PERSONAL BIOGRAPHIC RECORD-KEEPING:

A Sample Bibliography of Materials

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dr. Miles Jackson                                                                                                                                 Dian Nahl

LS 601  Introduction to Reference                                                                                                        November 27, 1979

„A Plan for a Bibliographyš

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

I.                    Introduction∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑..1

II.                 Sample Bibliography∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑.∑3

III.               Search Techniques∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑7

IV.              Conclusion∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑11

Footnotes∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑.13

Table of Subject Headings Used∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑14

Sources Consulted∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑∑.15

 

 

 

I.          INTRODUCTION

 

            I planned this bibliography for use by any person interested in systematic biographic techniques beyond the diary approach to documenting individual life history. The value of self-monitoring is currently being explored in various academic and community settings.‚ Hence, we can expect the literature to grow, adding new dimensions to current subject headings, and adding new terms as the topic enlarges, integrating into the existing body of literature a developing topic presenting new methods, techniques, and theories relating to recording the biography of individuals. As people become interested in what they can gain through systematic monitoring and recording of various aspects of their daily life, i.e., biographic observa–tions, more and more solutions and applications will occur in response to the creative force: „Know Thyself, 0 Man.š2

           

            The topic may be characterized by the following descriptive list of criteria I used to delimit my topic: selfųmonitoring, monitoring and reporting on others, use of forms and formats for communication to self and/i others, personal record-keeping practices, recording biography, how-toųdoųit instructions for using formats in community life, discussion on structure and function of forms, form design. (See also Table of Subject Headings, p.14.)

           

            There are no existing bibliographies in the area of the topic I have represented here. The scope and arrangement is presented in five categories:

 

I.      Self-Feedback and SelfųEnhancement Formats

 

II.             Analysis of Structural and Functional Properties of Forms and       

           Formats

 

III.      Participant-Observer Formats: For Use by Professionals in Studying Behavior of Others

 

IV.     SelfųReport Formats: For Use by Professionals in Studying Behavior of Others

 

V.     Journals Reporting Research in Biographics

 

 

These five categories were discerned by me after going through the process of looking for material reflecting the interest in this type of bibliography. Though not reflected in the sample, some categories are much larger than others, as well, the categories are graded primary, secondary, and tertiary. Category I is primary because it reflects the thrust of new methodology, while it has a lower density of actual entries in the literature. Category II is primary because it reflects a new aspect of methodology, that aspect which serves a taxonomizing function, while it is quite low in density currently. Category III is secondary because it reflects current popular methods, and naturally, has a high density in the literature. Category IV is secondary for the same reason as Category III, and has an enormous density due to the proliferation of psychological testing during the past decades. I included Categories III and IV in order to reflect the contrastive features of current versus new (I) methods in recording and reporting biographic information and functional uses of such information. Category V is tertiary because it reflects arenas for the presentation of research reports in the topic area.

           

            I used these five categories to specify the topic as I found it currently represented in the literature. The types of sources are currently limited to books and articles, however, oral formats could be included, such as oral history recordings, or individual taped observations or transcripts.

 

 

I.                   SELF-FEEDBACK AND SELF-ENHANCEMENT FORMATS

 

HQ728          Bach, George Robert and Peter Wyden. The Intimate Enemy: How to

B33              Fight Fair in Love and Marriage. New York: William Morrow and Co., Inc., 1969.

Fight training manual for couples. Identifies and categorizes various fight strategies of human interaction, provides a frame–work for observing and altering strategies.

 

HM291        Bales, R.F. Interaction Process Analysis:                A Method for the

B25            Study of Small Groups. Cambridge, Mass.:        AddisonųWesley, 1950.

 

A field theory method using participantųobservation techniques to observe and record group dynamic behavior. Formats are specified for mapping group interaction along particular features.

 

BF353          Barker, Roger C. Ecological Psychology:                          Concepts and Methods for

B3                Studying the Environment of Human Behavior. Stanford, Calif.:  Stanford University Press, 1968.

 

A field theory of behavior analysis-for settings, presents a method for observing, mapping, and quantifying setting parameters.

 

ED151014     Daly, Elizabeth A. „Using Student Journals to Individualize Instruction.š Bethesda, Md.: ERIC Document Reproduction Service, 1977.

 

Students used specified journal formats as part of their work in a practicum course. The discussion centers around the benefits to the student of keeping track of their experience in the areas of „independent thinking, creative writing, examination of beliefs and values, cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains.š The author believes that learning is enhanced through keeping track in the journal format.

 

Holman, Jacqueline. „Facilitating generalization of onųtask behavior through selfųmonitoring of academic tasks.š Dissertation Abstracts International, 1978 (Jan), Vol. 38 (7ųA), 4047.

