Communication: Gender Differences
 
Gender and Communication

This is an article from the National Guard's, "The Leadership News" quarterly newsletter. It talks about how the cause of miscommunication amongst female and male enlistees is due to the cultural differences of how men and women were brought up: Team Sports vs. Playing with Dolls. Team Sports represents the hierarchical culture of men, which is the dominant model used in any type of 'uniformed' government job. And Playing with Dolls refers to the "flat" culture of women. I found this help-like article interesting because the National Guard is trying to help give an explanation for misunderstandings between the females and males in uniform, especially if they are your superior officer. However, at the same time it has this doministic underlying tone, especially when it refers to womens' culture as being "flat."

- G25, Akiyama - Outline 5

 
Rossetti - Gender Differences in E-mail Communication

This site is a journal research article on gender differences on the internet. Paola Rossetti ran a random research project based on electronic mail discussion groups to see if the 'typical' communication differences between females and males were carried over to the online web. Rosetti discovered through the study that men seem to be more interested in contributing to discussion groups to show how 'smart' he is (to gain or est. authority), while a female contributed more for unselfish reasons (to help another). Therefore, the "cultural" differences between female and male speech does carry over. Which is very similar to what Deborah Tannen was trying to point out in her study about male and female conversational differences. I thought this was interesting becaue even though the online web allows total annonimity, you can still see the differences between a female versus a male posting (collaboration vs. competition).

- G25, Akiyama - Outline 5

 
Male Logic and Women's Intuition

This is a link that is a little more intuned with the required readings for our Gender and Discourse but I thought that it is prevalent on the topic of a "woman's intuition." The article talks about how men and women are biologically and socially different, therefore both sexes think differently, and because of society are expected to think like society's stereotype that's been established. Due to these differences is why men do not understand what a "woman's intuition" is, which is how disagreements can occur.

- G25, Akiyama - Outline 3

 
"A Thinking Woman Sleeps with Monsters": The Early Poetry of Adrienne Rich

This article from the "Journal of American Studies of Turkey," is like a term paper where you try to interpret what the author, or in this case, the poet is all about through one of their works. This is an interesting article that has a basic theme of how female poets need to overcome traditional boundaries in writing just to be able to write through the words of "their" environment and not through the traditionally "masculine" tones. To me, its relates to the whole them of this course in general of how a woman needs to overcome the stereotypical "male-toned" barriers in order to acheive Unity in her relationship.

- G25, Akiyama - Outline 3

 
Language and Gender

This is a clip of Chapter 1 from "Language and Gender" written by Penelope Eckert and Sally McConnell-Ginet. Basically, their whole idea of language and gender is that it is not something we are born with. Language and gender is established into us from when we are small, whether it is the hospital we were born in, the tv, society, or our parents. They are trying to examine why gender seems so "natural" so as to why no body questions it. I thought this was an interesting clip because they say that even biology does not create these "differences" that scientists and some psychologists point out. They say that regardless of our biological differences, the reason for these brought out differences is because we subconsciously create our results like that. For example, male vocal cords are longer than female vocal cords, but that is not the reason for the lower voices in male. It is because we are "trained" to think that so we try to make it work like that.

- G25, Akiyama - Outline 5

 
Feminism and Women Studies: Gender Differences in Communication

In a feminist’s perspective, they argue that cross-gender communication qualifies as a form of intercultural communication and offers advice on how to develop effective intercultural communication skills when speaking across genders.  Being that it is a feminist website, there is an interesting explanation as to the unequal treatment amongst women.  An alternative framework for analysis is also presented for debate.

- G25, Bulda - Outline 1

 

This link leads to an article titled “Gender differences in communication: an intercultural experience”. This article aims to discuss the significance of communication practices in shaping our lives.

- G24, Tabon - Outline 7

 
Feminist Philosophy of Language

I found this site interesting to review, since it is also another site which deals with a feminist perspective.  There are specific examples as to how our language used today allows females to be invisible.  This site also focuses on the male’s “worldview.”

