Chapter 5

MEASURING FOREIGN LANGUAGE  APTITUDE AND ATTITUDE

Dr. Leon James
(c) 1969

The purpose of this section is to outline some major issues in foreign language teaching today, issues that bear upon the current, profession-wide examination of FL requirements. This report does not attempt to give a general review of the literature on FL learning and teaching; instead, it relies on previous extensive reviews (see References), taking them as the starting point, and it attempts to outline those principal conclusions which seemed to have the most empirical justification. The report is organized into six segments:

I . Teaching Methods in FL Instruction.

2. The Case for FL Aptitude.

3. The Attainment of FL Proficiency.

4. The Effects of Motivation and Interest in FL Learning.

5. The Goals and Benefits of FL Study.

6. Recommended Changes in FL Requirements.

5.1 TEACHING METHODS IN FL INSTRUCTION

Two theoretical approaches take up most of the attention of language teachers today. One, the habit-skill approach, views language behavior as a chain of habit units, the main problem in teaching being defined as making these habit chains automatic. The other, the rule-govemed grammar approach, views language competence as the ability to generate novel utterances on the basis of a finite set of rules, the main problem in teaching being the impartation of an adequate knowledge of these rules. The habit-skiff approach emphasizes oral practice techniques with a minimum of explanation of grammatical rules (such as repetitive sentence pattern drills). The generative approach discounts the usefulness of traditional concepts in learning theory such as practice, conditioning, reinforcement, and concentrates instead on arranging the linguistic input to the learner in a way that would maximally facilitate his acquisition of structural patterns and rules. It should be made clear that emphasis on rules and structure of the generative approach is not to be confused with the traditional (now archaic, except perhaps for the teaching of Latin) approach of the so-called grammar-translation method, which attempted to impart to the student a knowledge of the formal grammatical distinctions between his native language and the target language. In the generative approach the structure and rules of the target language are imparted inductively without the use of a formal meta-language and without translation exercises. Both the generative approach and the habit-skill approach may make use of modem linguistic theory on the nature and structure of language relying on generative transformational theory and contrastive analysis. Both tend to give greater emphasis to speaking and understanding, but the extent to which reading and writing skills are also taught varies greatly within either approach.

The debate on the relative merits of the two approaches, which occupies a significant share of the attention of FL teachers and applied linguists in their deliberations at conferences and in literature, is not merely of academic interest. The polemic character of the debate is kept alive by two disturbing aspects of FL teaching today: one is the widespread dissatisfaction expressed by both students and teachers with the repetitive pattern drills required by the habit-skill approach, which makes the former feel like idiots and the latter more like drill masters than teachers. The other reason has to do with the distinct malaise that came to permeate the ranks of FL teachers upon the realization that the level of proficiency attained by a large, if not major, proportion of public school and college FL students is disappointingly poor. Given this situation, it is necessary to examine in some detail the nature of the arguments in this debate.

Some standard arguments were recently outlined in a critique by Bernard Spolsky (1966). He summarizes the major assumptions upon which the habit-skill method is based:

1. FL learning is a mechanical process of habit formation.

2. Habits are strengthened by reinforcement.

3. Language is behavior made up of habit sequences at the phonemic, morphological, lexical, and syntactic levels.

4. Repetition, practice, and reinforcement of units and their concatenation are effective ways of developing language performance.

These principles are said to be derived from Skinner's behavior theory. Skinner's (1957) major attempt to apply the principles of behavior originally derived from work with rats and pigeons to the language behavior of humans has been persuasively demolished by Chomsky (1959) in his review of Skinner's book, Verbal Behavior. In this review Chomsky shows that the operational concepts in Skinner's theory of verbal behavior are gratuitous extensions from his work on animal behavior and lose their explanatory power completely when applied in the context of human verbal behavior. For example, the concept of "response strength"-his basic measure of learning-is defined in the work on rats as number of bar presses in a box rigged to deliver pellets of food upon depression of a lever by the animal. In the pigeon, response strength is equated with number of pecks. But what is it in language behavior? Frequency of emission of words, rate of speech units, intensity of vocal response, and the like, have been proposed, but all these are clearly inadequate (think of the absurdity of the conclusion that a language is known less well when it is whispered-low response strength-than when it is shouted!). Another example concerns the concept of "control," which is said to be the end result of the learning process, viz., when a particular "response" is "brought under the control" of a particular "stimulus" through the consequences of the response (i.e., reinforcement). These processes, which have operational meaning in the animal laboratory (e.g., stimulus = a light, response = bar press, control = presence of bar press when light is on, reinforcement = pellet of rat food), lose their specificity and become completely obscure in language behavior and can be said to apply to this new area only by analogy and metaphor, hence devoid of scientific explanatory value (think of what might be the "stimulus" of an utterance, in what sense an utterance is a "response," and by what means can one say that one "controls" the other through what reward). Yet it is precisely these specific tenuous extensions upon which the habit-skill method of language teaching is said to be based by its proponents.

