My Emotional Spin Cycle-

The Four Options and the Two Bridges:

Annotated Bibliography

 

By: Latte

2/26/02

See the Instructions for this Report

 

 
I)                  Introduction

            Everyone goes through a daily emotional spin cycle whether or not it is positive or negative.  In general, a person is considered to have emotional intelligence if they can modify their negative emotional spin cycle into a positive one, or maintain their positive emotional spin cycle.  Maintaining and modifying one‚s emotional spin cycle can be accomplished in essentially the same way, via the four options and the bridge technique.  In this project, I will use this idea in an attempt to identify, observe, and modify my negative emotional spin cycle into a positive one.

In general, this project is based on the idea that everyone has three areas of human functioning, the three-fold self.  The three-fold self includes three domains, habits of feeling, habits of thinking, and habits of sensations and acting out.  These three domains usually work in conjunction with each other, but can be isolated and modified via the four options and the bridge technique.

            The four options are broken down into two-option categories, the top (red zone) and the bottom (blue zone), which each include the three-fold self.  The red zone is composed of feelings, thoughts, and actions about others and the world.  The two options in this category are negative about others and the world ą positive about others and the world.  The blue zone is composed of feelings, thoughts, and actions about the self.  The two options in this category are negative about self ą positive about self.

Together, these two zones make up the four options in which an individual can function.  A person that uses the positive options for the majority of the time would be considered ideal and emotionally intelligent.  On the other hand, a person that uses the negative options most of the time would be considered emotionally impaired.  However, if a bridge can be formed between the negative and positive options i.e. the „bridge technique,š an emotionally impaired person can crossover to become emotionally intelligent.  In this project, I will attempt to do just this.  I will observe myself during particularly challenging times each day to see how I deal with the situation and what kinds of negative options I choose.  This will occur for one week.  The following week, I will attempt to change my negative emotions, feelings, and actions by choosing a positive option via the „bridge technique.š  My data, analysis, and results will be discussed in report 2.  The remainder of this report will consist of research-formulated definitions of four query statements and the resources I used to define them.

 

§         „Cognitive scriptsš or schemas in relation to motivation or affect- a way of organizing and categorizing one‚s thoughts and experiences, to aid in memory, learning, and behavior.  Those experiences or situations that are consistent with established schemas are familiar and learned quickly, while those that are inconsistent take time to learn or do not affect the individual.

§         „Behavioral routinesš in relation to socialization or enculturation- a way in which an individual functions, including actions/reactions, ways of communicating, eating/sleeping habits, beliefs, ways of interpreting things, etc. based on ones culture or social environment.

§         „Cognitive appraisalš in relation to self-enhancing behavior- a person‚s subjective interpretation of a situation based on their emotions.  In general, it is only effective and self-enhancing if the situation displays some kind of relevance, use, and takes into account the individuals ideas, goals, or outlook on things.

§         „Emotional intelligenceš in relation to productivity and success- the ability to perceive, understand, and manage one‚s own emotions along with others.  Also, the ability to control and modify one‚s negative emotions into positive emotions.

 

These four terms that I have just defined are the major aspects of the emotional spin cycle.  A person‚s cognitive schema can influence how he/she appraises a situation.  If their cognitive appraisal of the situation is positive, i.e. familiar, the emotions experienced are likely to be positive as well.  But, if the cognitive appraisal of the situation is negative, i.e. threatening or unfamiliar, the emotions experienced are likely to be negative.  This type of behavior can become habit-forming, and result in behavioral routines.  These behavioral routines, which are usually influenced by an individual‚s culture or social environment, can invoke and perpetuate positive or negative emotions about the self or others.  These positive and negative emotions can help or impair an individual‚s ability to deal with people and situations.  However, the ability of an individual to maintain their positive emotions, and manage their negative emotions can kindle emotional intelligence.  This emotional intelligence is essentially the objective of the emotional spin cycle.

 

 

I)                  Annotated Bibliography: 

 

Resources for „cognitive schemasš:

1)      PS2400 Cognitive Psychology-

-         Brief definitions and descriptions of schemas and scripts.  Also analyzes how schemas and scripts are used, particularly in facilitating or distorting memory.

