INSTRUCTIONAL SINGING:

 

AN INTEGRATING TOOL FOR THE CLASSROOM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PSY 762 Research in Social Psychology                                                                  Diane Nahl-James

Dr. Teru Morton                                                                                                           September 24, 1981

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

I.

Introduction

 

1

I.1

The Community-Classroom Approach

 

 

1

I.2

How Singing is a Cultural Resource

Inner Singing: Its Integrating Functions

The Effects of Music On Personality

Etymological Study

Table 1: Table of Psycho-Musical Correspondences

3

 

4

 

5

 

6

 

8

II.

Theory

9

II.1

Instructional Singing as a Tool in the Classroom:

Introducing a Dynamic Model

 

Diagram 1:     A Dynamic Model for Community Integration

 

9

 

10

 

 

III.

Interventions and Predicted Effects

12

IV.

Conclusion

Footnote

References                                                                                                           

Appendix 1:                        The Facilitative Effects of Singing in the Community-    

                                           Classroom (Psy 699)

 

Appendix 2:                         Psych. 222 Social Psychology

                                            Instructional Song Sheet                                          

 

Appendix 3:                       Social Psychology Instructional Songs sung by D.               

                                          Nahl, audio tape.

 

14

 

14

 

15

 

 

17

 

 

 

18

 



I.  INTRODUCTION

 

I am experimenting with a new educational tool which I call instructional singing. This is a readily available but little used natural reinforcer which instructors can utilize profitably. The popular culture in which students are embedded occasions a common cognitive and affective focus. This is particularly important in the community-classroom approach because that instructional context requires achieving successful levels of culture-simulation. (James & Gordon, 1977, 1978, 1979 a, b, c; James & Nahl, 1981; McDonald 1971; Skinner, 1957)

 

1.11     THE COMMUNITY-CLASSROOM APPROACH

 

 

The name „community-classroomš signifies a classroom environment that successfully simulates a community. Turning a group of students into a community means modifying their interpersonal relations so as to show a high level of integrated behaviors such as one sees in closely-knit family, friendship, and neighborhood groups; namely, knowing each other, sharing themselves, building liking and trust, mutual aid in tasks and concerns, etc. Such are the behaviors that community-classroom students report when asked to describe how the course is affecting them (DRA 1976-80--Student Progress and Discharge Reports).

 

The techniques used for culture-simulation in community-classroom are well known in the social science literature and include:

 

i.          small group dynamics

 

ii.         managed information diffusion

 

iii.         ingathering and bonding activities

 

iv.        generational and oral focus


Deutsch (1949) shows that members of cohesive groups are more attentive to one another, understand each other better, influence each other more, are more likely to change, and show more internalization of group norms than members of less cohesive groups. Festinger (1954) shows that people have a strong motivation to maintain correct belief systems, and so use others for setting comparison levels for self-appraisal and evaluation. Perception of differences arouse pressure towards change. Perception of similarities have bonding effects. Self-location on ability scales and lists provides a rational and objective basis for planning change. Diffusion of information within the class regarding student reports in the social lab exercises is an instructional method that is justified by Festinger‚s social comparison theory. Jourard (1964) asserts that self-disclosure to another is essential for cognitive and affective growth of the individual.

All culture-simulation conditions in community-classroom are applied according to contingency management principles. Desirable activities are encouraged through a grade credit system or „token economy.š Progress is rewarded and successive approximations are allowed and encouraged. Oral exchanges between students is facilitated through interpersonal involvement in the topics of social psychology and the self. Physical space is also altered so as to counteract anti-social forces (Soniner, 1967, a, b). Thus chairs are moved around and placed in strategic locations. Social strata are created through the participation of numerous others in class so as to form mixed company behavior settings (Barker, 1968). These include Alumni of the course, advanced undergraduates working on an independent research credit (Psy 499), graduate students working on theses, and visitors.  When the class is transformed from a mere group into a cognitively interconnected community, then the culture-simulation is effective and the learning capacities are enhanced. The potential value of singing as an instructional tool lies in the fact that it is a cultural channel known to be an influencing agent for community-building forces.