With respect to the role of repetition and practice, recent investigations of natural language acquisition in children clearly show that overt practice on specific grammatical examples carries little or no weight in "implanting responses" and that "imitation" of novel grammatical forms occurs infrequently (for a detailed discussion of this argument see Chapter 1). Thus these concepts (repetitive practice, implanting of responses, imitation), cherished and carried to the ultimate in repetitive pattern drills, have only the most tenuous scientific justification. The habit-skill approach to FL teaching curiously rests its justification on a sequentially controlled model of language, despite the fact that such an approach has been clearly refuted in both psychological (see Lashley, 195 1) and linguistic (see Chomsky, 1957) literature.

It is important to consider the implications of the above critique for a new development in FL teaching, namely programed instruction. Several instructional programs are now commercially available in the form of language texts for French, Spanish, and German. The invention of programed instruction is attributed to Skinner (the "father of teaching machines"), and the basic scientific justification upon which this new technique rests is similarly related to the principles of behavior he developed in his work with animals. All the difficulties discussed above apply here with equal force, but there is even an added complication: progamed instruction requires the isolation of "units" which compose the competence to be taught or the knowledge to be acquired. It has been clearly shown (Chomsky, 1965; Lenneberg 1967, and many others) that the significant knowledge a user of a language has to acquire does not constitute "units" but patterns and relations. This holds true for all levels of linguistic analysis: phonological, semantic, syntactic, and morphological. For example, recent research has shown that a phoneme is not a physically distinct acoustic unit: it cannot be taught as a "unit," only as a class of variable phones which have certain relations to each other as well as to other classes of phones. Similarly, one cannot acquire "true" language competence by learning specific grammatical patterns as "units" since the number of sentence patterns understood by a native speaker is infinitely variable-one cannot seriously hope to teach true language competence by mechanical mastery over a limited number of sentence patterns.

However weak the theoretical position of the habit-skill approach may be, one can nevertheless inquire as to its comparative effectiveness to that of the generative rule or grammar approach. Numerous studies in the last twenty-five years or, so have attempted to resolve the issue of effectiveness' of various methods of FL teaching, none of which have been adequate enough to permit any definitive conclusions. The reason for this disappointing state of affairs is that it is practically unfeasible to vary one element of instruction experimentally without at the same time modifying the effects of other elements in an unknown manner. Hence, as in all complex educational problems, it is perhaps unwise to expect a scientific assessment of language teaching methods. In a recently completed extensive project carried out at the University of Colorado by Scherer and Wertheimer (1964), an ambitious attempt was made to compare the effectiveness of two different instructional programs for teaching German in college: one approach emphasized audiolingual skills while the other method emphasized reading and writing. At the end of one year of instruction the audiolingual group was found to be "far superior" in speaking and listening skills, while the more traditionally trained group was "significantly better" in reading and writing. During the second year the two groups were merged and given common course instruction. At the end of the year the first group was better at speaking while the second group was better at writing, neither of them differing in listening and reading. The authors concluded that "the two methods, while yielding occasionally strong and persisting differences in various aspects of proficiency in German, result in comparable overall efficiency." The results of this and several other studies of the same scope reviewed by Carroll (1966, 1965) lead him to "the rather commonplace conclusion that by and large, students learn (if anything) precisely what they are taught" (1965, p. 22).

Many other experiments of lesser scope have been carried out in attempts to evaluate relative effectiveness of various methods of teaching phonology, grammar, and vocabulary, but it is not within the purview of this section to give an evaluation of these attempts. The interested person is referred to the review by Carroll (1966). Attention is brought to recent efforts to develop self-instructional programs, especially to the work of Valdman (1964), who has proposed the idea of giving college students FL credit proportionate to their level of achievement rather than to the amount of time they spend taking courses. Carroll is very optimistic about the possibilities of such a program: "It is evident that self-instructional programs in foreign languages are not only perfectly feasible but also highly effective-more effective, in general, than conventional teacher-taught courses. When used by sufficiently well-motivated students, they can produce high levels of attainment in all four skills of language learning-speaking and writing as well as listening and reading" (Carron, 1966, pp. 27-28). It should be made clear that the effectiveness of programed self-instruction has not been adequately assessed for the general college population. It is known that individuals with different aptitudes and rates of learning require adjustment in learning programs and the technical problems involved in adjusting FL self-instruction programs to the individual learner have not been worked out.