-         Schemas and scripts affect memory in that they can influence what it is that we remember.  They can cause us to pay more attention to positive or schema-consistent things, while biasing us to pay no attention to negative or schema-inconsistent things.  This is important in the emotional spin cycle because having the right schema in mind can aid us in identifying and knowing how to act in certain situations.  For example, I have a cognitive schema of how I would like people to treat others, i.e., being cordial and considerate.  But, if I were to encounter someone who conflicted with my schema, i.e., was mean or inconsiderate to someone else, I probably would pay no attention to the person, simply because I didn‚t like the way they were acting.  This inconsistency could cause me to form a negative opinion about this person, or initiate some negative emotions about others in general.  However, if I was aware of my cognitive schema, I could prevent my negative emotions from forming.  Just because a person is what I perceive as mean or inconsiderate, doesn‚t mean that he/she is a bad person.  Therefore, I could take this into account, and not let it affect my emotions about the person or others.

 

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Theories of how schemas affect memory

1.      Schemas guide the selection of what is to be encoded-only information relevant to the currently activated schema will be selected.

2.      Schemas allow the abstraction of information so that the meaning can be stored without having to store the details of specific words or actions.

3.      Schemas aid interpretation-relevant prior knowledge is activated from LTM to aid understanding of new information.

4.      Schemas allow integration so that a single integrated memory representation is created and stored.

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PS2400 Cognitive Psychology

2)      Enneagram Styles and Maladaptive Schemas: A Research Project-

-         Definition and descriptions of cognitive maladaptive schemas and Jeffrey Young‚s eleven life traps.  Descriptions of the research study conducted to see if there were any correlations between the Enneagram styles and the eleven life traps.   Results showed that the negative scale for each Enneagram style had a higher correlation with the eleven life traps than with the positive scale of each Enneagream style, suggesting that the negative side used maladaptive schemas.

-         Maladaptive schemas can contribute to the choosing of negative options in the four options.  This can lead to a negative emotional spin cycle.  However, if these schemas can be identified and modified, an individual would have an easier time preventing the negative options or bridging to the positive options.  For example, if an individual can work to use more effective, positive cognitive schemas instead of maladaptive ones, they are more likely to engage in emotionally intelligent thinking.  The more they engage in emotionally intelligent thinking, the more likely they are to engage in constructive and self-enhancing behavior.  This positive result would help to perpetuate the usage of positive cognitive schemas, instead of maladaptive ones.

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„When we‚re on the glide path mentally, our emotions and dispositions come along for the ride.  So the virtues in the high side of the emotional center accompany the divine ideas.  I think of them as adaptive emotional schemas.  On the low side, the intellectual center is influenced by maladaptive cognitive schemas or subjective paradigms, which distort the reality of who we are and what we‚re surrounded by.  A vicious circle gets set up between these distorting beliefs and the passions or maladaptive emotional schemas, that impel rather than inform the emotional center.š

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Enneagram Styles and Maladaptive Schemas: A Research Project

3)      Introduction Ų Schema-driven False Memories-

-         This article is based on the idea that motivation can influence the process of memory fabrication or false memories.  Motivation can include authoritative suggestions, peer influence, externalization, and cognitive dissonance.  Memory fabrication can also be formed via cognitive errors i.e., source and reality monitoring, memory impairment, and memory inaccessibility, or through cognitive schemas.  Although cognitive errors do not directly contribute to memory fabrication, they can contribute to schematic errors, which are formed from cognitive schemas.  Because people tend to remember things that fit into their cognitive schemas, they are influenced by this information even though it may be false.

-         Cognitive schemas influence what we remember and how we perceive our emotions and those of others.  However, if our cognitive schemas guide us to remember wrong information, or perceive situations incorrectly, it could compel us to experience certain emotions based on incorrect information.  This induction of emotions could cause a problem, especially if the emotions that are induced are negative.  As a result, being aware of false schemas can influence a person‚s emotional intelligence.  If a person can control their ability to be influenced by the contributors of cognitive errors, they can inhibit the formation of false schemas or memories.  This can ensure that the emotions a person experiences are based on real information, and therefore can be correctly modified via the bridge technique, if necessary.