 

 

I.2   HOW SINGING IS A CULTURAL RESOURCE

 

 

I have observed that when I sing a song to the class students later tell me that they recognize it or that they sing along in their heads. They say this with enthusiasm and a lot of positive affect. There is thus a synchrony achieved in the class, which acts as an integrating and focusing force. There are two reasons for this, first, they all over-practiced the same singer-models (massed exposure effect), and second, popular culture involves the fan's sympathy and empathy. Given this emotional hook-up the students in the classroom listening to a song they know well, experience a conjunction or consociation with each other involving synchronous behavior in the following modals:

                                         i.   body rhythm (motion and breathing)

                                         ii.  feeling coloration (affective dimension)

                                         iii. identification of social self (lifestyle and ideology)

 

As a result of this synchronous and integrated activity the students experience bonding forces, forces of community, group solidarity, sentimentality, relaxation of interpersonal barriers, and others which improve the learning climate in the classroom (DRA Reports, 1976-81).

 

A recent example where community building was achieved through singing is given by the civil rights marches of the 1960's. The complex synchrony demanded by immense coordination efforts of many thousands of people was affected through the use of singing. Unruly mobs were transformed into an organic crowd or demonstration through sympathy and empathy which was made available through that singing. (James 1966)

 

INNER SINGING:       ITS INTEGRATING FUNCTIONS

 

 

Singing occurs in two modalities, an external and an internal; the external mode is performative while the internal mode is functionally autonomous and does not depend on any external performance. There are two phases involved in the social psychological process of singing. Phase 1 is repeated listening through an external input (record, radio, etc.). Phase 2 is repeated listening through an internal input. Phenomenologically it is felt as follows:

 

i.    I can‚t stop humming it to myself.

ii.    I keep hearing it inside.

iii.   It just comes by itself.

iv.   It‚s not me doing it.

v.   It sounds just like the record, but inside me.

vi.   I can hear parts and then nothing in between.

 

 

These various phenomena show what is the nature of inner singing.

 

Another feature of instructional singing which would be of interest to explore is in connection with the hearing impaired and the issue of the best compensating curriculum for them given the social psychological restrictions or curtailment of range of experiences which these special individuals encounter (see Powers, 1981). Because inner singing does not require hearing it may offer promising new teaching techniques and usages for the hearing impaired. Bach is reported to have composed his best works after he had contacted severe hearing loss, yet he is said to have reported that the music lived within him, that it was „inner melody.š Similarly, Helen Keller1 reports that she was able to appreciate music through the movement and rhythm of dancers, thus evolving an inner sense of music. Instructional singing can thus use inner singing as a technique for the hearing impaired to produce intersubjectivity in the classroom. This is especially advantageous in the special education setting where more than an average culture simulation atmosphere is needed because of the impairment in social channels of interaction and hence, growth. Inner singing for the hearing impaired may be achieved through earphone aids, through dance and movement accompaniments, rhythmic clapping in unison or in choreographed sub-groups, and so on. I have written to Dr. Des Powers to have his reactions to this idea.

 

ETYMOLOGICAL STUDY

 

Table 1 indicates the information culled from a standard dictionary (OED; Webster's; American Heritage. By summarizing this information and arranging it in a certain order, I can draw the following useful hypotheses about them.

 

Empathy. This is a feeling, but a "feeling in", which reminds me of a "feeler" or an instrument or method for feeling your way around something. Thus, empathy is an instrument for feeling or cognizing another's feelings more accurately.  In Greek drama of two millennia ago, the idea of "passion" was similarly conceived, namely a strategy the spectator used to know what the actors were port raying. Thus they cried when they were supposed to (according to the actors' gestures and face masks), and as a result they could understand that the actions portrayed were saddening, and so on. Greek drama was thus an educational experience for learning appropriate emotions. Hence also in art and drama today where the artist is viewed as teaching the public about human feeling. We thus use empathy as a tool to understand art, drama, song, and as well, each other on the daily round.