5.2 THE CASE FOR FL APTITUDE

In order to be able to evaluate the manner in which learner characteristics, such as aptitude and motivation, interact with methods of instruction, it is necessary to consider the definitions for certain terms that will be used in this discussion. These definitions are based on Carroll (I 963a), and are also discussed in Chapter 3.

5.2.1 Learning

A task to be acquired; performing an act which previously could not be accomplished; understanding a concept previously not understood.

5.2.2 Transfer

When something learned in situation A also manifests itself in situation B because of the inferred commonality between the two situations. (The elements in common are often not specified or even understood.)

5.2.3 Learning Time

Amount of time spent on the act of learning. (Not to be confused with elapsed time which includes such activities as sitting at the desk dreaming, "wasting time" looking for a book or pencil, etc.)

5.2.4 Aptitude

Learning time under best teaching conditions; the shorter the learning time the higher the inferred aptitude. (Note that for a difficult task combined with a low aptitude, learning time may be indefmitely long.) Aptitude is specific to tasks and depends on possession of certain characteristics by the learner. These characteristics may be either genetic (innate) or they may be dependent upon prior learning or exposure to certain situations.

5.2.5 Ability to Understand Instructions

This is conceived of as dependent upon two factors: general intelligence and verbal ability. The first enters into the ability of the learner to infer the concepts and relationships needed for the task especially when these are not carefully spelled out (which, one might add, is the usual situation in any complex learning task). The second comes into play in the understanding of the language used in the instructions.

5.2.6 Quality of Instruction

The extent to which it is made clear to the learner what it is he is supposed to be learning. Note that this refers to highly specific elements within the overall learning task. Thus telling the learner that he is supposed to acquire "a reading knowledge of this FU says absolutely nothing about what he is supposed to be learning: does he begin by learning the "writing system," "vocabulary items" (which ones?), sentence patterns, phonology (how?), etc. Even in sub-tasks such as listening comprehension, the learner is confronted with the problem of just what he is supposed to be paying attention to: phonemic contrasts, segmentation, contour, grammatical relations, etc. It is evident that "quality of instruction" deals with such highly complex (and unsolved) problems as the identification of relevant contrasts, their sequencing, the amount of exposure needed at each level, and so on. It should also be noted that, as defined here, quality of instruction does not have an absolute criterion but relates to the learner's point of view, viz., whether or not the task has been made clear to him. His aptitude, previous knowledge, and ability to understand instructions will influence the specific requirements for making it clear what he is supposed to be learning. It follows that "a standard" method of instruction which does not vary with the learner's characteristics could not be of high quality.

5.2.7 Perseverance

The time the learner is willing to spend in learning to a specified criterion. (This definition may not be quite adequate since a learner may "be willing" but "is unable" due to distraction, frustration, etc. However, to resolve this issue one would have to go into a discussion of the type, Is he really "willing" when he "allows himself" to be distracted? etc.-a type of discussion which would take us too far afield from the central purpose of this section.)

5.2.8 Opportunity to Learn

The learning time allowed by the method of instruction and the environmental conditions. (Applies to sub-steps as well as to the overall task.)

We have now considered the definitions of all the concepts, stated or implied, required in the following formula given by Carroll:

Degree of Learning = f time actually 9ent time needed

The numerator in this equation will be equal to whichever of the following three terms is smallest: opportunity to learn, perseverance, instruction and ability to understand instructions.

The problem to which this section is addressed concerns, of course, a review of the factors that enter into an evaluation of the degree of learning of FLs in the school situation, in particular the college or university. The discussion in the previous section on methods of instruction is particularly relevant to two concepts implied in the equation: quality of instruction and opportunity to learn. The next section on the measurement of proficiency deals with a specification of the criterion to be achieved, which has not been dealt with so far. The fourth section on motivation will deal with perseverance as defined here. The rest of the present section will deal with the remaining two concepts implied in the equation: the ability to understand instructions and aptitude.

