My Proposal for Lifelong Driver Education
by SAYO YOSHINO
††††††††††††† A link to Report 2: http://www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/409as2004/sayo/report2.htm
†††††† Brief review of Report 2:
In report 2, several checklists and one driver self- modification exercise that are introduced in Dr. Jamesís Road Rage book are presented.† Specifically, two checklists which measure driverís road rage tendency and driverís friendliness to a passenger, and one modification method called partnership driving were described in the report 2.† All of these are tools to modify a driverís behavior to a more supportive driving behavior.†
Since I do not drive a car, I tried to modify my driving partnerís driving behavior in my experiment.† My driving partner acknowledged that he needs to modify his driving style to become a more supportive driver.† This was the most challenging part, yet it was the very first step in the modification processes.† Then, once he passed the acknowledging part, the next step was witnessing his driving behavior.† Lastly, modifying his driving behavior was the step that will get you much closer to becoming a supportive driver.† In report 2, both the two check lists and the experiment cover the three steps ďA W MĒ (Acknowledge, Witness, Modify) differently but effectively.†††
†††††††† Brief summary of the conclusion section:
Use of the checklists and the partnership driving exercise were very useful in identifying and modifying my partnerís driving style and philosophy. Throughout the modification process, I found several aggressive habits my driving partner did such as off sight for more than 1 second, not making enough space between his car and a car in front, making turns too fast and so on.†
According to the checklist result, my driving partnerís road tendency was moderate before doing the partnership driving exercise.† In fact, he had overcome ďA W MĒ (acknowledge, witness, and modify) one step at a time and modified all his aggressive habits gradually.† Throughout the exercise, my driving partner not only changed his driving behavior but also changed his driving philosophy.† It was identifiable through his improvement of his score on the checklist (How Passenger- friendly are You) he took every time before he drove.†
Having done the exercise, I truly admit the effectiveness of each attempt in report 2.† Also, my image about driver self- modification exercise has changed.† I had the image that the exercise was designed to teach supportive driving behavior to a driver, but I found that my assumption was not true.† The philosophy of the exercise is thinking of the driving experience as a team.† Unless both a driver and a passenger cooperate, no better change will occur.
The purpose of Report 3 is to introduce Dr. Jamesís lifelong driver education, go over some previous generationís report and my classmates presentations about driving psychology.† In addition to these, based on what I have learned so far, proposing lifelong driver education was the aim for this report.† Since driving education presented in this report covers the entire lifespan, many issues will be looked at in a broader perspective rather than through individual cases.
††††††††††††† Review of the Chapter on Lifelong Driver Education (Road Rage and Aggressive Driving)
While most teenagers are planning to have a driverís license, many adolescents fifteen to twenty years old die in car crashes.† In addition to their inexperience in driving, teenagers tend to engage in risky behavior.† Obviously, driving education is necessary for adolescents.† There are several approaches to it.† One is driving under parental supervision. The other way is graduated licensing in which newly drivers are allowed to drive under restricted conditions such as prohibition of unnecessary nighttime drive.
Lifelong driver education is necessary throughout our life.† In fact, even infants build up driving attitude through riding in their parentsí cars.† At any point in life concern for the three basic parts of the personality (affective, cognitive and sensorimotor) are important.† In Dr. Jamesís lifelong driver education, kindergarten and elementary school children especially focus on affective driving skills since they do not drive a car yet and their growth of cognitive part of self is not yet mature.† In middle school, in addition to the affective, children can start focusing on the cognitive part of driving behavior.† Then, by the time children enter high school, besides the affective and cognitive self, the sensorimotor driving skills will have become their main focus.
In lifelong driver education, the day we get a driverís license is NOT the end of our driving education.† Adults drivers also need to keep updating their driving skills such as by using QDCs (Quality Driving Circles) in which several drivers get together with the same goal of improving their driving through new multi- task training. Furthermore, teenagers are not the only population who engage in risky driving.† Elderly drivers are also at risk due to the physical change and old fashioned personal philosophy and ideology.
previous reviews of this book in the generational curriculum
After I reviewed many generational curriculums on the web, I especially chose three people each from different generation as I listed below.
Akira Sasabe, G7, Childrenís Self- Witnessing Reports as Road Users
Dina, Takahashi, G6, Quality Driving Circles
Jason Nakasato, G2, My Driving Personality Makeover Plan
Three of them mentioned about specific techniques to observe and improve driving behavior which are Childrenís Self- Witnessing Reports as Road Users, Quality Driving Circles, and My Driving Personality Makeover Plan, but I could not find the word ďLifelong Driving EducationĒ in any of the web.† In other words, none of the people mention about the necessity of driving lesson throughout our life.† All I could find was focus on just one or two generations which are children and college students.