 

Synchrony.  By aligning synchrony with empathy, I get deeper information about the mechanism of empathy (as long as the correspondence is valid). Thus, synchrony (see Table 1) signifies a togetherness in timing of appropriate movements.  Hence, empathy would also possess these attributes, i.e., the method we use to know others' feelings is to feel them out with our feelers, which is to say to synchronize with them, which is to say to operate at the same time, to follow the same rate, to have an identical period or phase, to be simultaneous or contemporary with somebody, etc. This is then how we empathize as a form of interpersonal behavior.

 

Sympathy. This is a feeling about a feeling, or a reaction to another's feeling. The dictionary specifies that when we sympathize we correspond; which is to say that when we sympathize our feelings are complementary, not similar! Thus, suppose A and B sympathize with each other, or form a sympathy group or dyad ("mutual admiration society"). If A now has a feeling (a), B will have the feeling (b) such that (b) and (a) are complementary. For example, if A falls down and says "Ouch!" and B is present, then B will experience alarm and say "Are you all right?" That's sympathy.

 

Harmony. By putting harmony under sympathy, I once again gain information as to the mechanism of sympathy. Harmony specifies an agreement that is a joining (Table 1); thus, accord, congruity, agreement, satisfying, etc. This indicates about sympathy (if the correspondence is valid) that A's feeling of (a) and B's feeling in response to it (i.e. (b)) must be in agreement, in congruity, etc. to create harmony. That is then what it means to feel sympathy.

 

Intersubjectivity, and Melody. The result of moving or developing from empathy to sympathy so that both are present is the new state I call inter-subjectivity. This is the process of bringing under consideration what is common among the group. By following the musical formula:

 

SYNCHRONY + HARMONY = MELODY

 

and applying it to correspond to the social psychological formula

 

EMPATHY + SYMPATHY = INTERSUBJECTIVITY

 

I am able to discover information about the mechanism of a social psychological phenomenon (e.g., Intersubjectivity) from knowledge of a musical phenomenon, just as long as the correspondences are valid... which is what research needs to prove or disprove. Hence what I am presenting here may be viewed as an empirical hypothesis.

 

In this fashion then I can say that intersubjectivity (as is the case for melody) is an organic unit, a composition with a new meaning, a new whole. Thus, when two people in a relationship move from an empathy dyad to a sympathy dyad, a new whole or a new constituent is formed. I might thus predict that creating intersubjectivity in groups creates solidarity and bonding through sympathy and empathy. Hence also the prediction in this study that my instructional singing in the Psych 222 Community-Classroom will facilitate the culture simulation intent to create a true learning community. Intersubjectivity created through instructional singing thus becomes a valuable tool in the classroom where the instructor wants to foster a learning community marked by solidarity, cohesiveness, sociality, sharing, mutual identification, operational efficiency, and so on to the other attributes of organic groups or communities.

 
LOOK AT TABLE 1

 

II. THEORY

 

 

11.1  INSTRUCTIONAL SINGING AS A TOOL IN THE CLASSROOM:

 

         INTRODUCING A DYNAMIC MODEL

 

 

As stated in the previous section, people learn songs in two ways, external and internal. The external approach is called imitation and may be likened to impression formation or prints-in-the-sand, where a repeated pattern gets to be imprinted as memory-knowledge. The internal approach is called modeling which involves absorption or the filling in of interior spaces by immersion or osmosis. This process of learning a song through internalizing it involves the person‚s affect, especially sympathy.

 

Sympathy is involved due to the process of social identification. The person sympathizes with the ideology in the song, so much so that definite preferences, positive and negative, are established and which differentiate people into „fanš groups and preferred styles of music. Empathy is involved due to the necessity to sound like the model. Thus empathy involves factors that are external to the self, those of external appearance and behavior. External imitation cannot be achieved without empathy since empathy is putting yourself in the other person‚s place and thence knowing what feeling is being portrayed. In this case, imitating a popular song involves adopting the performing artist‚s gestures, facial expressions, and voice modulation. These psycho physiological posturings, when accurate, produce empathy.

 

The distinction that I drew above between empathy as external and sympathy as internal fits a rational analysis as well as a psycho–linguistic one. However, I am aware that in Rogerian counseling empathy is often seen as internal and even resonative; but r rather believe that the Rogerian view contains an unexamined mixture of empathy and sympathy. Jourard (1964) states that Rogerian empathy is an analytic fiction since the other only knows the self through self-disclosure. This agrees with my position since self-disclosure would ordinarily evoke sympathy. Hence, it is that Jourard can conclude that without self-disclosure there is no real intimacy and actual growth. In the light of my analysis it is clear that this is because only through sympathy (i.e., inner resonance and feeling) can intimacy take place.