It is known that the acquisition of any learning task is influenced by what has come to be called a "general intelligence factor." As defined here, ability to understand instructions is a joint consequence of this general intelligence factor and verbal ability. The challenge involved in developing programed instruction can be viewed as an attempt to reduce the limiting effect of the general intelligence factor by sequencing the learning task in sufficiently small and clear steps so that the learner doesn't have to depend on his ability to guess just what he is supposed to be learning. It is this feature rather than its purported relation to Skinner's behavior theory that makes this new development such an exciting prospect. But the "state of the art" in programed instruction, particularly in FL teaching, is at such a crude level that the leamer's general intelligence remains an important limiting factor in degree of learning. It is not surprising, therefore, that grades obtained in Fl, courses correlate with grades obtained in other school subjects. In a survey conducted in 1965 at the University of Illinois (Flaugher, 1967) involving the grades in nine fields for all entering freshmen, the intercorrelations at the end of the first semester of work ranged from .18 to .66 with a mean of .38. Intercorrelations involving Fl, grades ranged from .34 (with Speech) to .51 (with Natural Sciences) with a mean of .42. This last figure is of the same order as that found by other surveys (see Pimsleur, Sundland, and McIntyre, 1964). These figures indicate that, while general intelligence is a contributing factor to success in courses, it accounts for only a modest proportion of the variance in success (a correlation of .42 accounts for 18% of the variance, leaving 82% of the variance to be accounted for by other factors). Indeed, as is well known, many students who obtain high grades generally do very badly in their Fl, course, and vice versa. This has led many to postulate "a special talent" for FL study. During World War II the U.S. government became involved in FL training programs designed to impart a "practical speaking knowledge" of many FLs to personnel assigned to overseas duties of a diplomatic, military, and paramilitary nature. These programs, known as "intensive FL training programs," apart from their costliness, were associated with a sense of wartime urgency which led to efforts of selection of trainees to "weed out" from the beginning those persons who had insufficient talent to complete the intensive program successfully. These initial attempts at prediction of success in FL study found that the best predictor of success in an intensive program was the student's performance in an intensive trial course that usually lasted three to four weeks (Carroll, 1965). On the basis of this experience, tables of expectations of success were developed, one of which is presented here as Table I .

TABLE I

TIME REQUIREMENTS FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE ACHIEVEMENT (IN MONTHS)

Levels of Proficiency

Languages Class 1 11 III

Hours ----------------- ----------------- --------------

Hi Aver. It Aver. Iii Aver.

Apt. Apt. Apt. Apt. Apt. Apt.

Italian, French 1 4 6 No No No No

Spanish, German

Danish, Portuguese, 2 2 3 4 6 9 12

Dutch, Swedish,

Rumanian, Norwegian 2 1% 2 3 5 6 9

Russian, Polish, 1 6 8 No No No No

Persian, Greek,

Finnish, 2 3 4 9 12 15* 18*

Hungarian

3 2 3 6 9 12* 15*

Chinese 1 6 9 No No No No

Korean 2 4 6 15 16 24* 30*

Japanese 3 3 4 12 15 18 24

Arabic 1 6 9 No No No No

Vietnamese 2 4 6 12 15 18* 24*

Thai 3 3 4 9 12 15* 18*

Notes: (a) "No" entries indicate that it is not practical to achieve that level of proficiency on a one-hour-a-day basis.

(b) Entries with an asterisk indicate that one must add three months in part-time training and using the language, preferauly in the field.

The table appears in Cleveland, Mangone, and Adams (1960, pp. 250-25 1) and estimates the time requirements (in months) for FL achievement in intensive programs for individuals with "high" and 41 average" aptitude. Three levels of proficiency are defined as follows:

Level 1: "Sufficient proficiency in speaking a foreign language to satisfy routine travel requirements."

Level 11: "Basic familiarity with the structure of a language with sufficient proficiency in speaking to conduct routine business within a particular field. Sufficient familiarity with the writing systems to read simple material with the aid of a dictionary."

Level III: "Fluency and accuracy in speaking with sufficient vocabulary to meet any ordinary requirements which do not involve the speaker in a technical subject outside his own specialty. Ability to read newspapers and documents with limited reference to a dictionary." The time estimates are further divided into three degrees of intensiveness of the program: "I Class Hour" refers to one hour of instruction per day supplemented by "2-3 hours of drill and study." This "low" level of intensiveness is not considered practical as an intensive program to go beyond Level I. (Note, however, that it is far more than the usual college FL course.) The target languages to be learned are divided into four groups. The "easiest" in terms of time requirement (for native Americans) include the most frequently taught FLs in American schools (Spanish, French, German) but also include languages that few college students normally think of taking (Dutch, Danish, Swedish). The next group of languages in terms of difficulty includes Russian, which is becoming increasingly more popular, and Modem Greek, as well as more "exotic" languages such as Persian and Hungarian. The most difficult languages for Americans are the "Asian" varieties including Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, and Thai, but also Arabic. The difficulties involved in mastering the writing system of these languages (at Level III) add a very appreciable amount to the time requirements.

The superiority of the "high aptitude" individual over persons with "average aptitude" can be seen to be considerable (people with "low aptitude" are not considered capable of attaining any significant level of achievement under the time requirements of an intensive program). For the easiest languages, the "high aptitude" person can attain Level III proficiency in one-half to two-thirds the time needed for the "average" aptitude individual. For the difficult languages, the time is between 20% and 33% faster. Carroll (1960) estimates that only one-third of the general population in the U.S. has a sufficiently high degree of FL aptitude to complete successfully intensive language training programs designed on the order of 400 hours of study (a four-year high school FL program represents on the order of 600 hours of study).