3. Class Discussions and Lecture Notes
††††††††††††† 3 class presentations
1. Road Rage Nursery
Road rage nursery means kids copy parents and older peopleís behavior such as swearing at other drivers.
I agree with this idea.† If children frequently hear their parents swearing at other drivers while they are driving, then the child would be conditioned by such situation and think such behavior is normal part of driving habit.
2. Rewards for good passengers
Psychological studies have shown that kids who learn in positive environment and get positive rewards have better understanding of what their parentsí value are than kids who learn in negative environment and get negative rewards.† Thus, parents should emphasize on positive aspects of driving when they give driverís education to kids.††
I agree with the idea.† I think what the psychological studies have shown can apply in teaching kids appropriate driving manner.† By using positive aspects of driving such as telling kids ďThank you for being good passengers and helping me concentrate on driving,Ē surely kids feel satisfied with right actions they made and gain their self- confidence.
03/29/04, Supportive Driving (Chapter 8)
1. Benefits of Supportive Driving (pg. 167- 171)
Supportive driving like slow a car speed to avoid tailgating, make space for other car to enter the lane to assist flow the road condition is also emotionally intelligence because drivers can eliminate unnecessary car accidents and produce positive relation to other drivers.
I agree with this idea.† Supportive driving and emotionally intelligent are very simple and costless that all drivers need to do it to change how they think and react in a situation.† By doing so, drivers can eliminate incidents and evoking anger feeling.†
2. Motorist- to- motorist communication (pg. 171- 173)
Motorist- to- motorist communication means a system of communication like motor signals is one way to reduce incidents.
I do not think motor signals are useful way to minimize incidents.† Like my presenter mentioned, people interpreting the signals differently.† Use of motor signals is additional burden for drivers.† One of the reasons is in order to use motor signals, all drivers need to study for it.† Another reason is motor signals can be another potentially dangerous multi- tasking for drivers because in order to show their hand gestures, they need to hold steering wheel in one hand for while.
04/25/04, Musings of a Traffic Psychologist
(Reference 9: www.driving.org/articles/ musings.htm.)
1. Masculine and Feminine Modes of Driving
The definition of masculine and feminine modes of driving is that male and female drivers use either masculine modes (view car as speedy and light) or feminine modes of driving (view car as solid and big, drive safer and slower pace than masculine mode drivers).†
My presenter stated that introducing feminine modes of driving is hard for teenage males.† I disagree with my presenterís assumption about male teenagers.† Since they have adequate level of affection, cognition, and sensorimotor by then, they would understand the importance of feminine mode driving, if driverís education taught benefits and technique of such driving style.††
2. Traffic Relationships
Traffic Relationships is that each day, millions of drivers interact with other drivers for very short period of time, and during the interaction, people perceive other peopleís action as either positively or negatively.† In such environment, each driver to have sense of community and understanding is important to gain positive perception.
I agree with this idea.† Even though drivers interact with somebody they do not know, we know that all of them are living in a state, a country or the earth.† Having sense of community and understanding is important for drivers to have broader perspective of this world.† You never know that a man who interacts one second while you are driving is the person who delivered your package to your friend.† Thus, having positive perception (i.e. show appreciation) of others is always a good thing.
3ideas mentioned in the Chapter on Lifelong Driver Education.
1. Driver- Zed
Due to the fact that 16 years old drivers have 20 times higher crashes per mile compare to average driver, the driver- ZED program was created by the AAA (American Automobile Association).† The program emphasize on a lesson about adequate risk management.†
The content of the program is noteworthy for me because teaching how to manage risks seems concrete approach than just showing risky situations to teenage drivers.
††††††††††††† The information above came from Road Rage and Aggressive Driving by Dr. Leon James & Dr. Diane Nahl: CH9 Lifelong Driver Education, P193
2. Post Licensing: The QDC Approach
Quality Driving Circles (QDCs) consist of 2 to 10 drivers who get together frequently by face- to face or virtual meeting (telephone, internet) to help each other to be supportive drivers.† There are many trainings drivers can do.† One of the examples is a safe multitasking training such as dashboard dining and cell phone use.†
The QDC approach is noteworthy for me because any people (drivers, passengers, bicyclists, pedestrians) and generations (infant to elderly) can form groups and focus on what they wish to improve in traffic environment.† Also, unlike try to pursue oneís goal alone, members in a QDC group can pursue the same goal by encouraging each other.†††
††† The information above came from Road Rage and Aggressive Driving by Dr. Leon James & Dr. Diane Nahl: CH9 Lifelong Driver Education, P199- 202
3. Roadrageous Video Course
The Roadrageous Video Course includes teaching of behavioral self- modification techniques for drivers.† More in depth, this course focus on three things which are solving problems, gaining emotional self- control and a sense of community.† Since this course introduces how to make good intention in driving, drivers learn differently from traditional driving course, but effectively.