 

It can be seen therefore why fan groups feel strong bonding forces for each other, since they are interconnected by the affective forces of sympathy. These bonding forces constitute a powerful and natural reinforcer and thus can be used in instructional settings to raise the capacity for learning in any subject or course, at any level of education from kindergarten to graduate school. Singing creates enthusiasm and inter-subjective consciousness which reduce viscosity or antisociality and facilitate retention.

 

A DYNAMIC MODEL FOR COMMUNITY INTEGRATION

 

INTER-SUBJECTIVE                       SYMPATHY           +            EMPATHY

 


IDENTITY

                                                         Internal                                 External

                                                         Modeling                              Imitation

 

 

DYNAMIC STATE 2

 

 

The accompanying diagram explains how instructional singing could [MLT1] act as an integrating influence in the classroom. At the beginning of the semester the students form an empathy group; which means that they have acquired through external imitation an appearance of conformity in behavior. Thus they sit in silence, they take appropriate notes, they hand in things, take quizzes, etc.; these are student role behaviors previously acquired through external imitation. Let us call this beginning period Dynamic State 1. This State characterizes the usual college classroom throughout the semester and includes non-integrated attributes, such as, zero-sum game competitiveness, grade anxiety, negative imaginings about each other, and related symptoms of antisocially. (DRA 1976-81)

 

Mixed with this interpersonal alienation is a sharing of fate, so that they feel empathy for each other when their rights as students are in jeopardy. In the community at large empathy groups also form political alliances, either short-term (e.g. demonstrations) or long-term (e.g. unions). According to my analysis empathy groups are only externally united and members do not necessarily form lasting or intimate relationships.

 

In contrast to an empathy group stands the sympathy group, which includes external empathy but adds a new inner element. This new element stems not from external imitation but from internal modeling. Thus people that are united together in a sympathy group are integrated internally as well as externally. That is why they can form lasting and intimate relationships (e.g. families and neighbors). Let sympathy groups be termed Dynamic State 2.

 

The reason family and neighborhood groups constitute sympathy groups is that the members of a sympathy group communicate to each other about their inner feelings through internal modeling behavior. Thus internal modeling is the mechanism which allows members to sympathize with each other. This dynamic mechanism was a central concept of Sigmund Freud and George H. Mead. Freud called it "unconscious role identificationš while Mead called it „inner rehearsalš and „self-reflection.š Skinner also deals with this concept calling it „inner audience control." Staats talks about it as „complex hierarchies of responses under the control of common discriminant stimuli.š


 

III.  INTERVENTIONS AND PREDICTED EFFECTS

 

 

Future research will have to adduce the evidence for the model I have presented. To facilitate this task for myself and others I can summarize my suggestions and analyses in the following five hypotheses or predictions.

 

1:       Instructional Singing will reduce social viscosity.

 

 

The social psychological atmosphere in regular college classrooms includes competitiveness, territoriality, privacy, solitary work, suspicion, antisociality, intimidation, and other forms of cognitive and behavioral barriers to communication and interpersonal relations. I would like to call this psychological climate a highly viscous atmosphere where viscosity signifies resistance to bonding forces and community feelings. Community-classroom approach was designed to dynamically counteract viscosity in college classrooms. Specifically, viscosity is reduced through diffusion of learning units. This process is achieved through exercises patterned in accordance with the principle that everyone gets to find out what everybody else is feeling, thinking, or knowing about the lecture topics. Instructional singing as explained above will act as an integrating influence which will then change the affect and counteract viscosity.

 

2:       Instructional Singing will facilitate diffusion of learning units through community integration and will allow greater personal application of the course topics.