As aptitude was defined earlier in this section, it is clear that a low level of aptitude can be compensated for (up to a point) in two ways: increasing time for opportunity to learn and lowering the level of proficiency to be attained. It can be seen that, assuming adequate motivation to learn (perseverance), and fixing an upper limit for time of study-say four years of school work-one can set the maximum level of proficiency that individuals with a given aptitude could attain. If we now set the minimum acceptable level of achievement say in terms of a score of X on a proficiency test-as the requirement for "success," there will then be a certain proportion of the population that will not achieve success in FL courses. Pimsleur, et al. (1964), estimate that up to twenty percent of the student population in high schools and colleges are "beset by a frustrating lack of ability" in FL study. They refer to these students, as "under-achievers" in view of the fact that their grades in FL courses are "at least one grade point lower than their average grade in other major subjects." These investigators set about on an ambitious project to identify the characteristics and specific abilities that constitute FL aptitude. They administered a battery of tests to high school students in a state school system that they considered typical of the Midwest and the Eastern Seaboard and correlated the scores on these tests with obtained school grades in FL courses. An evaluation of their effort is given by the comparison of variables that correlate with FL course grades (Table 2).

As can be seen, their Language Aptitude Battery (which takes less than two hours to complete) is as good a predictor as Grade-point average (which represents a whole semester of work in several subjects). When these two variables are combined, the multiple correlation affords more than double the predictive value of an intelligence test, and one-half of the total variance to be accounted for.

TABLE 2

Correlation Percent of

Variable with FL Variance

grade explained

I.Q. .46 21

English grades .57 32

Grade-point average .62 38

Aptitude Battery .62 38

(Last two combined) .72 52
 
 

It would be instructive to examine the tests of the Language Aptitude Battery as it may give an indication of what constitutes a "talent for FL's." Here is a brief description:

Interest Test 1: A series of questions designed to index how eager the student is in studying the language he is taking.

Interest Test 2: A series of questions evaluating the student's belief in the general value of FL study.

Linguistic Analysis Test: "A fifteen-item test of verbal reasoning in which the students are given a number of forms in a FL and asked to deduce from them how other things are said in that language.99

Vocabulary Test: A vocabulary richness test as a rough measure of verbal ability.

Pitch Test: "A test of auditory discrimination in which the student must distinguish Chinese tones."

Rhymes Test: A test to measure fluency with words.

Sound-Symbol Test: A "rapid-fire test in which the student hears a nonsense syllable and must match it with the correct spelling in his booklet."

Not all these tests are equally related to FL aptitude. In fact, the results of a matched-group experiment, in which "underachievers" were compared to "normal" students, showed no difference between the groups on the "Linguistic Analysis Test," the "Vocabulary" tests, and the "Rhymes" test. On the other hand, on three of the tests the underachievers scored significantly lower: these were the Interest Test 1, the Pitch Test, and the Sound-Symbol Test. The conclusion Pimsleur, et al., reach is unambiguous:

"According to this investigation, there does exist a "talent" for learning foreign languages-that is, a special factor beyond intelligence and indus-

triousness which accounts for how well an individual succeeds in a

language course. Our evidence indicates this special factor is auditory

ability, which may be defined as the ability to receive and process infor-

mation through the ear" (1964, p. 135).

A similar conclusion is reached by Carroll (1963), whose extensive work on the Modern Language Aptitude Test (MLAT) was carried out independently of and prior to the Pimsleur, et al., investigation:

"These propositions [which this chapter wiH attempt to demonstrate] are (a) that facility in learning to speak and understand a foreign language is a fairly specialized talent (or group of talents), relatively independent of those traits ordinarily included under 'intelligence' and (b) that a relatively small fraction of the general population seems to have enough of this talent to be worth subjecting to the rigorous, intensive, expensive training programs in foreign languages ... [HoweverJ ... the question of whether a student of lower than average aptitude should study foreign languages for purposes of general and liberal education depends upon a number of considerations which do not bear upon the selection of students for intensive foreign language courses of the type described here" (p. 89).

According to Carroll, FL aptitude consists of at least the following four identifiable abilities as measured by the MLAT: (1) phonetic coding, which is "the ability to 'code' auditory phonetic material in such a way that this material can be recognized, identified, and remembered over something longer than a few seconds." This ability is then very similar to that identified by Pimsleur, et al. (1964), as discussed above. The word "coding" in the description takes on added significance when it is realized that "phonetic discrimination" per se is not an important predictor of FL success. A test of the ability to perceive phonetic distinctions by requiring the listener to distinguish between similar sounds presented as "foreign syllables" was included in earlier versions of the MLAT Battery but was later abandoned: its "validity coefficients were consistently low in comparison to those of other tests, and the conclusion was reached that phonetic discrimination ability is not crucial in FL learning. Most normal people have enough discrimination ability to serve them in learning a FL, and in any case, it is more a matter of learning the discrimination over a period of time than any fundamental lack of auditory discrimination which can readily be tested in an aptitude battery" (Carroll, 1965, p. 96). Thus it appears that the popular notion of "having a good ear for languages" is an ability that doesn't depend so much on one's "ear" but on the brain's capacity to code and store for later recall auditory information of a phonetic type.

