SLIDES FOR
 
ESL Brownbag Talk:  April 27, 1982
The Language Teacher's Threefold Self
by
Leon James
Professor of Psychology, UH
Request for reprints and articles:
Dr. L. James,
Department of Psychology,
University of Hawaii
Honolulu, HI 96822
 
 
Navigation Table:
 Top  
Table 1 
 Table 2 
 Table 3 
 Table 4 
 Table 5 
 Table 6 
 Table 7 
 Bottom 
 
 

 
 
1.)  An UTTERANCE ( sentence) is a threefold object.
 

An intention evolves into an utterance by means of language.

An utterance contains language within it an intention witihin that.

From an intention through language, an utterance is born.

By looking at an utterance one can see within it language (facts),  and within that one can see the intention of the speaker.
 

e.g.  "I need another white one."
A.  Someone is in need or something obtainable through another.
B.  The speaker uses English.
C.  An utterance corresponding to the intention is produced.


2.)  An utterance (speech) relates simultaneously to three spheres of human affairs.
 
 
 
A.  an INTENTION 
(the origin of speech) 
(inmost depth) 
(highest node)
  A.  STRIVING ISSUES
GOALS/ENDS/IDEAL OR REFERENCE MODEL 
EFFORT/WILL/PERSEVERENCE 
MOTIVATION/AFFECT 
NEED/EMOTION 
DESIRE/INTEREST/WANT 
EXPECTATION ORIENTATION 
ETC.
 
B.  a LANGUAGE 
(the cause of speech) 
(intermediate depth)
  B.  PLANNING ISSUES
COGNITIVE OPERATIONS 
SYNTAX/SEMANTICS/PRAGMATICS 
UNDERSTANDING/COMPREHENSION 
LINGUISTIC KNOWLEDGE 
COMMUNICATIVE ABILITY/COMPETENCE 
ETC.
 
C.  an UTTERANCE 
(the effect of speech) 
(outermost -- surface)
  C. MAPPING ISSUES
SPEECH/PAROLE/TALK 
UTTERANCE/SENTENCE/PHRASE 
GESTURE/SIGN/SIGNAL/ACT 
TOPIC/MESSAGE/CONTENT 
MEMORY/REPERTORY
 
 


3.)  LT topics relate to the three spheres of human affairs which are involved in the production of utterances.
 
 
 
A. STRIVING ISSUES: 
(origin of speech) 
(e.g.:  human affairs;  interest;  relationship;  involvement; impulse; drive; goal; etc. etc.)
**INTERACTIVE NEEDS & FOSSILIZATION 
**PERSONALITY FACTORS & LANGUAGE ACQUISITION (empathy; self-confidence; role identification; etc.) 
**INTAKE AND AFFECTIVE FILTER 
**SUBCONSCIOUS ACQUISITION & NATURAL ORDER 
**MOTIVATION & ORIENTATION FACTORS 
**TRANSACTIONAL ENGINEERING & COMMUNITY- CLASSROOM 
 
B.  PLANNING ISSUES: 
(cause of speech) 
(e.g.:  cognitive operations; syntactic & symantic systems; linguistic knowledge;communicative competence; etc.)
**CONSCIOUS GRAMMAR LEARNING (MONITOR THEORY) 
**ANALYTIC VS. GESTALT COGNITIVE STYLES OF LEARNING 
**CARETAKER SPEECH & FORMAL VS. INFORMAL INPUT 
**GRAMMAR EXERCISES & GAMES 
**COMMUNICATIVE EXERCISES 
 
C. MAPPING ISSUES: 
(effect of speech)
**TESTING & ACCOUNTABILITY 
**PATTERN PRACTICE & AUDIOLINGUALISM 
**LEARNER IS REPERTORY 
**ROUTINES & FORMULAIC EXPRESSIONS 
**ETHNO-STUDIES & DISCOURSE ANALYSIS 
 
 


4.)  The LT acts in a threefold role capacity matching the threefold aspect of utterances.

