TRANSCRIPT ANALYSIS AS A POTENTIAL TOOL

 

IN PSYCHOTHERAPY

 

LEON JAMES

 

 

Department of Psychology, Univ. of Hawaii

 

 

Hawaii Psychological Association

 

 

Annual Convention, Dec. 1982

 

 

This paper describes the procedures involved in analyzing transcripts or portions of talk in the therapy interview. Transcripts may be prepared in full through recording and transcribing, or they may be merely recorded and listened to, or they may be merely remembered quotations from clients‚ talk. This paper shows in particular how talk is analyzable into „speech actsš which have clearly discernable psychodynamic information about the clients‚ level of functioning interpersonally and interpersonally. The method illustrated here is based on a system of thought developed by Emanuel Swedenborg (1668ų1771) and developed for this purpose by me. The paper is designed to be a őminiųlesson‚ so that a prospective therapist or user may instantly decide whether it is useful or not. The following steps are involved in the use of this analytic system:

 

Step 1.   Study and learn CHART OF SYMPTOMS (table 5) which relates clients‚ discourse or talk to basic psycholinguistic functioning.

 

Step 2.    Select discourse segments (or units) that are of particular interest to you as therapist because of their „psychodynamicš import (such as clients‚ statements, comments, expressions, etc.

 

Step 3.    Score selected discourse units using CHART OF SYMPTOMS (see illustration on p.6).

 

Step 4.    Retrain clients for each dysfunction you‚ve thus identified by focusing their attention on them and providing them with better alternatives (use Tables 1 through 4).

 

 

 

HAWAII PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

12/82                   L.A. James

UH/PSYCH.

Applied Psycholinguistics in Clinical/Community Psychology

 

 

 

LOOK AT IMAGE 1

 

HAWAII PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION            12/82             James               UH/PSYCH

                                       

Applied Psycholinguistics in Clinical/Community Psychology:

 

GRAPHIC METHODOLOGY

 

The 3x3 Matrix as an Analytic Tool

 

(based on the writings of Emanuel Swedenborg, 1688-1771)

 

 

 

 

A         

B          

C

 

AFFECTIVE AREA

COGNITIVE AREA

BEHAVIORAL AREA

LEVEL       III

ORGANIZATIONAL FUNCTIONS

7

 


8

 

 

 


9

LEVEL II NORMATIVE

FUNCTIONS

 

 

4

 

 

 


5

 

6

 

LEVEL I

INFORMATIONAL FUNCTIONS

1

 

 

 

2

 

                  3

 

 

HAWAII PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION         12/82    L.A. James        UH/Psych

                                                                                                  

Applied Psycholinguistics in Clinical-Community Psychology

 

ASSESSMENT OF CLIENT‚S PSYCHOLINGUISTIC FUNCTIONING

 

 

A        

B       

C

 

LEVEL III ORGANIZATIONAL FUNCTIONS

Client‚s abi–lity to use general stan–dards of judgments and categorizations

WHY

client doesn‚t use valid or good standards of judgment

HOW

client misjudges or miscategorizes (i.e. where and when)

WHAT

judgments and categorize at ions are being misused

 

LEVEL II NORMATIVE FUNCTIONS

Client‚s abi–lity to apply objective norms to self and others

WHY

client doesn‚t use appropriate or fair norms

HOW

client misevaluates (i.e. where and when)

 

WHAT

norms client misuses

 

LEVEL I

INFORMATIONAL

FUNCT IONS

Client‚s abi–lity to remem–ber facts and notice things

WHY

client doesn‚t remember and notice things

HOW

client manages not to remember and notice

WHAT

client doesn‚t re–member and notice

 

 

Notes: LEVELS I, II, III correspond to stages of natural language development and use (e.g., I: Reading; II: Writing; III: Theme Organization).

 

AREAS A, B, C correspond to „depthš of functioning from „inmostš (Affective) through intermediate (Cognitive) to „outmostš (Beha–vioral) Direction A         B         C is normal, mature, or repaired process while Direction C        B       A is analytic, empirical disco–very of dysfunctions (or assessment of functions).

 

 

 

HAWAII PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION         12/82    L.A. James        UH/Psych

 

Applied Psycholinguistics in Clinical/Community Psychology:

 

DISCOURSE ANALYSIS & SPEECH ACTS:

 

The Uses of Discourse in the Community

 

A        

AFFECTIVE

AREA

B     

COGNITIVE

AREA

C

BEHAVIORAL

AREA

III. Organiz–ational functions

BECAUSE WE NEED TO

 

-persuade/determine

-select/conclude

-judge/decide

-justify/confirm

-request/govern

-valuate/prioritize

    etc.