(2) The second major ability measured by the MLAT is grammatical sensitivity, which is "the ability to handle 'granimar'," i.e., the forms of language and their arrangements in natural utterances. The subtest which measures this ability ("Words in Sentences Test") requires the individual to recognize the function of words in various contexts using English sentences. For example, a word or phrase in a longer sentence is underlined and the subject is required to underline that word or phrase in a second sentence which has the same grammatical function as the underlined element in the first sentence. Thus the test does not require formal training in the metalanguage of grammar, although such training may improve this trait.

(3) The third variable measured by the "Paired-Associates Test" of the MLAT is "rote memorization ability for foreign language materials," and "has to do with the capacity to learn a large number of ... associations in a short time." It is well known in the psychological literature on verbal learning that rote learning ability is not related to intelligence to any substantial degree.

(4) The fourth variable in FL aptitude is "inductive language learning ability, " which is the "ability to infer linguistic forms, rules, and patterns from new linguistic context with a minimum of supervision and guidance." Unfortunately, this ability is not measured by the present commercial version of the MLAT.

The validity coefficients of the MLAT vary greatly, depending on the subject sample and the population they are drawn from. For example, its correlation with two groups of students enrolled in the Five-University Semester Program in Middle Eastern Languages was .40 in one group and .58 in another. The course was an eight-week intensive program in various languages including Arabic, Turkish, Persian, and Modem Hebrew. In further extensive tests of the MLAT, Carroll (1960) obtained twenty-eight validity coefficients for high school courses; these ranged from a low of .25 to a high of .78 with a median of .55. In twenty-five coefficients obtained with college courses the range went from a low of .13 to a high of .69 with a median of .44. These coefficients were superior to those obtained with intelligence tests and there apparently "was no systematic fluctuation of validity dependent on teaching methodology."

An interesting aspect of the MLAT is the claim Carroll makes that it is equally valid for predicting success no matter what the target language is. The status of this claim, however, is uncertain in view of the ambiguous data available on this question (see, for example, Table 4.11 in Carroll, 1965). Nevertheless, the evidence for the positive, significant validity of the MLAT in all languages is strong and there is little evidence so far that particular languages require special abilities.

Another interesting aspect of the MLAT is its potential use as a diagnostic tool. At the present time, it is not known to what extent one can improve the various separate abilities in FL aptitude by remedial training. On the other hand, a type of instruction that takes into account an individual's specific weaknesses as revealed by his scores on the subtests of the MLAT would seem to be a helpful strategy. Even if individual attention is not possible, separate classes based on the MLAT as a placement test would be indicated.

5.3 THE ATTAINMENT OF FL PROFICIENCY

It is not the purpose of this section to review existing tests of proficiency for FLs or the principles involved in the development of such tests. Rather, the intent is to examine the nature of the goal of FL achievement, what Edgerton and his associates (1968) have called "liberated expression" in their report to the Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. An extended quote from their report will introduce the problem to which this section addresses itself:

"Most existing materials for classroom instruction in foreign languages-especially audiolingual materials-concentrate on teaching the overt "machinery" of the language.... When the question of meaning arises in the context of foreign4anguage instruction, "Culture" must necessarily be considered since the semantic component, the "meaningful content," of a language cannot be separated from the culture of which it is a vehicle.... Blunder after blunder (of the very sort the student's experience with a native or near-native "monitor" would sort out for him) is due not to lack of adequate conditioning in the manipulation of the mechanical aspects of the language he is trying to speak, but to a failure properly to associate the "pieces" of that language with what they denote and connote in the foreign culture itself... Very often it is assumed that the primary aim of study of a foreign language in the context of a general education is to train the student so that he can make practical use of his acquired skill and knowledge. However. on close inspection this aim seems quite unrealistic. The great majority of students who study a particular foreign language in the course of their schooling never make very much actual use of it for either professional or casual purposes" (pp. 100-101).

FL requirements in colleges and universities, both entrance and graduation, are usually stated either in terms of number of credit hours taken or in terms of some vague statement such as "a speaking knowledge" or "a reading knowledge" of the language. In evaluating the success of the FL training program in the American educational system, it is necessary, as the above quote suggests, to consider the attained proficiency on two levels. The first level concerns the mechanical manipulation of the FL, while the second, "higher" level, relates to the student's attainment of "liberated expression"-the ability to use the FL as a vehicle of communication, what might be called communicative competence.