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Sources of Motivation                                              Sources of Cognitive Error

Authoritative Suggestions                                 Source Misattribution & Reality Monitoring Errors

Peer Influence                         ßą                Memory Impairment

Externalization                                                 Memory Inaccessibility

Cognitive Dissonance

                      

                       False Schema Adoption (role, event, self, &person schemas)

                       Schema-guided perception

                       Schema-guided retrieval

                       Schema-guided re-construction

 

                       Fabricated Memories

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Introduction Ų Schema-driven False Memories

4)      Private Speech and Adult Attachment Theory-

-         Abstract for a study on how people soothe themselves in a distressing situation.  Proposed mechanisms are attachment theory and private speech.  Suggests that cognitive schemas are used to organize and manage relationships with others.  Also, suggests that one‚s cognitive schemas are shaped by primary attachment figures.  As a result, this attachment style should be predictive of ones‚ care-giving behavior in relationships.

-         This suggests that a person‚s cognitive schemas can influence their care-giving behavior in relationships.  The type of care-giving behavior that an individual exhibits can influence how they are treated.  For example, if a person can easily display affection, chances are that they view others positively, causing a positive emotional spin cycle.  On the other hand, if a person has a hard time displaying care-giving behavior, it could indicate negative feelings toward others, resulting in a negative emotional spin cycle.  In essence, the attachment style, formed by a person‚s primary attachment figure, can strongly influence how he/she will perceive or treat others.  This is significant because it can cause a person to be either positive or negative about others, improving or impairing one‚s emotional capacities.

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„Attachment theory focuses on cognitive schemas that individuals use to organize and manage their relationships with others (Cassidy & Shaver, 1999).  These schemas develop over time, beginning in infancy and continuing through childhood and adolescence, and are shaped by repeated experiences with primary attachment figures (Rothbard & Shaver, 1994).

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Private Speech and Adult Attachment Theory

5)      Transparency: Schemas & Stories-

-         Discusses the relationship between schemas and stories.  Schemas are like stories in that they use individual characteristics like people (characters), and ideas (plot), to help the individual understand and remember the bigger picture (narrative).  It is not necessary for us to understand every little detail of every situation, but to be able to fit the details into our own cognitive schemas so that we can understand it.

-         The relationship between schema‚s and stories is that they both aid in understanding a situation.  This ability to understand situations without much analysis, can lead to a positive emotional spin cycle.  On the other hand, without this familiarity, confusion and threat can evolve, invoking a negative emotional spin cycle.  As a result, the formation of stories or schemas to help us remember information can promote familiarity, and therefore positive emotions about our self and others.

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„All of these communications, whether explicit or implicit, convey two kinds of information that make up all narrative elements of plot and characterization.  First, they convey information about what it is that happened or that exists or will happen.  This is the realm of relatively straight information Ų the who, what, when, where and how of „description.š  But secondly, they convey value judgments about all this Ų is it good or bad, competent or incompetent, relevant or irrelevant.  As this theory describes elsewhere, this involves locating what is described on a value grid that is an essential component of our cognitive schemas and of the emotions with which we invest them

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Transparency: Schemas & Stories

 

            Resources for „behavioral routinesš:

1)      Boys to Men: Emotional Miseducation-

-         Brief descriptions of roles and behavior that society enforces on boys and men. In general, society is teaching boys and men to hide or suppress certain emotions, i.e. affection, fear, etc.  These behavioral roles are misguiding boys into being confused and stereotypical men.

-         The behavioral role that society is enforcing on males is extremely detrimental to their emotions.    This suppression of feelings and emotions can cause an individual to find other ways of expressing their emotions, which is usually through aggression, violence, etc.  These types of negative actions will only promote and perpetuate a negative emotional spin cycle, which can lead to an increase in negative emotions, feeling, and habits.  Stopping the suppression of feelings when a boy is young is imperative in controlling his emotional spin cycle.  If a child can learn to express his emotions and feelings, he is that much better off in becoming emotionally intelligent and managing his emotions.

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„Meaning that boys are taught to shut down their feelings, including empathy, sympathy and other key ingredients of pro-social behavior.  Combine that emotional disconnection with increased exposure to violent movies and video games and decreased supervision by adults, says Kindlon, the co-author, with Thompson, of „Raising Cain: Protecting the Emotional Life of Boysš (Ballantine, 1999) and you‚ve got a recipe for disaster.š

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Boys to Men: Emotional Miseducation

2)      Warm Family Environment Protects Aggressive Children From School Maladjustment and Later Adulthood Unemployment-

-         Study on school age children with maladaptive behaviors and aggression.  Results show that modifying their social environment can have a significant impact on their behavior.  Through increased parental support, supervision, and pro-social behavior, aggressive children can develop better social skills, making it easier for them to get through school and eventually get a job.