 

            This is a report on a study done in 3 experiments by the author concerning the effects of selfųmonitoring of student behavior, specifically in a classroom task group, setting. Training in selfųmonitoring was provided prior to the test situation. The author hypothesizes that learning is enhanced with training in and use of selfųmonitoring records for academic work.

 

James, Leon A. and Barbara Y. Gordon. Social Psychology:

                    Studying Community-Building Force.. Psychology Department,

University of Hawaii, 1979.

 

Lecture notes prepared for Social Psychology 222 (2), Fall 1979 Community-Classroom at the U.H. Manoa Campus. The authors .present and implement during the course, a natural history~‚ method of observation used by the students to „witnessš and report on specified areas of their own and the class community‚s‚ „daily round.š Formats for recording, reporting, and analyzing the observations are given.

 

ED153918          Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. „Student Record of Community Exploration.š Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory,‚ Portland, Oregon. Bethesda, ND: ERIC Document Reproduction Service, 1977.

 

Students participated in a program allowing them to participate in and observe the daily routine of selected jobs in their community. Forms for keeping track of their experience were used as „a diary of experiences.š Discussion centers around -the entries on the forms and their relevance to getting to know the job in the process of „exploring specific jobsš to give a more solid basis in career choice.

 

 

ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF FORKS & FORMATS

 

ED139122     Alvir, Howard P. „Workshop on Management by Objectives. Forms to be Filled out at the Workshop.š Bethesda, MD: ERIC Document Reproduction Service, 1977.

 

                Forms used in implementing a program called „Management by Objectivesš are presented. The structural and functional features of the forms are discussed. The program is designed to be im–plemented in varied office, bureau, institutional, school, or community settings. Directions for forms are included. Papers discussing the MBO Program more extensively may be found in ERIC, ED116045 and ED125126.

 

Bostwick, B.E. Resume Writing:  A Comprehensive How To Do It Guide. Somerset, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 1976.

 

Presents 10 types of resumes, each with specifications and samples. Includes a glossary of résumé language. Discusses when to use a particular type of resume and how to decide which type is appropriate for various community occasions.

 

ED153662      Malkas, Mark (ed.) et al. „Forms and Formalities:  A Resource Containing Forms Currently Utilized by Members of

the National Diffusion Network to Facilitate the Adoption and Implementation Process.š Bethesda, MD: ERIC Document Reproduction Service, 1978.

 

Provides examples of forms used by the U.S. Office of Education for interagency communication; discussion on form development, category system of forms.

 

LB2300         Smith, R.P. et al. „Why, when, and how of reporting data.š

C48              College and University Journal 52:691ų95, Summer 1977.

 

A brief article by three discussants who are college registrars on the issues they have experienced in gathering information as a function of their workųsetting, largely through the use of forms.

 

 

III.                 PARTICIPANT-OBSERVER FOMMATS FOR USE BY PROFESSIONALS IN STUDYING TIE BEHAVIOR OF OTHERS

 

BF721          Barker, Roger C.; Herbert F. Wright, and Louise S. Barker.

B27              One boy‚s day:  a specimen record of behavior. New York:  Harper, 1951.       -

 

Report on the participation of a community in a scientific under–taking; a record of what a sevenųyearųold boy did and of what his

-                   home and school and neighborhood and town did to him from the time he awoke one morning until he s-rent to sleep that night, The record was prepared by „skilled observers.š Eight observers took turns throughout the day. A discussion of the reporting method is included.

 

HM24            Cottle, Thomas. Private Lives and Public Accounts. Amherst:

C677             University of Massachusetts Press, 1977.

The author presents his observations on the issues he experiences while interviewing ordinary people in their home or work settings about their daily life experience, He presents excerpts from his taped chats and discusses his relationship to interviewing and getting to know each person.

 

Traxler, Arthur E. How to Use Cumulative Records. Chicago:

Science Research Associates, 1947.

 

„Describes the latest revision of the cum. rec. for use by junior and senior high schools. Present form is adapted, however, for use in elementary schools or at college level. Sample complete record is included. 41 References,š

 

LB1131         Traxler, Arthur E. The Nature and Use of anecdotal Records. -

E26               New York: Educational Records Bureau, 1949.

Suppi. D       The author presents records made by teachers on their noticings of student behaviors, and how they relate to

observed personality traits. Judging and recording pupil traits is discussed. The author supports this type of record-keeping, claiming that teachers enhance their ability to relate to their students appropriately.