With respect to the first level, it is well known that successful completion of "so many" course credit units is a very poor indicator of the degree of proficiency attained. Even standardized tests of Fl, achievement are ambiguous in this respect for, as Carroll (1960) points out, they allow an assessment of competence only in terms relative to a comparison group which is considered "typical." Percentile scores do not indicate the absolute level of achievement of a student. Carroll gives an example of what he considers "a meaningful scale on which it would be desirable to report proficiency" (1960, p. 72). This scale was established by the Foreign Service Institute of the U.S. Department of State. The standards in speaking proficiency are:

S-0- no practical knowledge of the language

S-1- able to use limited social expressions, numbers, and language for travel requirements

S-2- able to satisfy routine social and limited office requirements

S-3- sufficient control of structure and adequate vocabulary to handle representation requirements and professional discussions in one or more fields

S-4- fluency in the foreign language

S-5- competence equivalent to English

A similar series of standards has apparently been established for reading and writing. An example of such a scheme has already been provided in Table 1, previously discussed, which also gives, as will be recalled, the time requirements for attaining the various defined levels of proficiency. As long as school requirements of FL proficiency fail to specify the levels of achievement in terms similar to these, no meaningful assessment of the success of their programs is possible. Furthermore, until such an assessment procedure is adopted, the requirements for FL study are likely to continue to appear to the student as arbitrary and irrelevant, a condition that is not likely to foster the kind of interest and motivation that promotes FL study (see next section).

It is often stated that full native language achievement is an impossible goal for FL training in the school. While such an expectation is undoubtedly unrealistic under present conditions of instruction, considering the limited time available for FL study for most students in high schools and colleges, it need not imply that because full communicative competence is impossible instruction should be geared to merely a knowledge of the mechanical manipulation of the language. The various levels of speaking proficiency as defined by the Foreign Service Institute scale (see above) assume the mastery of various levels of communicative competence before complete mastery of mechanical manipulation is attained. For example, level S-4 (fluency in the FL) is preceded by S-2 (able to satisfy routine social requirements), which is short of the proficiency in mechanical manipulation achieved by many FL students in school courses yet is far ahead of the latter in terms of ability to use the language in a practical situation. It would appear that the low level of communicative competence achieved by students in FL courses in school is due more to a failure in the method of instruction than to lack of sufficient time devoted to FL study.

Hayes (1965), in a most perceptive discussion, has outlined the "new directions" that FL teaching ought to take to remedy the "gap" between a knowledge of "structural manipulation" and communicative competence. It is instructive to review briefly the nature of the knowledge that must be subsumed under communicative competence.

A. Paralinguistic factors. These refer to features of speaking such as pitch, range, tempo, clipping, etc., which may make one react to a speaker with the comment "It's not what he said, but how he said it . . ."

B. Kinesic factors. Formal, visual (facial, gestural, etc.) features that carry meaning such as the slightly protruded tongue whose significance varies not only cross-culturally and cross-linguistically but, also, contextually within a culture. (Consider the difference in meaning of this act in our culture when done by a child concentrating on a task, by a young woman to her intimate friend, or by an effeminate male.)

C. Sociolinguistic factors. Linguistic features (phonetic, lexical, grammatical) correlated with geographical origin (dialect), socioeconomic background, context of interaction (speech style), speech mode (writing vs. speaking), etc.

D. Psycholinguistic factors. Features of the communication situation (including all of the above) as they affect the listener. For example, the person who uses the "High" version of a language in a speech community characterized by diglossia (see Ferguson, 1964) where the "Low" version is required (as in Arabic, Greek, or Swiss German) is an object of ridicule, while the reverse blunder in a school situation may land the teacher in jail (in some Arabic-speaking countries). Or, to give a more familiar example, the use of informal phonological style by a non-native speaker evokes an unfavorable reaction (e.g., "I'm gonna go home," with a less than native accent on "gonna").

When these aspects of communicative competence are considered, it is clear that they may profitably be included in a FL teaching program whose goal is admittedly less than full native competence. It is well to consider that if communicative competence (at some realistic level) is the desirable goal of FL study, then a so-called "speaking knowledge" is not closer to it than a "reading knowledge." It would appear that communicative competence in reading and writing (with no comparable competence in aural skills) would in many circumstances be more desirable than a "speaking knowledge" of the audiolingual course variety that includes adequate structural manipulation but excludes practical use. Hence an automatic preference for developing so-called "speaking skills" in many modern FL courses would seem to be arbitrary and unjustified.