 

 

Regular college courses achieve various degrees of memorization of topics presented. Students typically report only a little bit of this as personally useful and applicable to life. I believe this is because the students do not sufficiently discuss the topics with each other (see barriers mentioned in 1 above). Community– classroom in contrast attempts to overcome these barriers through culture-simulation techniques. As a result, a realistic degree of community integration is achieved, which is to say that students evolve an identity, a reputation, and various other forms of relationship with each other. This then is the relationship context which is the essential component of being able to discuss course topics in an explorative and cognitively useful manner. Instructional singing will strengthen this effect and produce greater diffusion of learning units and greater personal application of course topics.

 

3:      Instructional Singing will produce more reports of significant degrees of cognitive clarification of the student‚s social feelings or social personality.

 

 

Dealing with the course topics in social psychology involves labeling of social situations and the dynamic mechanisms in inter–personal exchanges. When better labeling or titling (Nahl 1976) is applied to the self, cognitive clarification of one‚s own actions -and feelings tends to result. In community-classroom this tendency is strengthened through community integration of students with each other (see 2 above), and the effect will be reported more frequently and valued highly by the students. Instructional singing will strengthen bonding forces between students, thus allowing more authentic and worthwhile exchanges during social lab exercises.

 

4:      Instructional Singing will help produce an „inoculation effectš against self-attribution errors.

 

 

I have found that students have a strong tendency to attribute errors to themselves (e.g. „It‚s my faultš). Thus, they individualize failure where objectively speaking, the situation conditions could have been equally responsible. The bonding forces of empathy which are induced through „quiz songsš on social psychological concepts create an interpersonal context of less inhibition in sharing selfų observations. (see Appendix 1) As a result, students discover situational reasons for failure and no longer individualize failure as before. It is an all or nothing switch, hence I expect it to be related to mechanisms similar to those studied by the Yale communication group on propaganda.

 

5:       Instructional Singing will produce an increase in prosocial behavior among students.

 

 

For all the reasons already mentioned having to do with the integrating functions of instructional singing within the community-classroom context, I expect to see an increase in productive social functioning (Waterman 1981). I would identify the following prosocial behaviors:

                        

                         i.   volunteering (e.g. being secretary in a discussion

 group or typing a report for others, etc.)

ii.    greater sociableness (e.g. talking before class, calling each other on the phone, etc.)

 

iii.    unleashing of talents (e.g. graphic arts in reports, talking in front of the class,

tutoring others, etc.)

  iv.    more productive small group tasks (e.g. dyadic quizzes, quartile teams for

poster presentations, etc.)

 

 

IV.  CONCLUSION

 

 

I have presented my personal observations on how students are affected when I use singing with an instructional focus in the classroom. I have presented a theoretical analysis of this process, namely, how singing is a natural reinforcer that can transform the dynamic state of a group from what I called an empathy group to a sympathy group. I have suggested that this increase in integrative behaviors can become a useful instructional aid.

 

Footnote 1:

 

 

Helen Keller gives an experiential definition of empathy, as follows, „He himself had grown deaf, and that enabled him to see the distorted angle of my thoughts with regard to the world of the senses. He told me that if I would only try to put myself in the place of those with sight and hearing and divine their impressions of things, they could unite their senses with mine more and more and thus wonderfully increase my enjoyment of the outer world. He showed me how I could find a key to their life, and give them a chance to explore my own with understanding.š  She presents here an empathic analogy to the sensory modalities.



REFERENCES

 

 

 

Barker, Roger Ecological Psychology: Concepts and Methods for Studying the Environment of Human Behavior. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1968.

 

Daily Round Archives-DRA Reports. Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii, Gartley 213, 1976-1981.

 

Deutsch, Morton „A Theory of Cooperation and Competition.š Human Relations, 1949, 2, pp. 129-152.

 

Deutsch, Morton & Robert M. Krauss Theories in Social Psychology. New York: Basic Books Inc., 1965.

 

Festinger, Leon A. „A Theory of Social Comparison Processes.š Human Relations, 1954, 7, pp 117ų140.

 

James, Leon A. „Studies of Fads. I. őHit Parade‚.š Psychological Reports, Vol. 18, 1966, pp. 443-450.

 

James, Leon A. & Barbara Gordon Social Psychology: Studying Community-Building Forces. Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii, 1979.