- G25, Bulda - Outline 1

 
An Agenda for Language and Gender Research

In this site Victoria Bergvall analyzes old research done on language and gender research to hopefully answer questions that are posed for the new millennium.  Victoria also speaks of her disagreements with Debra Tannen in which Tannen accounts for her gendered language variation largely ignored cultural variation within categories, and a second problem where Tannen qualifies her analysis of gender differences as being socially constructed and variable within the groups of women and men, her work leaves broad generalizations about how “women” versus “men” speak.  Victoria states that Tannen analyzes the gender discourse caused by our evolution of our human brain’s development.

- G25, Bulda - Outline 5

 
Gender Differences in Nonverbal Communications

Within this site, Web Author; Judy Siennicki, describes how men and women communicate differently.  Women prefer higher levels of nonverbal communication than men prefer.  A woman’s nonverbal reflects personal connections with the other person they are speaking with.  Men on the other hand associate their nonverbal communication cues to dominance and power.  I found this relative to Tannens observations to the physicality of the gender positions of a conversation.

- G25, Bulda - Outline 5

 
Gender Roles, Romantic Movies, and Family Therapy

I found this site to be interesting where Kramer and Moore analyze novels, some of which are from Disney, to evaluate the gender roles in marriage that’s portrayed in them.  The movies had portrayed gender inequality, the naturalization of behaviors of spousal behaviors, lack of congruent communication patterns between the partners, and the destructive messages that romantic novels depict.  

- G25, Bulda - Outline 8

 
Language and Gender

This site contains background information on Penelope Eckert, who is the sited resource that reveals data on the tenth-grade boys and girls.  I found this site interesting to review to understand Eckert’s credibility.  Here we are able to take a look at how Eckert came to be deeply engaged with post-structural theories of language and variations. 

- G25, Bulda - Outline 9

 
Gender and Language Use

Lydie Meunier presents a debate between the role of nature and the role of nurture.  Her contention is that the socialization process undergone by males and females sets various types of preferential cognitive networks and those gender-specific psyches ultimately stem from nurture rather than nature.  The socialization process whether at home or school plays a much stronger role on shaping of cognitive styles than previously admitted.

- G25, Bulda - Outline 9

 
Gender Differences in Child Discourse: The Linguistic Construction of Dominance/Equity

Dr. Marianthi Georgalidou presents a paper on the discourse of school age children.  The research analyzes the essentialization and universalization of sex-based differences.  Here he takes into account the local contextual parameters and the overall cultural context of naturally occurring discourse practices. 

- G25, Bulda - Outline 9

 
Interruptions in Adolescent Girls' Conversations

I like this article because it gives an alternative hypothesis to interruptions in conversations.  Previous research showed that interruptions were correlated with dominant functions. Now they are saying that it could just be conflict of conversation styles.  It would be nice to take this study one step further and add males to the equation.  I agree that there are a lot of different people out there with a lot of different conversational styles.  There’s no better style to have, each one is unique.

- G25, Malala - Outline 1

 
Men are from Earth, and So are Women

Men and women are different, biologically and cognitively. So it’s only natural for men and women to have different conversation styles.  1974 Maccoby and Jacklin compared gender differences between men and women and found only four areas where gender differences were evident verbal ability, visual-spatial ability, mathematical ability, and aggression. I’m most interested in the verbal ability differences, especially when it comes to opposite sex conversations.

- G25, Malala - Outline 1

 
Intimacy and Distancing

This article is a great example of how men don’t know what they want. They talk about romance and falling in love but they also talk a lot about distancing themselves and keeping their status as available. Honestly I think men are just trying to find that special someone to come in and sweep them off their feet and then they will change.

- G25, Malala - Outline 5

 
Bridging the Communication Gap Between Men and Women

This article talks about how men and women differ when engaging in a conversation. Women generally talk to gain information or to build their relationship with the one they’re speaking to. Men on the other hand typically talk to give information on reports or events that are happening. Since men typically like to get to the point and usually don’t hypothesize about their feelings, they tend to get frustrated with women because who go on and on about a subject. The article suggests that if we understand the difference between how males and females communicate, we can come up with different tactics to communicate more effectively. I thought this article was helpful and informative because it gives insight as to why males and females are so different when communicating.