, SELF-REPOPT INC FOPJATS FOR USE. BY PROFESSIONALS IN STUDYING THE BEHAVIOR OF OTHERS -

 

LB1027         Prediger, D. „Biographical Data Differentiating College Attenders

5M38            from Nonattenders at Various Ability: Levels.š Measurement and

Evaluation in Guidance, Winter 1070, Vol. 2, No. 4:  217ų224.

 

The „Student Information Blank,š a format for gathering biographic data on students, was used in this study to differentiate college attenders from nonųattenders at various skill levels. 394 items. Format is included. No discussion on the properties of form itself.

 

 

V.                 JOURNALS REPORTING RESEARCH IN BIOGRAPHICS

 

CT21             Biography. George Simson (ed.) Honolulu: University Press of

B54               Hawaii, 1978.

 

An interdisciplinary journal dedicated to the presentation of writing in the field of biographic research.

 

HM1              Social Psychology (formerly Sociometry). New York: American

S8                Sociology Association, 1977-78. Sociometry 1937-1976.) -

 

Social Psychology publishes articles concerning the processes and products of social interaction. This includes the study of the primary relations of individuals to one another, or to groups, collectivities, or institutions, and also the study of initiaų individual processes insofar as they substantially influence, or are influenced by social forces.š .

 

III.         SEARCH TECHNIQUE

            In my approach to this assignment I first limited the scope of the topic domain to őan area I am studying in Social Psychology.   James and Gordon (1974ų79), who are developing the area, refer to it as „the social psychology of the daily round.š This topic domain is emerging; they are introducing, a new „witnessing methodologyš applied to the description of community life through individual reporters in community.2 As I progressed through the exercise, I found myself involved in the process of making up t topic domain while looking for relevant titles, i.e., titles which I deemed relevant. I decided my focus would be on what I call őpersonal biography techniques.‚ I began by looking through the ERIC Thesaurus of Descriptors3 for subject headings related to individual biography and/or self-monitoring as well as anything on the construction and use of forms or formats for recording and reporting such information. The ERIC Thesaurus provided seven headings I judged to be related to the topic. These are, in order of discovery:  BIOGRAPHICAL INVENTORIES. BIOGRAPHIES. AUTOBIOGRAPHIES. RECORDS (Forms), RECORD KEEPING, LIFE HISTORY DATA, CLASSROOM OBSERVATION TECHNIQUE. (See also  Table, P. 14)
           

            I avoided certain other terms in the Related Terms lists such as „communicationš and „self-esteemš, and others which seemed related to psychological testing rather than self observation and reporting.  Later, I enlarged the topic domain to include a selected sample from the experimental area in order to provide a contrast of methods of observation and a contrast of use of observations or biographic data recorded.


           

            In looking each term up in the ERIC‚ Index for relevant titles, I discovered that decisions resulting in the delimitation of my topic domain spontaneously occurred. I found that my criteria for inclusion and exclusion of titles changed naturally as I read more titles under all of the ERIC headings I chose. The ERIC headings seemed to lead to a good sample of related material, I took down 21 ED numbers in a three year span. Upon consulting the abstracts I narrowed it down to 8. Upon checking the documents themselves I distilled 4 articles deemed relevant.

           

            Next I consulted the Library of Congress Subject Headings which, compared to ERIC yielded very little. „Forms, blanks, etc.š is a subdivision -used throughout for main entries, thus it was not a useful access term. „Recordsš yielded only business related materials, and „Biographyš and „Autobiographyš yield literary criticism and conventional biographical works, SOCIOIMETRY and ORAL HISTORY were included toward the end of my search when I expanded the topic domain.

I next looked in the Directory of Unpublished Experimental Mental Measures and the Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms for Psychological Abstracts to find related subject terms, I was looking specifically for articles which discuss forms and formats from a structural and functional perspective; I found none, but many biographical inventories which were used as measures for correlation experiments. I then decided not to exclude this aspect entirely, though I narrowed it to what is represented in Category I, „Selfų Reporting Formats: For Use by Professionals in Studying the Behavior of Others.š These two source‚s yielded the following terms, respectively:  BIO-DATA (BIOGRAPHIC DATA), COMMUNICATION, INTERACTION; BIOGRAPHIC DATA, CUMULATIVE RECORD, SELFųEVALUATION, SELF-REINFORCEMENT. I was surprised to discover that the term „selfųmonitoringš is not yet employed in any of these indices, though it often occurs in titles, it is not in the thesauri.