 

James, Leon A. & Barbara Gordon Society‚s Witnesses: Experiencing Formative Issues in Social Psychology. Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii, 1978.

 

James, Leon A. & Barbara Gordon Workbook for the Study of Social Psychology (Second Ed.). Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii, 1978.

 

James, Leon A. & Diane Nahl „Applied Psycholinguistics for the 1980‚s:

Student Done Discourse Analysis and the Video Tape Language Lab.š

Linguistic Reporter, April 1981 (in press).

 

Jourard, Sidney M. The Transparent Self. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, Co., 1964.

 

Keller, Helen A. My Religion, New York: Bard Books, Avon Division, 1927, 1960.

 

MacDonald, W. Scott Battle in the Classroom: Innovations in Classroom Techniques. Scranton, Pa.: International Textbook Co., 1971.

 

Nahl, Diane An Empirical Method for the Study of Topic Domains in Psychology. Psy 423: History Research Reports Dr. Bitterman, 1976.

 

Nahl, Diane The Facilitative Effects of Singing in the Community-Classroom. Psy 699 Research Report, Dr. Nunokawa, 1981.


Power, D.J. (Ed.) Towards a Communication Curriculum for Hearing

Impaired Pupils:         Report of the National Workshop on Language

Curriculum Development for Hearing-Impaired Pupils. Mt. Gravatt,

Australia:      Center for Human Development Studies, 1981.

 

Simon, Herbert The Shape of Automation for Man and Management. New York:

Harper and Row, 1965.

 

Skinner, B.F. Verbal Behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1957.

 

Sommer, Robert „Classroom Ecology.š Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences, 1967, 4, p. 3.

 

Sommer, Robert „Sociofugal Space.š American Journal of Sociology, 1967, 72, p. 6.

 

Staats, Arthur Social Behaviorism. Homewood, Ill.: The Dorsey Press, 1975.

 

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. William Morris, Ed., Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.,

      Inc., 1975.

 

The Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971.

Vygotsky, Lev S. Thought and Language. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1962.

Webster‚s New World Dictionary of the American Language 2nd College Ed.

New York: The World Publishing Co., 1972.

 

Waterman, Alan S. „Individualism and Interdependence.š American Psychologist, July 1981, pp. 762ų/73.


 

 

 

         Diane Nahl

        PSYCH 699 Report                                                                                                                       1981
        Dr. Nunokawa

 

TITLE:      The Facilitative Effects of Singing in the Community classroom

 

PURPOSE:  To investigate the most favorable procedures in the use of singing for facilitating learning in the classroom

More particularly:

 

1.     Quiz Songs

Songs whose content or message illustrate a daily round application of

some social psychological principle. (see Hudler tape)

Objective:        To experience or apply personally some scientific principles

(James & Gordon, 1978).

 

2.     Mnemonic Songs

Songs who‚s content increases memory capacity for social psychology terminology

(e.g. šForces Songš, Jakobovits & Gordon, 1979). b.

Objective: Student speech vocabulary gets more technical.

 

3.     Frame Control Songs

Songs whose content and melody create a psychosocial environment specifically

suited for some activity or change of activity (e.g. Videotape „Integration

Tapeš and M. Wix audiotape).

Objective: To reduce resistance and increase class synchrony and harmony.

 

4.     Integration Songs

Songs whose content and performance generate bonding forces among coųlearners and create an incentive for showing off s talents and thereby mining the ethnicity roots (family and culture).

Objective: Toųmine natural community resources through group values in popular culture (cross-cultural communication). (See Student Recommendation Letters and audiotapes-Oral Final Exam for Spring 1981 Psych 222 (2).

 

PROCEDURES:

 

A.     Taught class two „Forces Songsš (Objective 2) and monitored where it would pop up (e.g. exam writing, prepared audiotape, speech).

 

B.     Gave class quiz songs (Objective 1) and noted that it made sense to them toų do it and that some even modeled it and invented their own (e.g. see audioų tapes, exams, interviews on videotape).

 

C.    Sang mood music (Objective 3) while students were engaged in solitary work on timed quiz and noted whether they reported facilitation effects (e.g. taped interviews, written exams, oral exam on tape).