The roadrageous video course is noteworthy for me because these dense teachings are already formed as a video, unlike teaching by each individual, the producer can present what they intend to present.† Also, it is convenient for viewers, too.† This is because they can watch more than one times, anywhere they want (if there is a VCR).† Furthermore, teaching of emotional control techniques is definitely useful for any drivers in real driving situations.
††† The information above came from Road Rage and Aggressive Driving by Dr. Leon James & Dr. Diane Nahl: CH9 Lifelong Driver Education, P202- 203
4. My Proposal for Lifelong Driver Education
Infancy††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† - Birth to 18- 24 months of age
Toddlerhood†††††††††††††††††††††† - 12- 15 months to 2- 3 years of age
Early Childhood††††††††††††††††† - 2- 3 years to 5- 6 years of age
Middle Childhood††††††††††††††† - 6 years to about 12 years of age
Adolescence†††††††††††††††††††††† - about 12 years to 18- 21 years of age
Young Adulthood††††††††††††††† - 18- 21 years to 40 years of age
Middle Adulthood†††††††††††††† - 40 years to 60- 65 years of age
Older adulthood†††††††††††††††† - 60- 65 years of age to death
A word of caution:††††††††††††† †††
The list above is conventionally divided the infant to older adulthood.† Since there are other ways to show peopleís age, for instance, biological, social and psychological age, the above list does not necessarily fit to everyone.†
Biological age: a personís position with regard to his or her expected lifespan.
Social age: an individualís current status as compared with cultural norms
Psychological age: an individualís current ability to cope with and adapt to social and environmental demands.
†† The information above came from Human Development by Grace J. Craig and Don Baucum: CH13 Young Adulthood, P440
Infancy††††††††††††††† - Birth to 18- 24 months of age
Infants have not reached mature level of threefold self (affective, cognitive, sensorimotor) compare to adultsí threefold self.† Above all, the development of affective part of self is the fastest.† Thus, during infancy, my proposal of lifelong driving education mainly focuses on affective part of development in infants.† At this stage, infants are not fully capable of controlling themselves, so the way parents ††††††††††† interact with infants is a key.† There are 2 things what parents should do, when they take infants a drive.† One is try to use positive language while they drive (avoid using swear words).† This is because if infants hear more positive language than swear words, they catch positive one more than the other one.† Second is to try to drive as safe as possible in order for infants to have positive impression about driving.† This is because driving experience as either drivers or passengers are necessary part of life in our car culture.
Toddlerhood†††††††† - 12- 15 months to 2- 3 years of age
Like infants, toddlers have not reached mature level of threefold self (affective, cognitive, sensorimotor), yet.† Hence, as infants, toddlerhood emphasizes on affective part of self in my proposal of lifelong driving education.† At this period, toddlers are both passengers and pedestrians in traffic environment.† Parents continuously need to use positive language and drive safe.† In addition to these, providing positive media exposure is another key.† It is better for toddlers to watch cartoon and other mass media (TV programs, commercials, movies) that include supportive driving than aggressive driving behavior.† In order to make this happen, cooperation from media industries is necessary.
Early Childhood††† - 2- 3 years to 5- 6 years of age
Like toddlers, children in early childhood have not reached mature level of threefold self (affective, cognitive, sensorimotor), still.† Thus, like toddlers, children in early childhood mainly focus on affective part of self in my proposal of lifelong driving education.† However, it does not mean that children at this period do not have cognitive and sensorimotor skill.† In fact, children in this age can think before they act, and they can walk and run freely. Therefore, proving a traffic park, which have traffic light, cross walk, road for bicycles and skate boards instead of vehicles, could be a positive exposure for children to experience since they can learn about traffic rules while they are playing.† Also, inside the park, children see presence of other children, so they can help and encourage each other for right behavior.†
In addition to all the approaches presented in previous periods, introducing a self- control technique to children is another key. †During the early childhood, children are involved in traffic environment as passengers, pedestrians, and bicyclists.† Like drivers, children encounter some stressful situations like sitting inside a car for several hours, waiting for a signal to turn green.† In order to overcome such situations, introducing little meditation like closing their eyes (if it is possible) and counting to ten is useful.