- G25, Monteilh - Outline 5

 
Male/Female Communication Styles

The article suggests that men and women have been misunderstanding each other for generations and researchers have come to the conclusion that they speak different languages. It may be due to the fact that men and women are raised in different environments and we react to men differently than we react to women. Society has accepted the fact that men and women communicate differently and that one should just learn to deal with it. I enjoyed reading this article because I do believe that our upbringing modes us into who we are and how we effectively communicate with each other.

- G25, Monteilh - Outline 5

 
Women and eye contact

This article gives a short but precise list of six reasons why women make more eye contact with men when they are communicating.

- G25, Ide - Outline 5

 
Chat room to gossip

This website is like a chat room, and the topic was “Men, do you gossip, or do you see it more as simply exchanging information?” I thought it would be interesting to get the perspective from the other side. I agree with Coleman in that when women get together there maybe male-bashing happening, but when men get together, they may female-bash their wives.

- G25, Matsui - Outline 5

 
Communication in marriage

This website talks about gender and communication in marriage. It focuses on social power and cultural differences. This site gives another possible approach to the topic.

- G25, Matsui - Outline 2

 
How men and women are socialized differently

After having changed many psychotherapy tactics to include women, some psychologists are also researching new tactics for men. Some problems psychologists find in trying to help men are social barriers. Women by far are more likely to get therapy than men. Some men also have problems identifying emotional problems. It is possible to ask men how they feel about a subject and they may reply with what they are thinking rather than feeling. This Psychologist gives ideas for how other Psychologists should work with men. Many of the ideas include developing a relationship with the man, listening for a while before trying to offer advice, and being careful in language.

- G25, Murray - Outline 4

 
Gender and Conversational Style

Researchers looked at the possibility that some speech disjunctions may come from confederate speech style rather than confederate gender style. Tera Murachver and Annette Hannah train speakers to speak in specific ways in order to figure out whether it is gender that is playing the main influence or whether it is just the style of conversation. The full article can be found in PDF format from this website.

- G25, Murray - Outline 2

 
Interruptions in Group Discussions

Lynn Smith-Lovin and Charles Brody examine interruptions within Group discussions in an attempt to find out if these interruptions are in fact a means to dominate women. They assert that men commonly interrupt women in discussions and try to classify these types of interruptions into different groups. They believe that men interrupt women more than they interrupt other men, whereas women interrupt both men and women equally.

- G25, Murray - Outline 2

 
Can Divorce be predicted?

This website is about a study done by Dr. John M. Grottman. He studied the predictors of divorce instead of the results from it. He video taped his clients when they came to see him and by just studying their physiological responses such as heart rate and blood flow during conflicts, they could predict divorce with a 95% degree of accuracy. He also found that “stone walling” was a big factor in predicting divorce. The studied showed that stonewalling not only predicted the husband being lonely but also played a factor in his deteriorating health.

- G25, Imose - Outline 6

 
Communication Between Men and Women

This article talks about communication between men and women. She quotes Deborah Tannen’s book and agrees that men and women speak different languages. This happens both in the work place and at home. Nancy Stern is the author of this article and she feels like a translation is desperately needed. I thought this article was interesting because she mentions Deborah Tannen, who we have been studying all semester and I felt her ideas were similar to Deborah Tannens.

- G25, Imose - Outline 7

 
Avoiding confrontation

According to this article, women traditionally avoid confrontation. This is because women are afraid of looking bad. It also explains how to effectively confront and why it will benefit the woman to engage in confrontation. I thought this article relates to Tannen’s book because there are obvious gender differences in communication. In this section she uses an example to show how Johan and Marianne avoid confrontation. I disagree with this article that women traditionally avoid confrontation. I think both females and males are guilty of this and avoid confrontation in their own ways whether it be use of excessive verbiage or ignoring the person altogether.

- G25, Kim - Outline 8

 
Bridging the communication gap

This was an interesting article about how women and men should understand how each other talks in business. This way it will clear the communication gap men and women seem to have. Although this article relates communication to the workforce, it had similar ideas of why men and women communicate differently. Some of the reasons it pointed out were that women tend to ask a lot of questions, women tend to use anecdotes while men use metaphors, women are more comfortable talking about their feelings, and women like to hear detailed descriptions while men cut to the chase. These are all very interesting ideas but as we have learned in class, men should realize that their communication patterns are not helping but rather hurting. To bridge the communication gap between the genders, men should learn a woman’s conversational style and understand and learn it.

