drivers (Road Rage, 85).”  This personality has the goal of being an obstruction to other drivers.  A passive-aggressive driver does not do anything illegal; rather they purposely irritate other drivers.

 

One example of a passive aggressive driver is the left-lane bandit.  This is a person who drives slow in the fast lane.  In order to be a passive-aggressive road rage behavior it must be done by a driver who is purposely trying to block other drivers from driving fast.  There are often problems with innocent left-lane bandits who are simply trying to make a left lane exit or are possibly not comfortable crossing back into the slower lanes at the moment.  It is suggested to leave these drivers in peace and go around them without bringing your own aggressive behavior by tailgating the car in front of you.

 

Verbal Road Rage

 

Verbal road rage is defined as, “the habit of constantly complaining about the traffic, keeping up a stream of mental or spoken attacks against driver, passengers, law enforcement officials, road workers, pedestrians, speed limits, and road signs (Road Rage 88).  This form of road rage is very common; however, most people do not self witness and therefore do not realize how much verbal road rage they are portraying.  As we discussed in the notes road rage is not good for our health.   In the case of verbal road rage this is especially true because it is only a short-term relief for frustrated drivers, but really is can damage their self esteem and gives a person a feeling of alienation from the surrounding culture.

 

Epic Road Rage

 

Epic road rage can be defined as, “the habit of fantasizing comic-book roles and extreme punitive measures against another driver, such as chasing, beating up, ramming, dragging, shooting, and killing, sometimes to the point of acting on it (Road Rage, 91-92).  This personality proves to be very combative and confrontational.  People who express this personality while driving do not usually act upon their fantasies, however, depending on the circumstances they may by slamming into other cars, punching out someone’s window, or  shooting the other driver. 

 

Automotive Vigilante

 

Automotive road rage can be defined as an “automotive bully who aggresses against other motorists, chosen at random or for some specific reason, with a constant stream of verbal abuse, offensive gestures, and threatening maneuvers wit the vehicle sometimes going to the extreme of physical violence (Road Rage, 97).  These drivers will often say they are punishing other drivers in order to teach them a lesson.  For example, if I driver cuts a person off, they will then tailgate that driver in order to teach them a lesson.  They feel it betters society if that driver learns their lesson. 

 

Rushing Manic

 

The rushing maniac personality consists of two components:  An extraordinary need to avoid slowing down and consequent anger against anyone who causes them to slow down (Road rage, 100).  A typical example of the personality comes out in a person who is late for work.  People often try to be on the road for as little time as possible and feel that if they leave late they can make up time in traffic.  This can be dangerous and very stressful to the driver.

 

Aggressive Competitor

 

This personality comes out in proud drivers.  These drivers feel very embarrassed if they make a mistake while driving and are very quick to criticize other drivers who make mistakes.  These drivers feel the need to be in the lead at all times.  They feel pride in leading other drivers. 

 

Scofflaw

 

A scofflaw is a person who does not want to follow rules of signs, traffic officials, or laws.  They feel happy when they get away with breaking the law and are even happier to see someone else get in trouble for the same reason they just got away with.  People feel they have the right to break these rules, and even law officials break these same laws. 

 

Conclusion

 

In conclusion, this chapter summarizes the personalities that people possess while driving.  Drivers may have the same personality every time they drive, or it may vary depending in the situation.  Personally I have both experienced and witnessed others experiencing these Jekyll and Hyde personalities.  Also, I feel with practice and self-witnessing people can learn to control these personalities and avoid reacting to others who are experiencing these feelings around them.

 

Articles Under Section 3- Jackie Bartold

 

The articles under this section are composed of two major components: student reports on driving personality makeovers and then an article titled “What works in changing road user behavior?”

 

Student Reports

 

Mini Experiments

 

On the website the student reports were divided into three different categories: Is it for me?, should I let them cut in? & tailgating, and traffic psychology & speed limit debate. Each report in the “Is it for me?” section followed the basic outline of defining “driving makeover” by reading what previous generations had written and then creating their own definition. The next section was a mini experiment and the students had two different approaches. One student created a journal of her driving experiences and the other selected the behavior of when other cars cut in front of him. Both students found the exercise useful in recognizing that getting anger is dangerous and their observations could/would be used to improve their driving behavior. They recommend that future students doing a mini experiment, select one behavior and work to change it, allow plenty of time for observation, be honest, and realize what you find could be disappointing.