 

I checked through the Dewey Decimal Classification Relative Index and confirmed my conviction that there would be no clear cut place in the scheme for this topic, i.e., there were no index terms specifically related to it. The nearest heading that I found is, „001.55 Records -  communicationš under 000 Generalities, 001 Knowledge and its extension, 001.5 Information and Communication.š However, I prefer „301.1 Social Psychology,š since this is the field propagating the topic domain. Upon consulting the Library of Congress Classification it became clear, as with DDC that this topic domain will expand „Social Psychology HM 251ų299š as more is written and integrated into the literature.

 

Next, I consulted the Readers‚ Guide to Periodical Literature for some popular articles relating to personal biography techniques. I found several promising subject headings but they yielded not one article in a three year span. The following entries were used to approach the titles:  FORMS, BLANKS, ETC., SELF-CULTURE, SCHOOL REPORTS AND RECORDS, HOUSEHOLD RECORDS. I expected to see popular culture articles in this area, and I conclude that there may be relevant titles „buriedš under, some other headings. I think this is so for all of the sources I consulted; and I realize that increasing familiarity with each particular index category system leads to deeper penetration into the resources it indexes, as one‚s own „cognitive mapš of the inter-relationships of ideas grows (James and Gordon, 1978).

 

I also consulted the Education Index and Sociological Abstracts where I obtained the following subject headings, respectively: AUTOBIOGRAPHY PERSOI\L HISTORY INVENTORIES, FAMILY RECORDS, INVENTORIES, REPORTS AND REPORTING-FORMS, STUDENT ACCOUNTING; BIOGRAPHY, LIFE HISTORY, SELF RECORD.  Though these headings sound rich in terms of my focus, again, the definition of the categories in terms of the titles presented under each included nothing that related to my primary categories (1 and 2), and little relating to the secondary categories (3 and 4).

 

The evidence gleaned in the search supported my hypothesis that the topic domain I have attempted to formulate is emerging, a. expect to observe and monitor the changes in the indices I have consulted as the literature in this area forms itself,

 

In doing this search assignment I found that I would have profited by keeping a more extensive log of my steps and decisions. Keeping such a log enhances the exercise because it alerts one to natural and spontaneous organizing skills which we are all -capable of and use ordinarily; one becomes aware of the process of the organization of the topic, and thereby a conceptual dimension is added.

 

IV.        CONCLUSION

 

After having done this exercise, I view the result as a cognitive taxonomy, a semantic categorization of publication units in the literature. The cognitive taxonomy exercise is a good one for any student involved in the interųrelationship of ideas. Students are faced with, using cognitive taxonomies such as the taxonomy represented by the Library of Congress scheme in our library, or by the ERIC System, etc. As well, it is illuminating to see how a title is differently categorized by various individuals according to their purpose and function, revealing different aspects of the titled work. In effect I have „liftedš the article and hook titles for this sample bibliography from other lists wherein they occurred under categorical subject headings. I have re-categorized them according to my own set of criteria, concatenating them and bringing into play new relationships among the ideas presented in the writings. It is a valuable feedback mechanism for authors to be able to see the bibliographies their works appear in, revealing to them new functions and aspects of their writing as signified by librarians, bibliographers, students, and others.

 

Further, the articles and books I have culled in this sample have been categorized by me into 5 major areas. Actually, the titles may fit into more than one category, since a given article may include features‚ of two or more of the categories I have specified. For example, Traxler‚s book, The Nature and Use of Anecdotal Records may appear under categories IV, Participant-Observer Formats, and II, Analysis of Structural and Functional Properties of Formats. This type of cross-referencing, or cross-fertilization represents a next level analysis in a cognitive taxonomy, (Nahl, 176). As well, in doing multiųlevel crossųreferencing, the analytic power of the bibliography is increased thereby, i.e., a user can go deeper in understanding the possibilities of relationships among ideas and topics because there is more to go by. The cognitive taxonomy is thus an essential and potentially rich resource in a librarian‚s professional repertoire.

 

FOOTNOTES

 

1)  Particularly the work by Dr. Leon A. James and Dr. Barbara Y. Gordon here at the University of Hawaii Psychology Department in the area of "community."

 

 

2)  These ideas have come to me through my studies in ethnosemantics with James and Gordon. I planned this bibliography in light of these studies. During the past eight semesters I have been in their undergraduate Social Psychology 222 (2) CommunityųClassroom. I have had the opportunity to work with then on developing a community archives which is generated by: the students in the course, maintained and organized by them, and processed by them. Thus, the students are the authors, users, and librarians of their own community archives. The students learn a new natural history method of self-observation, called by James and Gordon „witnessing methodology.š

 

 

3)  Full citations for sources nay be found in the listing of Sources Consulted, p. 15

 

 

4)   Terms in all caps were used to find materials and to delimit the topic domain.