-         In relation to the emotional spin cycle, aggression is considered a negative action that can result in destructive behavior toward the self and others.  As stated in the article, children that start out aggressive and receive no intervention, become even more aggressive in adulthood.  However, if this aggressive behavior can be identified and modified, a child can begin to choose more positive options over negative ones.  The more positive options that the child chooses, the easier it is, and the more likely he/she is to continue on this path.  In general, this child should engage in less aggressive behavior, and more constructive and supportive behavior, resulting in emotionally intelligent behavior.

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„The authors found that children who were aggressive at age eight began a cycle of maladaptation that included school maladjustment, problem drinking, lack of occupational alternatives and finally long-term unemployment, said lead author Kokko.š

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Warm Family Environment Protects Aggressive Children From School Maladjustment and Later Adulthood Unemployment

3)      Preventing Conduct Problems in Head Start Children: Strengthening Parenting Competencies-

-         Suggests that preschool children with conduct problems are at an increased risk of developing health and behavioral problems in adolescence.  Factors contributing to this are mainly family characteristics i.e. low income, low education, teenage pregnancy, single parenthood, etc.  Children of the Head Start program are at an even greater risk due to the increased rates of low socio-economical families.  However, intervention through parent and teacher training is expected to reduce or prevent conduct problems.

-         Children that develop conduct problems due to environmental factors are at a high risk of eventually developing emotional problems.  If their environment is not changed or they are not able to develop efficient ways of coping with their inabilities, they will develop negative ways of dealing with their problems.  This impaired way of thinking will only lead to negative emotional spin cycles, unless intervention is made.  If children with conduct problems can develop efficient and effective ways of dealing with their problems and behavior i.e., turning rage into compassion and self-destructive behavior into self-enhancing behavior, they are more likely to develop and increase their positive emotions.  These positive emotions can help them remain within a positive emotional spin cycle, allowing them to have emotional freedom.  In the end, they will be more successful and satisfied with their lives in whatever it is that they choose to do.

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„In addition to parent and family risk factors, child risk factors have been implicated in child conduct disorders.  Studies indicate that early academic difficulties, such as reading deficits and cognitive language delays, area associated with conduct problems (Schonfeld, Shaffer, O‚Connor, &Portnoy, 1988; Sturge, 1982), as are poor social skills and poor problem solving (Asarnov &Callan, 1985; Richard & Dodge, 1982; Rubin &Krasnor, 1986).š

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Preventing Conduct Problems in Head Start Children: Strengthening Parenting Competencies

4) Fast-Food Culture Serves Up Super-Size Americans-

-         America‚s abundance of fast-food restaurants are producing and promoting unhealthy eating habits, and an overweight population.  Most importantly, it is targeting children through marketing and availability.  Wherever a child goes they can watch a commercial or have access to various fast foods, it‚s even available at school.

-         Problems arise because fast food is definitely attractive, appealing and addicting.  However, it only promotes obesity.  In a culture that puts such an emphasis on being thin, this can have an even greater impact on those who are overweight.  This can promote emotional problems such as inadequacy and depression, which can lead to pessimistic or cynical thinking, and eventually self-destructive behaviors.  Often, self-destructive behaviors can consist of eating more food to deal with the feelings of inadequacy.  While this brings temporary satisfaction, it only promotes a negative emotional spin cycle.  As a result, people in these types of situations should try to have confidence in themselves.  This would enable them to think more realistically, causing them to behave in self-enhancing behavior, i.e., exercising and eating healthy, instead of engaging in self-destructive behavior, i.e., eating fast-foods.  Overall, they would become much more healthy, happy, and emotionally intelligent.

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„To be sure, Brownell acknowledged, genes and self-control play a role in obesity and the diabetes and other health problems that result.  But, in his view, both face a losing battle against the ubiquity of bad food.  The problem with medical and psychological interventions for individuals, he said, is that the costs of treatment outweigh the benefits, and weight-gain relapse rates remain high.š

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Fast-Food Culture Serves Up Super-Size Americans

5) Culture Clash: The Corporate Socialization Process Meets Non-Congruent Organization Subcultures-

-         There was a problem with many of the automotive factories of the General Motors Corporation.  Because there were so many employees of different cultures, people were having problems dealing with the different cultural behaviors.  As a result, an attempt was made in the Saturn Company to try to socialize everyone into one group identity.  This consisted of a 4-stage process, and was implemented through a consistency in the pay-system, team arrangement, etc.  Although there were some explainable problems, the socialization process was a general success, improving the work environment.