 

Tailgating

 

This report on tailgating was report by Dustin Telles in G10 Fall 98. It is informational providing the many reasons for tailgating such as it is reinforcing, sucking in, running late, and because we are not paying attention. Then he states that tailgating is appropriate in some situations. He did not mention in which circumstances tailgating was appropriate, however, I disagree with the author because tailgating dangerous and hostile in all conditions.

 

Speed Limit Debate

 

A student Carlene Yee in G10 Fall 98 wrote a report in which she expresses her opinion that traffic speeds are set too low, and that they need more consideration, except in some areas such as curves or areas of high pedestrians that should remain low. I agree with the idea that it is the norm to drive faster than the posted speed limit, and if everyone is driving at this speed it is unsafe to drive more slowly. But I don’t agree that just because everyone does it means that it is safe and should be legal. I do agree that more consideration and research should be put into deciding speed limits.

 

What Works in Changing Road User Behavior?

 

In the past road safety efforts addressed the environment of road safety, focusing on engineering safer cars and highways. In recent years, the emphasis has shifted towards encouraging safer road users’ behavior. The shift in focus is based upon statistics that show that of all crashes: 85% are attributed to road user error, 10% are attributed to imperfect roadway design or other environmental factors, and 5% are attributed to vehicle defects. So in the past efforts have only addressed 15% of the problem. With this realization the focus is now on changing road user behavior using four categories of tools: legislation, enforcement, reinforcement, and education

 

Legislation

 

Legislation is the first method I think of when changing driving behavior and it works on two different levels: declarative effects which change socially acceptable standards and deterrent effects which is punishing those who violate the law. Common topics of legislation are seat belts, child restraint, motorcycle helmets, speed limits, and laws related to alcohol and driving.

 

Enforcement

 

Without proper enforcement legislation is worthless. There are three effects that law enforcement can have on drivers: on view effect, memory effect, and halo effect. The on view effect is the change in the drivers’ behavior after seeing an officer that typically involves following all law including speed limit. The memory effect is the long-term effect of the on view in the particular area where law enforcement was seen that can last up to two weeks. The halo effect is the same as the memory effect, but just over a wider geographic area.

 

Reinforcement

 

This is the first time I thought of reinforcement as a motivation to changing driving behavior. From this article it seems like not many people have put any thought into it, and suggests that motivation just needs to be intrinsic. From the commercials on TV about Allstate car insurance is trying this method by reducing premiums and offering cash back to drivers that do not get into accidents. Their program will be successful because it affects what people hold near and dear to them, money.

 

Education

 

This is the second thing that comes to my mind when talking about methods to change driving behavior. The article suggests three types of educators: parents, doctors, and community. The parents are the most common, we all expect parents to educate their children, but doctors and community? It seems that some suggest that doctors because of their authority should also educate about the benefits of being safe drivers, but doctors themselves are reluctant to do so. The community itself has a strong effect on driving because only they have the power to change social norms that can affect driving behavior.

 

Conclusion

 

The best way to affect behavior is to continuously use multiple approaches to affect driving behavior and improve the safety and roads. Although it will be impossible to completely eliminate all deaths and injuries caused by driving, with continuous research and effort we will be able to greatly reduce the harm to all involved.

 

 

Road Rage,” by Dr. Leon James and Diane Nahl, Chapter 4, p. 84 – 108- Jennifer Long

 

Chapter four discusses the different personalities drivers possess while on the road.  The Jekyll and Hyde Syndrome talks about how very nice people in regular everyday life can become crazy road raging maniacs while driving.  There are many different road rage personalities that people possess and these personalities.  These personalities can change depending on the current circumstances the driver faces.

 

Passive-Aggressive Road Rage

Passive-aggressive road rage can be defined as, “a reactionary protest against feeling thwarted, coerced, mistreated, or repeatedly wronged, characterized by feelings of rancor and resentment against other drivers (Road Rage, 85).”  This personality has the goal of being an obstruction to other drivers.  A passive-aggressive driver does not do anything illegal; rather they purposely irritate other drivers.