- G25, Kim - Outline 8

 
How women drive their men away

This was another chauvinistic website that is for men, written by men. In this article it gives 10 things women do to drive their man away. One of these things includes not saying what she means. Dr. Laura Schlessinger would agree with this article by saying women want men to be mind readers. This article supports Dr. Laura’s opinion by saying that women use nonverbal gestures to communicate what they mean rather than telling what is truly on her mind. The article says this drives men away because it creates a communication breakdown and both men and woman are left angry and frustrated. I thought this article fits perfectly with what Dr. Laura suggest women should do which is to not expect men to know what you are thinking and to be straightforward rather than beating around the bush.

- G25, Kim - Outline 7

 
Gender differences in communication

This was a site completely dedicated to gender and communication. Their point of view on why men and women talk differently was because of gender. They also had a completely “black or white” view as to how men and women talk. Men change topics often, while women don’t. Men tried to dominate conversations, whereas women try to let everyone participate. I chose this site because I believe that this is the stereotypical view of how men and women talk. We don’t take everything case by case, we just stereotype and believe that men are one way, and women are another. It is a strong difference between the two sexes.

- G25, Kim - Outline 2

 

This site goes into depth about differences in communication styles between the sexes. Not only does it explore the differences in communication, they talk about differences in facial expressions, behaviors, speech patterns, and body language. This site is really informative and really easy to understand because it is straightforward and they use charts to compare aspects of communication between the two sexes.

- G24, Montague - Outline 6

 

The Ladies Room is a link in which demonstrates the differences in between men and women in their communication between one another in four topics—body language, facial expressions, behavior and speech patterns

- G24, Antonio - Outline 2

 

I chose this site because it discusses some very important issues about communication differences in men and women. I believe this to be relevant because communication is very important in coming together and understanding the other person. It is also related to cognitive reciprocity because, in order to achieve that, there must be a sharing of thoughts and ideas.

- G24, Montague - Outline 2

 

This site explains the different way men and women speak that are associated with their gender. The styles are described as "debate vs. relate", "report vs. rapport, or "competitive vs. cooperative". This site also examines nonverbal communication such as facial expressions and body language. Another positive aspect of this site are the many links to similar subjects and discussions.

- G24, Pettit - Outline 1

 
Gender differences in nonverbal communication

I chose this site because I think nonverbal communication is just as important as verbal when dealing with power and solidarity. This site explained the differences in women and men’s gestures (which I found were mostly all true!) I believe that women engage in more conversational eye contact, and tend to approach others closer whereas men like personal space and “stare” to initiate power but not engage in eye contact on a daily habit. I think this is of course an American view but I still found it interesting because I think nonverbal communication can sometimes have an even greater effect on dominating a conversation.

- G25, Kim - Outline 2

 
You just don't understand

I have heard of Deborah Tannen before and it was from her other books that I remember her by. Her book “You just don’t understand,” was a whole book dedicated to women and men in conversation. I heard a lot of positive feedback in it so I was interested in reading a review on the book. This last site is a review on Deborah Tannen’s book by Laura Bryannan. From reading this review, I find that I even more strongly support Tannen’s view on gender communication. One thing in this review that struck my mind was the idea of “troubles talk.” Women talk about their troubles as forms of connection to the other person, but men don’t talk about their troubles unless they want a solution. How true! After reading a little more about Deborah Tannen’s view, I think she understands how women crave unity and closeness, but she still falls in the equity model because she finds that both genders need to find a middle ground, rather than having the man accommodate the woman.

- G25, Kim - Outline 2

 
Male and Females Communicate Differently

This particular site asserts the men and women often have trouble communicating because they, in a sense, speak different languages. Marilyn A. Sachs, the author of this site believes that gender differences in communication are due to our social experiences. She writes that, whether these communication styles are learned or inherited, they are incorporated into our lives and exist throughout life. Sachs, credits speech pathologist Lillian Glass for her studies on the “105 gender differences in communication patterns.” Among these patters are body language, facial language, and speech and voice patterns. Glass suggests that these differences in patterns affect all aspects of life and every relationship, intimate or not. I chose this site because I think that Marilyn Sachs writes about some very similar concepts to Deborah Tannen. Both Sachs, and Tannen assert that there are clear differences in patterns between the two genders. Sachs also discusses speech and voice patterns, which, according to Tannen are interlocutors. Body language was also mentioned in this site, which is called physical alignment in Tannen’s vocabulary, this being Tannen’s main topic of these reading.