-         This ability to create a group identity was very important in the employee work environment.  If the problems went on, it would cause workers to have more animosity toward each other.  This would only invoke negative emotions toward others and emotionally impaired thinking, which would eventually result in decreased production and destructive behavior.  However, changes were made that enabled the employees to feel positive about others and their environment.  Because the employees could all identify with the same thing, a type of unity and equality was formed.  The employee‚s no longer felt anger or arrogance toward each other, they instead felt more compassion. 

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„In his study, Van Maanen identifies what he describes as a 4-phase socialization process Ų choice, introduction, encounter, & metamorphosis Ų by which new members assume a group identity.š

Standard Model of Culture, Socialization, & Behavior

Culture

 

Socialization

 

Congruent Behaviors

 
 

 


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Culture Clash: The Corporate Socialization Process Meets Non-Congruent Organization Subcultures

 

            Resources for „cognitive appraisalš:

1)      PY3085A Ų Emotion: Appraisal, Activation, Expression-

-         Suggests that an individual only considers appraisals if they are of emotional or motivational relevance.  Also, suggests that if the situation is beneficial, the emotions experienced will be positive.  But, if the situation does not display any importance, and is considered a problem, expectations will be lowered and emotions experienced will be negative.

-         Given this information, situations that are motivating to the individual can cause them to experience positive emotions that can impel them into a positive emotional spin cycle.  However, if the situation does not show any relevance, negative emotions are likely to be experienced, impelling the individual into a negative emotional spin cycle.  Once an individual can identify these effects, he/she can modify their emotions or appraisal technique, to avoid falling into a negative emotional spin cycle.  For example, even though an individual knows that a situation has no importance to them, they can acknowledge this, but try to think in a more optimistic way.  This can keep them in a positive emotional spin cycle, inhibiting their susceptibility to pessimistic or cynical thinking.

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„According to appraisal theory, not only is emotion in general dependent on appraisal, but also particular emotions imply characteristic appraisal patterns∑. In Smith and Lazarus‚s view, all emotions are characterized by primary appraisals of motivational relevance.  This means that unless the individual cares about the situation, it will have no emotional significance for them.š

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PY3085A Ų Emotion: Appraisal, Activation, Expression

2)      Personal Counseling Services & Resources Ų Assertiveness Ų Analysis and Development-

-         Comparison of non-assertive, assertive, and aggressive behavior.  Non-assertive and aggressive behaviors are considered to be negative options, while assertive behavior is considered positive.  Assertiveness can be self-enhancing in that it can allow an individual to express their self freely.  It tends to decrease or neutralize anxiety, and increase an individual‚s ability to relate to others via emotional expression. 

-         Assertiveness is extremely important in an individual‚s emotional spin cycle because it enables them to express their emotions, and inhibits the suppression of emotions.  It is well known that the suppression of emotions only stimulates negative emotions like aggression and self-destructive behavior.  In contrast, if an individual can have the freedom to choose how they want to act, it is more likely that he/she will be optimistic about their choices and engage in self-enhancing behavior.

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Aggressive Behavior

 

As Actor

 

Self-enhancing at expense of others

Over-expressive

Achieves desired goal(s) at expense of others

Chooses for other

Depreciates other

 

As Receiver

 

Feels put down, depreciated

Hurt, defensive, humiliated

Does not achieve desired goal(s)

 

Assertive Behavior

 

As Actor

 

Self-enhancing

Expressive

May achieve desired goal(s)

Chooses for self

Confident, feels good about self

 

As Receiver

 

Knows where one stands

Respects actor

May achieve desired goal(s)

 

Non-Assertive Behavior

 

As Actor

 

Self-denying

Inhibited

Does not achieve desired goal(s)

Others choose

Uncertain, anxious, depreciates self

 

As Receiver

 

Impatient, guilty, or angry

No respect for actor

Achieves desired goal(s) at actor‚s expense

 

 
The Assertiveness Continuum of Behavior

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Personal Counseling Services & Resources Ų Assertiveness Ų Analysis and Development

3)      Emotion Research: Cognitive and Experimental Psychology-

-         Suggests that cognition is necessary for us to be able to interpret our emotions.  Cognitive appraisal allows us to put value on a situation, depending on what type of emotion it arouses.  Once the situation is appraised, it allows us to initiate or modify our behavior.