 

One example of a passive aggressive driver is the left-lane bandit.  This is a person who drives slow in the fast lane.  In order to be a passive-aggressive road rage behavior it must be done by a driver who is purposely trying to block other drivers from driving fast.  There are often problems with innocent left-lane bandits who are simply trying to make a left lane exit or are possibly not comfortable crossing back into the slower lanes at the moment.  It is suggested to leave these drivers in peace and go around them without bringing your own aggressive behavior by tailgating the car in front of you.

 

Verbal Road Rage

Verbal road rage is defined as, “the habit of constantly complaining about the traffic, keeping up a stream of mental or spoken attacks against driver, passengers, law enforcement officials, road workers, pedestrians, speed limits, and road signs (Road Rage 88).  This form of road rage is very common; however, most people do not self witness and therefore do not realize how much verbal road rage they are portraying.  As we discussed in the notes road rage is not good for our health.   In the case of verbal road rage this is especially true because it is only a short-term relief for frustrated drivers, but really is can damage their self esteem and gives a person a feeling of alienation from the surrounding culture.

 

Epic Road Rage

Epic road rage can be defined as, “the habit of fantasizing comic-book roles and extreme punitive measures against another driver, such as chasing, beating up, ramming, dragging, shooting, and killing, sometimes to the point of acting on it (Road Rage, 91-92).  This personality proves to be very combative and confrontational.  People who express this personality while driving do not usually act upon their fantasies, however, depending on the circumstances they may by slamming into other cars, punching out someone’s window, or  shooting the other driver. 

 

Automotive Vigilante

Automotive road rage can be defined as an “automotive bully who aggresses against other motorists, chosen at random or for some specific reason, with a constant stream of verbal abuse, offensive gestures, and threatening maneuvers wit the vehicle sometimes going to the extreme of physical violence (Road Rage, 97).  These drivers will often say they are punishing other drivers in order to teach them a lesson.  For example, if I driver cuts a person off, they will then tailgate that driver in order to teach them a lesson.  They feel it betters society if that driver learns their lesson. 

 

Rushing Manic

The rushing maniac personality consists of two components:  An extraordinary need to avoid slowing down and consequent anger against anyone who causes them to slow down (Road rage, 100).  A typical example of the personality comes out in a person who is late for work.  People often try to be on the road for as little time as possible and feel that if they leave late they can make up time in traffic.  This can be dangerous and very stressful to the driver.

 

Aggressive Competitor

This personality comes out in proud drivers.  These drivers feel very embarrassed if they make a mistake while driving and are very quick to criticize other drivers who make mistakes.  These drivers feel the need to be in the lead at all times.  They feel pride in leading other drivers. 

 

Scofflaw

A scofflaw is a person who does not want to follow rules of signs, traffic officials, or laws.  They feel happy when they get away with breaking the law and are even happier to see someone else get in trouble for the same reason they just got away with.  People feel they have the right to break these rules, and even law officials break these same laws. 

 

Conclusion

In conclusion, this chapter summarizes the personalities that people possess while driving.  Drivers may have the same personality every time they drive, or it may vary depending in the situation.  Personally I have both experienced and witnessed others experiencing these Jekyll and Hyde personalities.  Also, I feel with practice and self-witnessing people can learn to control these personalities and avoid reacting to others who are experiencing these feelings around them.

 

Exercise 5- Jennifer Long

 

Late Merge

 

The late Merge concept is a renovating idea when it comes to the idea of merging.  Instead of moving over into the lane that is going to remain open after the merge, the late merge encourages drivers to use the closing lane all the way until the lane ends at the merge point. There are signs to encourage this in order to inform cars exactly what to do and at the merge point cars are expected to take turns moving forward into the open lane. 

 

The late merge concept will help cut down on congestion because it will utilize all the lanes for longer moving all of traffic along faster.  It also allows traffic to recover from the merge congestion sooner if followed correctly.  However, this method does not always work smoothly.  Sometimes people slow down by the merging point and the fast drivers cut in quickly which can cause accidents.  Also the signs leading to the late merge may confuse some people causing them extra anxiety.  I think people fight the late merge idea because it seems too good to be true.  There will be problems when you wait until the last minute because drivers are selfish, and that is why drivers move over before it is too late and no one will let them in anymore.