- G25, Moa - Outline 3

 
Affecting Relationships Closest to Us

Cynthia Torppa, Ph.D., gives a slightly different perspective than Tannen in this site about communication barriers between the sexes. She suggests that the communication barriers that exist between each gender are actually minor ones that can be easily adjusted. She also gives examples of misunderstandings in conversation by displaying short dialogues, similar to the dialogues Tannen uses in her book. However, unlike Tannen, Torppa focuses on the underlying meanings of sentences and structure of sentences. She also focuses on the interpersonal areas of communication barriers including differences caused by emotional interpretations during conversations directed by societal factors. I picked this site because I think that it is important to not only look at the structure of language and its many diverse forms as Tannen does, but also to look at the emotional aspect of interpreting conversations caused by the emotional differences that exist between men and women.

- G25, Moa - Outline 3

 
Communication Between Men and Women in the Context of the Christianity Community

In this weblink, gender communication research is based on Dr. Rhonda H. Kelley’s studies. However, this gender communication research is Communication between Men and Women in the Context of the Christian Community. In Dr. Kelley’s research there is a term called genderlect – which is language of the sexes. Even though this website is in the context of the Christian Community, but also assumes three basics of gender communication: 1) Men and women do have different conversational styles. 2) Both styles of communication are equally valid. 3) The goal in gender communication is not change the style of communication but to adapt to the differences.

- G24, Antonio - Outline 8

 
Communication with men

In this weblink, there is a section that consists of the context - Communication with Men. Like Deborah Tannen, Dr. Laura Schlessinger, and Dr. Joshua Coleman, it reveals 3 secrets: Secret #1:It is much easier for men to talk when they see the clear aim of conversation, Secret #2: Man thinks to himself and gives the final answer, Secret #3: It’s difficult for men to express their emotions. And with each secret, there contains three types of information for each and solution for each.

- G24, Antonio - Outline 8

 
ITROW - College of Liberal Arts - Towson University

In this weblink, this is an overview on the research based on gender communication by Dr. Beth Vanfossen. There are many links to contents such as “Do men and women differ in their communication experiences?” or “Who interrupts?” to even “Who talks the most?”

- G24, Antonio - Outline 7

 

This website provides useful information about communication, particularly across genders. The site provides information about interruption and even prove discusses gender patterns in formal group meeting and settings. The site offers strategies, solutions and practical ideas in regard to gender communications.

- G24, Adams - Outline 9

 

This is a website that answers questions based on the differences amongst the genders in communication.  These are taken from the research on gender and communication by Dr. Beth Vanfossen.  She includes questions that can be answered to determine the different communication styles in the genders.  He questions that were addressed were, do men and women differ in their communication experiences, who talks the most, who interrupts, what about gender patterns in formal group meetings, what about gender patterns in informal group meetings, is there a women’s language connoting uncertainty and deference, does it matter, what are some of the ways women are affected by these patterns, are gender differences in communication patterns related to power, some strategies solutions and practical ideas.

- G24, Saito - Outline 8

 

This link takes you to a website of a review of the research on gender and communication that was prepared by Dr. Beth Vanfossen for ITROW's Women and Expression Conference.  There were some exact topics that Deborah Tannen discusses in her book; who talks more, men or women, who interrupts more and other topics surrounding the way men and women communicate with each other.

- G24, Lagondino - Outline 9

 
Sociolinguistics

Sociolinguistics is a link in which there is an application of a relationship between language and society and their interconnectedness with similarities and differences. This website also questions whether there is a differentiation between men and women. Also, this website inquires the age old question- Who talks more, men or women?

- G24, Antonio - Outline 2

 
Language and gender

Language and gender is a link in which there are many subtopics dealing with the relationship between conversations and gender. There is a subtopic in which it explains and demonstrates the dominance theory. Also this website references Deborah Tannen and her findings in her book, You Just Don’t Understand.