Middle Childhood† - 6 years to about 12 years of age
Children in middle childhood have been close to mature level of threefold self (affective, cognitive, sensorimotor), but not fully.† Thus, children in middle childhood mainly focus on affective part of self in my proposal of lifelong driving education.† Writing journals which include traffic report and their feeling is a useful way to be aware of happenings around them and their emotion.† Then, teachers or parents read childrenís journals and write positive comments, and give back to the children.† After that, children read the comments about their journals, and try modifying their behavior and feeling next time.
††††††††††††† Adolescence†††††††† - about 12 years to 18- 21 years of age
It has been 12 years focusing on affective part of self, now is the time start mainly focusing on cognitive part of self. In the beginning of adolescence, taking a video of their parentsí driving behavior is a good start to analyze driving behavior objectively.† It is also fun experience for adolescents to making an original video.† Once adolescents have received driversí licenses, parents can take a video of their children while they are driving.† After that, children and parents can analyze their behavior by watching the video.† It is also useful to compare the video of their parents and children.†
Teaching of immobility and management techniques by either school teachers or parents is also helpful for adolescents.† Immobility means that during driving, most of the body remains still and such condition leads to tension.† The possible management technique for immobility is use of breathing in which people inhale as much as they can, then exhale at once.† By having understanding of body mechanism and management technique, adolescents do not need to stay in unhappy state of mind.
Young and Middle Adulthood†††††††††† - 18- 21 years to 40 & 40 years to 60- 65 years of age
In addition to affective and cognitive part of self, people in young and middle adulthood mainly focus on sensorimotor.† Continuation of driving education is important for them due to increase in multi- tasking while people are driving.† In order to learn new skills in driving, attending a group driving lesson is useful.† Since they have chance to meet new people, in addition to gaining skill, they can expand their network with other people.† Besides the driving lesson, people try to avoid risky driving and show concern for other drivers regularly is a path to supportive driving.
Older adulthood†††††††††††††††† - 60- 65 years of age to death
Older adults who have been driving for more than 40 years must be expert in driving, but they need to inspect threefold self (affective, cognitive, sensorimotor) once again. Having discussion about driving with newly licensed drivers is one way to review older adultsí threefold self.† Also, mind preparation before they drive is one strategy to remain calm in any situations. For instance, checking vision, hearing, destination, driving schedule before they drive gain their confidence that they are capable of driving behavior.
This assignment help me identify social and cultural attitudes in our society regarding driving by getting various information from the text book (chapter 9 Lifelong Driver Education in Road Rage and Aggressive Driving by Dr. Leon James & Dr. Diane Nahl), prior generations reports, articles written by Dr. James and my classmatesí presentation.† Since driver education starts from infancy, an understanding of driving psychology is important for parents to raise their children in a socially acceptable way.† Parentsí responsibility of their children continues even after their children have received a driverís license.† Parents themselves need to be supportive drivers in order to do all the things presented above.† In the near future we may see that our society is not fully ready to support the growing number of drivers in the older population.
Nobody knows the absolute right way to handle all the situations regarding driving that we have in this society.† However, people concerned about driving should understand that an aggressive driving style creates more risky situations than a supportive driving style.† All the knowledge I have gained throughout this semester is definitely useful for me to be a supportive driver in the near future.† Also, I can tell other people about the many issues surrounding driving, and I can guide them to how they can better themselves.†
In the beginning of this semester, I did not even know driving psychology existed.† Also, I was surprised that driving psychology actually involves driving cars.† Furthermore, I was thinking that all that matters in driving cars is the driversí driving skill.† As the semester went on, all my assumptions about driving psychology were broken down.† Now, I do have an understanding that driving is a complex behavior that involves the threefold self (affective, cognitive and sensorimotor).† Unless drivers have a balanced threefold self, their driving behavior becomes risky and harmful to themselves and others.† I predict that driving behavior will take a more supportive driving direction in our society over the next few years because each year more and more people are learning about driving psychology and how it concerns every individualís driving situations.†††††††
5. Future Generations
Being a generation 20 student was a precious experience.† In the beginning, I had several worries about this course. One was my lack of knowledge about making and uploading web pages. Second was the lack of knowledge about driving itself because I have never driven before. However, I could solve my worries one by one by getting help from many people (Dr. James, friends, classmates, people at computer room), and resources (Road Rage and Aggressive Driving book and articles by Dr. Leon James, prior generations work on web). Therefore, there is nothing to worry about for future generation students except for the dead line for each report. Like previous students stated, doing assignments ahead of time was necessary in this course.†††