 

On Google there articles that support and question the late merge concept for the same reasons as stated above.  On Google some articles also suggest other concepts on how to merge most efficiently.  The SMART lane merge is another option for merging.  This concept combines both the late and early merge depending on the amount of traffic flow.  They move and change the signs signaling to drivers when to merge in order to make flow as efficient as possible.  It uses early merge methods during low traffic and late merge methods during high traffic. 

 

Personally, I believe that there will never be an area where late merge or early merge will always work best.  Traffic always is circumstantial and as a driver a person has to try to blend with traffic.  The benefit to late merge is the signs directing everyone in traffic to perform the same and also makes other drivers to not feel cheated, everyone is just following the signs. When I asked others how they felt about the whole idea, their responses where very similar to mine.  They expressed a very strong desire for traffic to flow smoother, and they would be willing to try anything. However, many drivers who use the late merge method often get stuck at the merge point because other drivers tailgate in order to not let you in because they feel like you are cheating them by going to the front.  In the end, everyone wants smoother traffic, but are not sure how it would

work for everyone.

 

Exercise 5

 

Late Merge

 

A)    Summarize:  The team discussed the concept of the late merge.  This study was conducted in Dallas, Texas by the Department of Transportation.  It began so traffic experts could have a better understanding of some roadway factors and characteristics of the congested driving environment that induce stress and perhaps contribute to aggressive driving.  Drivers feel extra stress entering a construction zone when they were not notified of early enough to take an alternate route and in consequence wind up in unnecessary congestion. 

 

The team described how signs would direct traffic to utilize all available lanes for the longest time possible and are then advise drivers to take turns merging, thus reducing traffic.  They discussed how this method would not always work optimally as competitive drivers would try to cut in front of drivers cautiously approaching the merge, creating excess collisions.  They also discussed alternative methods such as static early merge and dynamic early merge.

 

The teams opinions along with friends they discussed the idea were not so sure about the idea.  Most team members thought it was a good idea in principle, however, did not think it would work smoothly and did not feel that using the late merge in every situation was ideal.  Many team members also expressed how the signs may be confusing and add to the stress of a driver.  One team member expressed how more creative signs in Korea have helped drivers to better oblige to the late merge concept but also admitted it was not always easy to follow.

 

B)     Describe:  The team started off by talking a study that was conducted on the late merge concept.  They discussed different statistics why the focus of late merge was relevant.  They described how the late merge was conducted by signs telling drivers how carry out the late merge.  The pros and cons of late merge were discussed along with other possibilities.  The team gave a personal touch to the presentation by expressing their personal opinions along with their friend’s opinions on the usefulness of using late merge.  Most opinions were based on the ideas that different situations have different solutions, and late merge would not always be the best solution.

 

C)    Better Justification Needed:  While presenting, the team started by talking about statistics that are affected by the late merge concept.  This left the class unclear exactly what the late merge concept consisted of.  Dr. James interrupted to make the definition of late merge clear in order that the class could understand why the statistics were significant.  The interruption fumbled the teams presentation.  Had the order of the presentation been set up differently, it would have flowed smoothly.

 

D)    Success:  The team’s presentation covered all of the necessary topics in order for the class to understand the topic presented.  Also they gave very good reasons why this concept is relevant to everyone in the class.  The most unique advantage to the team’s presentation was the addition of a different culture. It gave an additional perspective on merging in Korea, rather than just that of Hawaii or even the United States.

 

E)     Improvements:  Instructions 2 state to search Google in order to see other views on the late merge concept. The team presenting interpreted this as other merge methods that could help to alleviate traffic.  I asked others opinions and personally thought this was meant to focus on outside opinions on the late merge concept.  So more clear directions may have intercepted this confusion.  Also, although the team did have pictures to help illustrate the late merge concept, I think that should be included in the instructions.  I did not understand the concept until I saw an illustration of the idea.

 

F)     Limitations:  The late merge concept is a great idea if all drivers follow the signs correctly and are not selfish.  Considering we have a whole semester class dedicated to road rage, we know that most drivers are at least at sometimes selfish.  Also, every single driver must be following the signs in order for it to work.  Many drivers are defensive drivers and thus will hesitate around other drivers making the concept very difficult to conform to.