- G24, Antonio - Outline 2

 
Gender, Language, & CMC

This website deals with the differences in the style of language used by males and females. It talks about subjects such as topic raising and conversational style. Also, this website refers to the difference in language content used by males and females.

- G24, Ako - Outline 2

 
Gender Dynamics in Dinnertime Conversation

This website documents a study that was conducted which focused on the gender dynamics within families. Topics that were specifically looked into were the total talking time for both genders, turn-taking, and interruptions.

- G24, Ako - Outline 2

 

This website discusses an article concerning interruption. This study showedthat gender differences within communication styles at dinnertime were not asevident in dual-career families.

- G24, Pettit - Outline 7

 
Gender Language

In this website, the author talks about the linguistic strategies that Tannen mentions in her Gender and Discourse book. This author refers a lot to Tannen’s work. This author focuses on interruptions and overlapping in conversations.

- G24, Ako - Outline 2

 
Mental Help Net - Methods For Changing Your Relationships

This link leads to an article called “Competition and feeling superior to others”. Within this article there is a section called “differences between men and women in conversation” which discusses the concept of how men and women operate in two very different social worlds.

- G24, Tabon - Outline 7

 
The Different Voices of Gender: Social Recognition

This website discusses current research in the field of social psychology. It includes a discussion of how men and women speak and communicate differently. Furthermore, it also includes the question of whether gender has an impact on hearing as well as speaking.

- G24, Tabon - Outline 7

 
Deborah Tannen: Men and Women

This link leads to an article that further discusses the interaction patterns between couples.  This article is also by Deborah Tannen and is a condensed from one of her works called “You Just Don’t Understand”.  It covers topics such as status versus support and independence versus intimacy.

- G24, Tabon - Outline 10

 
Gender, Status and Power in Discourse Behavior of Men and Women

This link leads to article that further discusses the use of questions between men and women.  The article goes on to discuss the fundamental difference between men’s and women’s linguistic behavior and introduces the term of questions tags. 

- G24, Tabon - Outline 10

 
Communication styles of men and women

I chose this first website because it discusses communication styles of men and women. There is also references to Tannen’s research. Coleman’s book contains many of Tannen’s ideas and I thought this was interesting.

- G24, Lau - Outline 9

 
Genderlect Research: Power and Solidarity

This first website is based on Deborah Tannen’s, Genderlect and was written by Anne Larbes.  In Larbes’s writing she explains the idea of power and solidarity.  I felt this site was useful because it was based on Tennen’s idea, but the perspective is from another person.  

- G24, Lau - Outline 5

 
BBC - Voices - Your Voice - Classroom talk

This site relates to this outline and is very interesting because it talks about differences in girl’s and boy’s conversation styles. Not only that, they discuss a study which looked at parental roles in the development of such differences. A lot of the material is similar to Tannen’s book, but this site focuses on early developmental influences, namely observational learning.

- G24, Montague - Outline 6

 
Differences Between Men and Women

I think this site is really interesting because it explains the many differences in men and women. They not only go into the psychological differences, but also the social differences. It allows us to examine the differences between men and women in depth.

- G24, Montague - Outline 2

 
The Language and Gender Page

This site provides information and resources about language and gender studies, including the contact information of language and gender scholars around the world, associations and societies that study gender and language, and resources such as research and teaching materials. The purpose of this website is to help any individual who is interested in this material to become more oriented with the ever expanding information.

- G24, Pettit - Outline 1

 
Thoughts on Gender Styles in Communication

This website discusses gender styles in communication, and directly examinesDeborah Tannen’s book, You Just Don't Understand: Men and Women inConversation. Within this article, theauthor discusses how gender differences within communication style carry overto computer mediated communication.

- G24, Pettit - Outline 7

 
Interpretations of Gender Differences in Conversational Interruptions

This article describes how researchers are quick tolink interruption to domination, and that men are more likely to be those whointerrupt. The author further discusses how this assumption does not explainwhy women interrupt, as in an example involving a female continuously interrupting her male teacher. 

- G24, Pettit - Outline 7

 
Gender Differences in Communication

This web link contains an article written by Mark A. Tripp entitled, “Gender Differences in Communication. He talks about different researchers, and what they have discovered in terms of gender communication.