-         Our emotional spin cycle is based on what type of behaviors we initiate in certain situations.  As a result, cognitive appraisal is very important in analyzing our emotions.  If we are aware of how we appraise certain situations, we can adjust or identify it, to control our emotions.  For example, if we know that a situation is worthless, we can adjust our emotions so that we don‚t view it in a negative way.  This could involve finding some way to put value on the situation, or just trying to keep an optimistic mind because of the susceptibility to pessimism.  The more this is done, the more a person will become conditioned into using positive emotions, and the more emotionally intelligent he/she will be. 

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„Emotional responses represent undifferentiated physiological states and cognition is therefore necessary to provide an interpretation which a) provides the basis for the conscious experience of a particular emotion, and b) can be used by the organism in an adaptive manner to initiate or alter a particular behavior.š

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Emotion Research: Cognitive and Experimental Psychology

4) Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control-

-         Summarizes how and why people choose what to do with their life, and their career options.  This is usually based on how they view their self and how they appraise situations.  This can also be affected by gender differences and ethnicity.  This paper also gives an analysis of how to master occupational roles whether it is as an employee, or an employer or manager.

-         Self-efficacy or how one views their self, can greatly affect their emotions.  If a person already views their self in a negative way, they are likely to underestimate their self, and choose career options that aren‚t sufficient to their needs.  This will only promote more negative emotions towards their self and possibly others.  As a result, because self-efficacy can influence life choices, negative self-efficacy can promote a negative emotional spin cycle.  On the other hand, if a person views their self in a positive way, i.e., is confident and enthusiastic, they are more likely to positively appraise situations and choose careers that meet their needs.  In the end, they are more likely to be optimistic about their self and others, engaging in positive emotional spin cycles.

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Career Choice and Development (423)

Š        People with higher perceived self-efficacy to fulfill job functions consider a wider range of career options

-Some people eliminate entire classes of vocations based on perceived efficacy

-Perceived mathematics self-efficacy contributes more to education and career choice than does amount preparation in high school, level of mathematical ability, prior achievement, and anxiety.

Š        Sex difference in fulfilling duties

-Women judge themselves less efficacious for scientific occupations than men

-Women express lower sense of efficacy for occupations requiring quantitative skills and activities

Š        People act on their beliefs of vocational efficacy as well as their knowledge about career options

-Perceived self-efficacy to master scientific knowledge predicts successful academic coursework and perseverance

-Perceived self-efficacy is predictive of withdrawal from other fields as well

Š        Perceived efficacy can also affect career pursuits through interest

-Higher perceived efficacy is related to high interest

-Efficacy beliefs raise interest (we are interested in things we think we may be good at)

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Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control

5) Psychology Index Ų Natalie Skinner-

-         Study of effects of threat appraisal and challenge appraisal on emotions.  Studies showed that threat appraisals aroused negative emotions.  On the other hand, challenge appraisals aroused positive emotions and were motivating.

-         The motivation and positive emotions that challenge appraisals arouse, are important to the way an individual views things.  If an individual can appraise a somewhat difficult situation as challenging instead of threatening, they are more likely to get through it due to the positive emotions aroused.  This is important in the emotional spin cycle because if this type of appraisal is made in difficult situations, the individual is more likely to become emotionally intelligent.  The more they utilize their positive emotions in difficult situations, the easier it gets.  On the contrary, if the individual perceives a situation as threatening instead of challenging, negative emotions are aroused.  As a result, the individual is less likely to get through the situation.  The more the individual perceives situations as threatening instead of challenging, the more likely he/she is to use negative emotions, increasing their likelihood to use negative emotions in general.  These situations are very important because they can influence the likelihood of an individual to use positive or negative emotional spin cycles, causing either emotional intelligence or impairment.  

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„The findings from the first two studies I have conducted suggest that the appraisal of challenge, compared to threat, is associated with a more adaptive approach to stressful events in terms of (a) higher coping expectancies, (b) higher levels of positive emotion/lower levels of negative emotion, and (c) an increased capacity to manage the experience of emotion to one‚s best advantage (e.g., as a source of motivation) Ų commonly known as a facilitative interpretation of emotion.š

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Psychology Index Ų Natalie Skinner

 

            Resources for „emotional intelligenceš:

1)      Emotional Intelligence in Schools-

-         Questions whether or not emotional intelligence should be taught in schools.  Suggests that emotional skills are much easier to learn in the years from birth to late teens, which is when most kids are in school.  Students could learn many important skills.  According to Daniel Goleman, some of these important skills could be self-awareness, managing emotions, empathy, communicating, co-operation, and resolving conflicts.