 

 

Table of 27 Subject Headings and Their Sources Gleaned from 7 Reference Sources

 

 

 


 

 

1

ERIC

2

Psychology

Abstracts

 

3

Test

Directory

 

4

LC Subject

Heading

 

5

Education

Index

6

Readers‚

Guide

 

7

Sociology

Abstracts

 

1.  AUTOBIOGRAPHY

*

 

 

*

*

 

 

2.  BIOGRAPHY

*

 

 

*

 

 

*

3.  BIOGRAPHICAL INVENTORIES

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.  BIO-DATA

 

*

*

 

 

 

 

5.  LIFE HISTORY DATA

*

 

 

 

 

 

*

6.  PERSONAL HISTORY INVENTORIES

 

 

 

 

*

 

 

7.  RECORDS (forms)

*

 

 

 

 

 

*

8.  RECORDKEEPING

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

9.  CUMULATIVE RECORD

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

10.  REPORTS AND RECORDS

 

 

 

 

*

 

 

11.  REPORTERS AND REPORTING-Forms

 

 

 

 

*

 

 

12.  STUDENT ACCOUNTING

 

 

 

 

*

 

 

13.  FORMS, BLANKS, ETC.

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

14.  HOUSEHOLD RECORDS

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

15.  INVENTORIES

 

 

 

 

*

 

 

16.  FAMILY RECORDS

 

 

 

 

*

 

 

17.  PARTICIPANT-OBSERVATION

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

18.  SOCIOMETRY

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

19.  CLASSROOM OBSERVATION TECHNIQUE

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

20.  ORAL HISTORY (Interviewing)

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

21.  COMMUNICATION

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

22.  INTERACTION

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

23.  SELF

 

 

 

 

 

 

*

24.  SELF EVALUATION

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

25.  SELF-REINFORCEMENT

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

26.  SELF-CONTROL

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

27.  SCHOOL REPORTS AND RECORDS

 

 

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SOURCES CONSULTED

 

 

Ref. Z695.1

P7 A44

American Psychological Association. Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms. 3. Kinkade (ed.) Washington:    American Psychological Association, 1974, 1977 editions.

 

 

Ref. Z1219

B644

Book Review Digest. New York: The HūW. Wilson Co., 1969ų78.

 

 

Ref. Z696

D519

Dewey Decimal Classification and Relative Index. 18th Edition. New York: Forest Press Inc., 1971.

 

 

Ref. Z5055

UA53

Dissertation Abstracts International, section A and B. Colling (ed.) Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1977.

 

 

Ref. Z5813

E23

Patricia E Education Index. Marylouise Hewitt (ed.) New York: H.W. Wilson, 1976ų1978.

 

 

Ref. Z5811

E42

ERIC Educational Documents Abstracts. New York:  Macmillan Publishing Co., 1977-79.

 

 

Ref. Z695.1

E3 E34

ERIC Thesaurus of Descriptors, 7th Edition. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1977.

 

 

Ref. BF431

G625

V1 & 2

Goldman, Bert A. and John L. Saunders. Directory of Unpublished Experimental Mental Measures. Vol. 1, 1974. Vol. 2, 1978 by B.A. Goldman and John C. Busch. New York:  Behavioral Publications, 1974, 1978.

 

 

HM 251

J28

James, L.A. and Barbara Y. Gordon. Society‚s Witnesses: Experiencing Formative Issues in Social Psychology. Psychology Department, University of Hawaii, 1978.

 

 

 

HN 251

J27

James, L.A. and Barbara Y. Gordon. Workbook for the Study of Social Psychology, 2nd edition. Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii, 1978

 

 

Ref. Z696

U5H 165

Library of Congress Classification, 3rd Edition.  Washington: Library of Congress, 1967.

 

 

Ref. Z695

U4747 V1 & 2

Library of Congress Subject Headings, 8th Edition. Washington: Library of Congress, 1975.

 

 

 

Nahl, D.N. An Empirical Method for the Study of Topic Domains in Psychology. Kailua, Hawaii: Transactional Engineering Corp., 1976.

 

 

Ref. BF1

P65

Psychological Abstracts.  Lois Granick (ed.) Washington: American Psychological Association, Inc., 1924-1979.

 

 

Ref. AI3

R48

Readers‚ Guide to Periodical Literature. Zada Limerick (ed.) New York: H.W. Wilson Co., 1977-79.

 

 

Ref. HM1

S67

Sociological Abstracts. San Diego, California: United States International University, 1976.

 

 

Ref. LB2369

T8 1967

Turbian, Kate L. Student‚s Guide for Writing College Papers, 2nd Edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969, 1973, 1976.

 

 

 

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