- G24, Stipek - Outline 3

 
Gender and Linguistic Stereotyping

I chose this web link because it provides access to a site where Maeve Conrick talks about different stereotypes involved in gender and linguistics. I think it is necessary to examine and be aware of these stereotypes.

- G24, Stipek - Outline 3

 
Girl talk, guy talk: do men and women really have distinctive conversational styles?

This website featured an article that was published in “Psychology Today” in 1988 and was titled, “Girl talk, guy talk: do men and women really have distinctive conversational styles?”  To sum this whole article up, it pretty much agreed with Tannen’s view of the interrupting styles.  There was a big emphasis on how men tend to gear conversations towards what they are interested in.  With this emphasis, women hardly talk about themselves or what they want to talk about.  For the record, this is the dominance of the man that is taking over the women.  Something that will not work in a marriage that wants to reach unity.

- G24, Saito - Outline 8

 
The Differences Between Men and Women

This website is written by a woman named Nancy Clark and it discusses the differences in conversational styles between men and women.

- G24, Kanemaru - Outline 2

 
Male/Female Communication Styles

Reviews Tannen’s notes on communication tactics between males and females including some of the 5 linguistic strategies discussed in my outline.

- G24, Kanemaru - Outline 3

 
Chapter 33 - Genderlect Styles

I chose this article because it discusses more in detail the use of cooperative overlap and the difference between men and women with speech, interruptions and overlapping. It showed that women use interruptions to show agreement and support, but men interrupt as a power move.

- G25, Hasegawa - Outline 3

 

Reviews Tannen’s notes on communication styles between males and females including miscommunication and topical cohesion.

- G24, Kanemaru - Outline 8

 
Do You Speak American. What Speech Do We Like Best? Prejudice. Women.

This is a link to the website, “Do you speak American? What speech do we like best?” The article that is posted is called, Language as Prejudice: Language Myth # 6 - Women Talk Too Much by Janet Holmes.  This was an interesting read because it deters the myth that women are to chatterboxes of all conversations.  The article mentions a study by two Canadian researchers, Deborah James and Janice Drakich, who reviewed sixty-three studies which examined the amount of talk used by American women and men in different contexts. Women talked more than men in only two studies.  I found that this article supplemented the section of Deborah Tannen’s book outlined above.

- G24, Lagondino - Outline 8

 
BBC - Voices - Your Voice - The views of conversation do's and dont's

This link takes you to the BBC website where there is kind of a discussion board, called Your Voice – The Art of Conversation: The Views on Conversation Do’s and Don’ts.  I found it interesting because the postings are by men and women, not researchers who have a different view on how they see conversations taking place.  Gordon from Boston, UK states, “It has been suggested that men think logically, whilst women think emotionally. With neither understanding the other, is it any wonder that they have difficulty finding a middle ground? Conversation, like relationships, only works when people want it to and never fails when all parties actively work for success.”  I agree with Gordon.

- G24, Lagondino - Outline 8

 
Managing Interaction II: Conversation

This website is based on empirical research on women's and men's conversations. It also focuses on gender and power. I found this website interesting because they did experiments with males and females based on interruption/overlap, backchannel feedback, and floor apportionment. Based on their findings, their results concluded that power plays a role, but gender is stronger.

- G25, Delapena - Outline 1

 
Talking at Work

This was a good site because it tells a little bit about what communicating in the work place is all about. It was a good article, and goes on to explain gender differences, communication styles, language differences and the “information deficit.”

- G25, Georgeo - Outline 10

 
Men and Women in Conversation in Cross-Cultural Communication

I chose this site because it is also an excerpt from another book written by Deborah Tannen. It talks about the importance of understanding the different types of speech and communication between husband and wife in order to prevent problems with in a marriage. They discuss the fact that life is made up of different conversations which determine the difference between man and female. And this is where cooperative overlapping comes in handy and prevents interruptions and the wrongful blaming of partners.

- G25, Hasegawa - Outline 3

 
Gender Differences in Conversational Interruptions

I chose this site to relate because it directly talks about the practice of interruption and how it is often used as a way of dominance. It is another site that gives good information and insight in regards to the topic of what and how interruptions can affect our daily relationships along with our marriages.

- G25, Hasegawa - Outline 3