 

G)    Describe Own Experience:  Personally, I was very skeptical of the late merge concept. In my experience as driver I always try to merge early due to the troubles I found with greedy drivers who do not let you merge into the continuing lane when you utilize the late merge concept.  After the presentation, however, I felt somewhat different after the presentation.  I feel that the signs directing drivers would help other drivers to justify letting people merge into the continuing lane.

 

I feel that the concept is difficult and that the article we were supposed to read was somewhat confusing along with the vague directions.  I think that with more clear directions and the continuation of pictures this exercise would flow more smoothly.

 

 

Web Links- Jackie Bartold

 

1) A YouTube short film on Driving Vigilantism

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FIqUULEfzM8

 

This is a funny short video on road rage and viligantism that relate to ideas presented in Chapter 4 of Road Rage. Although the behavior of the Type A personality guy wasn’t violent, it was aggressive, and his behavior represents Jekyll and Hyde Syndrome. The veteran driver had passive aggressive road rage and retaliated by removing the bumper sticker and magnetic ribbons from the offender’s car.

 

 

2) A Board On Left Lane Bandits

 

http://www.deanesmay.com/archives/005840.html

 

People on this board discuss their takes on left lane bandits discussed in Chapter 4 of Road Rage. For the most part people tend to agree that the left lane should be for passing only, however, there are a few that think if they are going the speed limit they do not have let those illegally speeding pass them.

 

 

3) An Article “Profile of a left lane bandit”

 

http://www.startribune.com/cars/11356391.html

 

A humorous article venting anger at left lane bandits mentioned in Chapter 4 of Road Rage. The article wonders whether the left lane bandits realize what they are doing and the dangerous situations they make. It also postulates some suggestions to improve the situation: increase public knowledge and have law enforcement enforce that the left lane is for passing.

 

 

4) A new video game Vigilante 8

 

http://www.cinemablend.com/games/Vigilante-8-Driving-Onto-Live-Arcade-8931.html

 

Ideas of vigilante and dangerous driving are once again reinforced by the new game Vigilante 8 for Xbox Live. It is especially concerning because video games are played by people who will be drivers or are first driving and they are receiving positive reinforcement that may be seen out of the road.

 

 

5) Angry? Post the jerks license plate online with complaints

 

http://www.platewire.com/

 

This by far is my favorite website I found for this paper. Not only that, you get the opportunity to post specifics about the incident, the location, time, what exactly was going on, and what the person looked like, now you get to post their license plate online. This website displays both vigilantism and passive aggressiveness at its best.

 

 

6) 70 Driving Rules to Live By

 

http://www.roadtripamerica.com/DefensiveDriving/Drive-Safe-With-Uncle-Bob.htm

 

 In addition to the driving tips presented in Chapter 4 of Road Rage here are 70 additional driving tips to keep drivers safe on the road.

 

 

7) MapQuest Website

 

http://www.mapquest.com/

 

It is interesting that this is the first website that comes up when searching Google with the search “driving”. This supports the idea of autocentrism in Chapter 8 of Driving Lessons and the statistic that 86.4% of trips made out of the household are made by cars.

 

 

8) Driving Education Continues

 

https://www.drivingskillsforlife.com/

 

This website is aimed at new teen drivers to continue their driving education with the involvement of the teens, parents and educators. This relates to the article “What works in changing road user behavior?” as the tool of education.

 

9) Seatbelt Laws by State

 

http://www.nhtsa.gov/people/outreach/state_laws-belts04/safeylaws-states.htm

 

A compilation of seat belt laws by state. It includes the state, to which age group the law applies, the date of passage and the fine for first offense. This relates to the article “What works in changing road user behavior?” as a tool of legislation.

 

 

10) Americans End of Their Love Affair with Cars?

 

http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/14137896

 

This article suggests that the end of the America’s love of their cars is declining, and not because of rising gas prices but because of traffic and bad drivers. Although, like in chapter 8 of Driving Lessons, maybe this along with raising gas prices may lead to a change in America’s autocentric way of life.