Student concerns    <-------  Teacher focus
 
 
 
A.  STRIVING ISSUES

**COMMUNICATIVE INTENTION & NEED 
**SUBCONSCIOUS ACQUISITION 
**COLLECTIVE SELF/love/INTEGRATION 
 

THE LI IS AN APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGIST 
(coach; managaer; facilitator) 

(see: FIELD DYNAMIC TECHNIQUES
 

B. PLANNING ISSUES

**COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE 
**CONSCIOUS LEARNING 
**ENCODING/DECODING SYSTEMS 
**AUTOMATIC SELF/EFFECTIVENESS 
 

THE LT IS AN APPLIED LINGUIST 
(Cognitive Psychologist; Sociolinguist; Psycholinguist) 

(see: SYLLABI, GAMES; EXERCISES) 
 

C. MAPPING ISSUES

**COMMUNICATIVE PERFORMANCE 
**USING THE LANGUAGE IN DEPTH 
**MEMORY KNOWLEDGE & TOPICS 
**TRANSACTIONAL EXCHANGES 
 

THE LT IS AN INFORMATION SCIENTIST 
OR LIBRARIAN 

(CULTURAL INFORMATION; LITERACY; 
DISCOURSE ANALYSIS; TOPICALIZATION 
ANALYSIS; ETHNO-STUDIES) 

(see: DISCOURSE ANALYSIS & ETHNO-STUDIES) 
 

 


5.)  The LT's THREEFOLD SELF:

A.  As SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGISTS, LTs manage the INTERPERSONAL ENVIRONMENT.
B.  As LINGUISTS, LT's manage the LINGUISTIC ENVIRONMENT (input).
C.  As INFORMATION SCIENTISTS OR LIBRARIANS, LTs manage the CULTURAL INFORMATION ENVIRONMENT.
 

 

6.)  LT's use FIELD DYNAMIC TECHNIQUES to manage INTERACTIVE NEEDS.
      LTs use SYLLABI, GAMES, EXERCISES, & EXPLANATIONS to manage the LANGUAGE INPUT.
      LTs use STUDENT DONE DISCOURSE ANALYSES & ETHNO-STUDIES to manage the INFORMATION INPUT.
 
 
 
A.  MANAGING THE INTERPERSONAL ENVIRONMENT:
STRIVING ISSUES  FIELD DYNAMIC TECHNIOUES (K.Lewin) 
(e.g.: Consensus Group Quiz; 
Generational Curriculum; 
Instructional Songs & Skits, 
Dyadic Huddle Teaching; 
Multi-channel Performances 
Milling/Crowding/Huddling) 
 
B.  MANAGING THE LINGUISTIC ENVIRONMENT:
PLANNING ISSUES SYLLABI, GAMES, EXERCISES, EXPLANATIONS 
(e.g.: Lesson Plans; Grammar & Communication Exercises; etc.) 
 
C.  MANAGING THE CULTURE INFORMATION ENVIRONMENT:
MAPPING ISSUES STUDENT DONE DISCOURSE ANALYSIS 
(e.g.: Ethnostudies; Psychostudies; Language Videolab; etc.) 
 
 


7. PROMPT QUESTIONS FOR STUDENT DONE DISCOURSE ANALYSIS serve as training for TOPICALIZATION BEHAVIORS (Mapping Issues).
 

illustration sentence: "I'd like to go next."
 
 
A. STRIVING ISSUES

(Prompt question:  "Give me some background assumptions contained in this sentence.") 

(Possible answer: "That there is self-selection going on in this situation.") 
 

PRESUPPOSITIONS 
CULTURAL STANDARDS 


BACKGROUND ASSUMPTIONS 
 
 
B.  PLANNING ISSUES

(Prompt question:  "Give me some logical consequences of this sentence, assuming it is true.") 

(Possible answer:  "Speaker is given permission by others to take turn.") 
 

IMPLICATIONS 
COMMUNITY NORMS 


LOGICAL CONSEQUENCES 
 
 
C.  MAPPING ISSUES

(Prompt question:  "Give me an adequate paraphrase of this sentence.") 

(Possible answer:  "Could it be my turn now?") 
 

PARAPHRASES 
MEANING 


EQUIVALENCE


8.)  The CONTEXT OF TALK is social hence a threefold acculturation training is needed for the language acquirer and learner.
 
 
A.  Striving Issues
GOAL DIRECTED BEHAVIORS
(socialization skills)
standards/premises
presuppositions
attributions
perceptions
assumptions
 
 
B.  Planning Issues
NORMATIVE BEHAVIORS 
(social reasoning skills)
norms
evaluations
implications
logical consequences
 
 
C.  Mapping Issues
 TOPICALIZATION BEHAVIORS 
(information science skills)
 meanings/paraphrases 
judgments
titles
assertions
 


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