THROUGH

 

-traditions /presuppositions

-taxonomies                  

-inventories/surveys

-standards/general plans

-laws/guiding strategies

-principles /premises etc.

TO PRODUCE

 

-choices/values/catalogues

-specific steps /recommendations

-schedules/charts/filing systems

-budgets/proposals/

thesauruses

-reviews/essays/subject headings

-orders/requests/themes

etc.

II. Normative functions

BECAUSE WE NEED TO

 

-evaluate/assess

-compare/line up with

-qualify/question

-delimit/restrain

-challenge/defend

-formulate alternatives

-revise/edit etc.

THROUGH

 

-reasoning‚s

-argumentations

ųexplanations

-special considerations

-relevant norms

-accountings

-structures/out linings etc.

TO PRODUCE

 

-norms/guides

- instructions

-replies/commentaries

-ratings/abstracts

-outlines/graphs

-results/tables

-reports/summaries

etc.

 

I.  Informa–tional functions

BECAUSE WE NEED TO

 

-retrieve information

-identify

-describe

-copy information

-represent

-paraphrase

-translate etc.

THROUGH

 

-tags/labels

-words/symbol s

-names/titles

-specific locations

-diagrams/pictures

-intersections

-associations

-similarities etc.

TO PRODUCE

 

-descriptions

-definitions

-dictionaries

-messages

-assertions

-indices

-meanings

-translations

-paraphrases

-formulaic expressions etc.

                                 

 

 

HAWAII PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION         12/82    L.A. James

                                                                                             

Applied Psycholinguistics in Clinical/Community Psychology:

 

 

ILLUSTRATIVE CHART OF SYMPTOMS

UH/ PS Y C H

S

 

A

B

C

 

AFFECTIVE AREA

COGNITIVE AREA

BEHAVIORAL AREA

LEVEL III

ORGANIZATIONAL DYSFUNCTIONS

( ﺄ ) feels lonely

 

( ﺄﺄ ) withholds expression of emotions to relevant others

 

( ﺄﺄﺄ ) feels failure

 

( ﺄv ) feels unworthy

 

( v ) etc.

Inability to meet one‚s own minimum standards ( ﺄ )

 

Lack of insight of self and others ( ﺄﺄ )

 

Challenges community premises ( ﺄﺄﺄ )

 

Etc. ( ﺄv )

Draws invalid conclusion ( ﺄ )

 

Makes wrong judgments ( ﺄﺄ )

 

Denies propositions that are true or proven ( ﺄﺄﺄ )

 

Destructive to self and others

( ﺄv )

 

etc. ( v )           

LEVEL I I NORMATIVE
DYSFUNCTIONS

 

 

II

( ﺄ )  feels anger

 

( ﺄﺄ ) feels guilt
           

( ﺄﺄﺄ ) feels unproductive

( ﺄv ) feels hesitant,
unsure, shy

( v ) is disinterested

( vﺄ ) etc.

Reasons defensively ( ﺄ )

 

Thinks critically of others

( ﺄﺄ )

 

Justifies unfair attitudes

( ﺄﺄﺄ )

Exaggerates ( ﺄv )

 

Etc. ( v )

Makes unreasonable requests

( ﺄ )

Misattributes causes of things

( ﺄﺄ )

Shirks responsibility and is careless ( ﺄﺄﺄ )

 

Neglects duties and agreements ( ﺄv )

 

Etc. ( v )

LEVEL I
INFORMATIONAL
DYSFUNCTIONS

Feels role strain ( ﺄ )

 

Feels tired ( ﺄﺄ )

 

Feels distracted ( ﺄﺄﺄ )

 

Feels frustration ( ﺄv )

 

Is excessively indulgent ( v )

 

Etc. ( vﺄ )

Is confused and unclear about obligations ( ﺄ )

 

Insufficiently informed ( ﺄﺄ )

 

Deficient literacy skills ( ﺄﺄﺄ )

 

Etc. ( ﺄv )

Forgets facts ( ﺄ )

 

Loses things ( ﺄﺄ )

 

Doesn‚t keep appointments

( ﺄﺄﺄ )

Fails to carry out instructions

( ﺄv )

Unreliability ( v )

 

Etc.

 

 

APPENDIX DIAGRAM HERE

 

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