 

D.    Sang songs that everybody knows intimately (Objective 4) and noted whether their self consciousness as a cultural unit is thereby enhanced i.e.. creating interconnected channels for crossųcultural communication (Nahl 1976). methodology.

 

DATA:

 

All effects are to be behaviorally expressed in the speech of the students(oral

and written). The following are involved:

1.         Taped Student Interviews (Jakobovits & Nahl, 198l) c.

2.     Midterm written exam and quiz

3.     Oral Final Exam Tape submitted by each student

4.     Spontaneous comments in conversation

 

 

REFERENCES:  (a) Society‚s Witnesses. (b) Community Building Forces. (c) Applied Psycholinguistics in Social Psychology. (d) Empirical Method for the Development of Topic Domain Methodology

 

 

PSYCH 222            FALL 1981           Dr. L.A. James            HANDOUT 4

 

SILENT NIGHTų

COMMUNITY-CLASSROOM SONG

COMMUNITY-CLASSROOM

I‚M IN LOVE WITH ALL OF YOU.

WE GROW TOGETHER INTO A WHOLE,

NAHL IS WITH YOU

INTERCONSCIOUSLY,

BODY, SOUL, AND SPIRIT,

MYSTICAL BIOLOGY.

 
Text Box: CABARETųOVERCOMING INTIMIDATION SONG
WHAT GOOD IS SITTING ALL ALONE IN LYOUR ROOM?
COME INTO 222 TODAY,
A MOVIE OF LIFE IS SHOWING HERE.
THERE‚S PROFIT IN HERE FOR YOU TODAY.
COME GET YOUR SELF-OBJECTIVITY,
CONTROL AND INTEGRATION.
LOOK AROUND∑IS THAT YOUR HUDDLE-BUDDY?
START BY ADMITTING YOU‚RE FULL OF FEARS,
INTIMIDATION∑HERE YOU CAN OVERCOME ALL THAT!
COME INTO 222 TODAY!
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY..SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY..
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
*(REPEAT)

                               

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


                                                           

 

 

 

 

 

 

HALLELUYAH-PSYCH DEPARTMENT SONG

 

ELAINE HATFIELD IS THE CHAIR

STEVE SOUZ IS THE ADVISOR

IRENE SAKODA IS OFFICE MANAGER

NOW THE PROFS:  ABE ARKOFF, JEFF BITTERMAN

BOB BLANCHARD, JACK CARLSON∑TOM CIBOROWSKI, BOBO COLE, DAVID CROWELL,

JACK DIGMAN∑DICK DUBANOSKI, IAN EVANS,

LOU HERMAN, LEON JAMES, RON JOHNSON,

TONY MARSELLA, KARL MINKE, TERU MORTON∑

WALT NUNOKAWA, CLIFF O‚DONNELL, SAM

SHAPIRO, ARTHUR STAATS, GIL TANABE,

ROLAND THARP, DAVID WATSON, AND

HERB WEAVER

 

GLORIOUS FOOD BEHAVIOR WEEK SONG

 

JUNK FOODųARE YOU INTO JUNK FOOD?

PIZZA..CHIPS..ARARE

JUNK FOODS ARE SEET AND SALTY

PACKAGES, CHEMICALS SUGARS

ARE YOU ONE OF THE JUNK FOOD JUNKIES?

WANT TO MODIFY YOUR BEHAVIOR?

YOU CAN WITH KURT LEWIN

AND YOUR LIFESTYLE HUDDLE-BUDDY.

 

FOOD GLORIOUS FOOD!

GREEN, HEALTHY, ALIVE FOOD!

WHILE YOU‚RE INTO THIS FOOD-MOOD

WHY NOT TRY SOME LIVE FOOD?

JUNK FOOD CANNOT HELP YOU GROW,

THAT MUCH WE ALL KNOW,

BUT FRESH FRUITS, GREENS & GRAINS,

SEEDS, NUTS, AND LIVE VEGIES

KEEP US GROWING, GLOWING!

FOOD GLORIOUS GOOD!

EAT MOSTLY LIVE FOOD.

WHILE WE‚RE INTO THIS FOOD-MOOD

IT‚S FOOD BEHAVIOR WEEK!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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