-         Emotional intelligence is pretty much the ideal of the four options and the emotional spin cycle.  However, there are not many people that can effectively understand their emotions.  By implementing the teaching of emotional intelligence in schools, children can have a better understanding of their emotions and how to deal with them.  Getting this training early is important because it will produce emotionally intelligent adults.  The more emotionally intelligent adults there are, the greater the likelihood that they will promote and produce emotionally intelligent children.  The result would be children who are taught early on by their parents and teachers, how to deal with their emotions in an effective way, i.e., being compassionate, self-confident, and optimistic.

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„The underlying lesson of the current educational paradigm have little to do with the specific content of education, but rather are closely related to inculcating market logic and re-enforcing the concomitant drive to increased individualism.  They include

Š        Attributing quantitative values to qualitative phenomena Ų let‚s call it putting a price on performance.  You will recognize the all-pervasive marks system which rapidly becomes the dominant goal of pupils;

Š        Encouraging individual competition rather than group collaboration and solidarity;

Š        Making believe that learning is a scarce commodity, that takes places only in given places at specific times, with predefined subjects and with the help of experts.

Š        Emphasizing rationality and logic while neglecting emotions and relationships.š

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Emotional Intelligence in Schools

2)      Emotions and Emotional Intelligence-

-         Definitions and descriptions of what emotions and emotional intelligence are.  Suggests that emotional intelligence is important in all aspects, including school, work, and overall performance.

-         Emotional intelligence in one‚s environment can only be positive.  It will promote and perpetuate optimism, support, and compassion, while inhibiting pessimism and destruction.  The more known emotional intelligence is, the better off everyone is.  For example, if emotional intelligence was taught and supported everywhere an individual went, i.e., school, work, and in the community, the greater the chances that the individual would become emotional intelligent.  The more emotional intelligent an individual is, the more likely they are to engage in positive emotional spin cycles everyday.  However, if an individual is hardly ever exposed to any sort of emotional competence or control, he/she will be left to figure things out on his/her own.  This could result in maladaptive or negative emotions that would only hinder and impair the individual.

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„EI subsumes Gardner‚s inter- and intra-personal intelligences, and involves abilities that may be categorized into five domains:

           Self-awareness: Observing yourself and recognizing a feeling as it happens.

Managing emotions: Handling feelings so that they are appropriate; realizing what is behind a feeling; finding ways to handle fears and anxieties, anger, and sadness.

Motivating oneself: Channeling emotions in the service of a goal; emotional self-control; delaying gratification and stifling impulses.

Empathy: Sensitivity to other‚s feelings and concerns and taking their perspective; appreciating the differences in how people feel about things.

           Handling relationships: Managing emotions in others; social competence and social skills.

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Emotions and Emotional Intelligence

3)      Does őEmotional Intelligence‚ Matter in the Workplace?-

-         Emphasizes need for emotional intelligence in the workplace especially among bosses, corporate leaders, and in people-oriented jobs.  In reference to Daniel Goleman, employees need bosses with empathy, and sales need salesmen with an empathic ability to be able to detect a customer‚s mood and take advantage of it.  It is recommended that emotional intelligence is learned and therefore can be taught.  It affects everyone, which is why there is an increasing need in the workplace now.  There are already people whose jobs are to build emotional competencies.

-         Integrating emotional intelligence into the workplace can have significant effects.  To begin, having an emotionally intelligent boss who is empathic and supportive, should promote positive emotional spin cycles among employees.  The more compassionate and respectful that the employees are toward each other, the more likely they are to influence each other in a positive way.  However, if there is nothing emotionally intelligent about one‚s workplace, i.e., if everyone is angry, arrogant, or aggressive, it will only promote negative emotions toward others, and a negative emotional spin cycle.

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„Patterns of emotional intelligence are not fixed, however.  So men and women can boost their all-round EQ by building their emotional abilities where they lack them, claims Stein.  Working with psychologists and executive coaches, for example, women can hone their assertiveness skills and learn such stress-management techniques as meditation, yoga and jogging, says Stein.  Men can learn the importance of listening to co-workers and customers, reading their moods and winning their trust-all increasingly important aspects of leadership, teamwork and customer and co-worker relations, say Stein.š

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Does őEmotional Intelligence‚ Matter in the Workplace?

4) EI Articles file 1-

-         Describes the effects of moods and emotions on leadership.  Leadership is much more effective when the leader can relate and understand his/her organization.  Describes four key parts of emotional intelligence, i.e. appraisal and expression of emotion, use of emotion to enhance cognitive processes and decision-making, and knowledge about emotions and management of them.  Proposes five essentials of leader effectiveness, i.e. development of collective goals and objectives; instilling in others an appreciation of the importance of work activities; generating and maintaining enthusiasm, confidence, optimism, cooperation, and trust encouraging flexibility in decision making change; and establishing and maintaining a meaningful identity for an organization.

-         Emotional intelligence is important in leaders because it can enable them to make decisions that are representative of their community.  If leaders are unable to detect the feelings, or are unaware of their people‚s needs, a community cannot thrive. This can result in either negative emotions toward the leader, negative emotions toward others in the community, and negative emotions toward the self.  But, if leaders display emotional intelligence, i.e., are affectionate, sympathetic, and constructive, their community is more likely to succeed and experience positive emotions toward them.  This can increase the likelihood of positive emotions toward others in the community, and possibly positive emotions toward the self.  The more emotional intelligence, the better off everyone is.

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„Two preliminary studies suggest that leaders‚ feelings may play an important role in leadership.  George and Bettenhausen (1990) found that the extent to which leaders of existing work group‚s experienced positive moods were positively related to levels of pro-social behavior performed by group members and negatively related to group turnover rates.  George (1995) found that work groups led by sales managers who tended to experience positive moods at work provided higher quality customer service than groups led by managers who did not tend to experience positive moods at work.š

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EI Articles file 1

5) Emotional Intelligence for a Better Community-

-         Emphasizes the importance of social competence in many aspects of the community, especially in school.  If emotional intelligence can be taught in schools, it can promote emotionally intelligent adults, who can become effective members of their communities.

-         Having emotional intelligence in a community would only promote a more optimistic, understanding, and passive community.   The more supportive a community is toward each other, the more likely they are to be successful in strengthening the competencies of their children, schools, jobs, etc.  This increase in positive emotions would only evolve into a more stable, healthy, and unified community.   On the flip side, if a community lacks emotional intelligence, it is more likely to promote destruction among each other and cynical thinking among its members.  This would only inhibit success, promoting division instead of unification.

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„According to Cary Cherniss, PhD, president of Div. 27 (Society for Community Research and Action), Dr. King‚s outstanding ability to effect social change had much to do with the fact that he displayed qualities of emotional intelligenceųtraits that community psychologist need to foster among community activists and leaders to help bring about social change and develop healthier communities.š

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Emotional Intelligence for a Better Community

 

II)              Bibliography

 

Resources for „cognitive scriptsš

 

1)      PS2400 Cognitive Psychology

2)      Enneagram Styles and Maladaptive Schemas: A Research Project

3)      Introduction Ų Schema-driven False Memories

4)      Private Speech and Adult Attachment Theory

5)      Transparency: Schemas & Stories

Resources for „ behavioral routinesš

1)      Boys to Men: Emotional Miseducation

2)      Warm Family Environment Protects Aggressive Children From School Maladjustment and Later Adulthood Unemployment

3)      Preventing Conduct Problems in Head Start Children: Strengthening Parenting Competencies

4)      Fast-Food Culture Serves Up Super-Size Americans

5)      Culture Clash: The Corporate Socialization Process Meets Non-Congruent Organization Subcultures

Resources for „cognitive appraisalš

1)      PY3085A Ų Emotion: Appraisal, Activation, Expression

2)      Personal Counseling Services & Resources Ų Assertiveness Ų Analysis and Development

3)      Emotion Research: Cognitive and Experimental Psychology

4)      Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control

5)      Psychology Index Ų Natalie Skinner

Resources for „ emotional intelligenceš

1)      Emotional Intelligence in Schools

2)      Emotions and Emotional Intelligence

3)      Does őEmotional Intelligence‚ Matter in the Workplace?

4)      EI Articles file 1

5)      Emotional Intelligence for a Better Community

 

 

 

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