5.4 THE EFFECTS OF MOTIVATION AND INTEREST IN FL LEARNING

It will be recalled that one of the elements in the learning model outlined earlier was "perseverance," which was defined as the time the student is willing to spend in active learning. This section will examine some of the relevant factors that enter into the term "willing" in this definition.

There is a distinction to be drawn between "being interested" and "being motivated." Interest usually refers to the condition where the source of the drive to study lies in the student; the latter sees the intrinsic value of the effort to be expended and the goal to be achieved. "To motivate a student," on the other hand, refers to a condition where it is felt that there is an absence of interest and hence the drive to study lies in some area extrinsic to the goal to be achieved. It is often assumed that intrinsic interest is a more favor- able condition for learning than supplied motivation, although the evidence on this matter is ambiguous. Thus, Lorge (in Caff oll, 1960) reported that, when in the depression adults were paid to follow experimental courses in Russian, they learned equally well regardless of their stated interest in the task (p. 66). Dunkel (also in Carroll, 1960) found in a 1948 report that monetary rewards did not significantly improve performance in an artificial language learning task (p. 66). Carroll himself reports that a person’s likes or dislikes. for Fl, study were unrelated to aptitude or achievement (1960, p. 66). He concludes: "From these results one may infer that as long as learners remain cooperative and actively engage in learning whether they want to or not, motivational differences will not make much difference in achievement. Motivation will be related to achievement only when it affects how well students will persevere in active learning efforts in a situation in which they are relatively free to lag in attention, as in public schools" (1960, p. 66). However, it will be recalled that Pimsleur, et al. (1964), reported that their "Interest Test I" was one of the tests on which underachievers were significantly lower than the controls, and they found it helpful to include

it in their Aptitude Battery as a useful predictor of success. Similarly, after a series of investigations on the study of French in the Montreal, Maine, and Louisiana settings, Lambert (1963) reaches the following conclusion: "The results indicate that, similar to the Montreal studies, two independent factors underlie the development of skill in learning a second language: an intellectual capacity and an appropriate attitudinal orientation toward the other language group coupled with a determined motivation to learn the language" (p. 117).

The investigations of Lambert and his associates at McGill University raise some important questions for a "social psychology of bilingualism" which are not normally considered within the scope of FL training, yet indicate that the study of an FL may have some psychological consequences not unlike those experienced by immigrants in their efforts of acculturation. The individual's reactions to these psychologically significant processes are believed to affect the learner's motivation for study and, hence, his success in achievement. Lambert puts it this way:

"This theory, in brief, holds that an individual successfully acquiring a second language gradually adopts various aspects of behavior which characterize members of another linguistic-cultural group. The learner's ethnocentric tendencies and his attitudes toward the other group are believed to determine his success in learning the new language. His motivation to learn is thought to be determined by his attitudes and by his orientation toward learning a second language. The orientation is 'instrumental' in form if the purposes of language study reflect the more utilitarian value of linguistic achievement, such as getting ahead in one's occupation, and is 'integrative' if the student is oriented to learn more about the other cultural community as if he desired to become a potential member of the other group. It is also argued that some may be anxious to learn another language as a means of being accepted in another cultural group because of dissatisfactions experienced in their own culture while other individuals may be equally as interested in another culture as they are in their own. However, the more proficient one becomes in a second language, the more he may find that his place in his original membership group is modified at the same time as the other linguistic-cultural group becomes something more than a reference group for him. It may in fact become a second membership group for him. Depending upon the compatibility of the two cultures, he may experience feelings of chagrin or regret as he loses ties in one group, mixed with the fearful anticipation of entering a relatively new group. The concept of 'anomie' . . . refers to the feelings of social uncertainty which sometimes characterize not only the bilingual but also the serious student of a second language" (1963, p. 114).

It can be seen that the question of motivation in FL study may be a very complicated factor indeed. Lambert has found that "integratively oriented" students are more successful than "instrumentally oriented" learners, and he apparently believes that the latter are not normally aware that they are "trying less hard," if indeed they are. Carroll (1960) is of the opinion that the instrumentally oriented student in fact perseveres less at FL study, which he thinks accounts for Lambert's findings. Evidence consonant with this interpretation is provided by Politzer (1953-54), who reports that there is a direct correlation between performance in course examinations for college students and number of hours spent in voluntary language laboratory periods (the latter presumably being an indication of intrinsic interest), while the correlation with time spent in doing homework (presumably an indication of extrinsic interest) is curvilinear (the students getting A's and D's did the least amount of homework).

In view of the apparent importance of the leamer's interest in the subject being studied, it is necessary to examine the evidence on this matter. Only two studies were found which report college student's interest in FL study. One was carried out at Harvard in the early 1950's by Politzer (1953-54), the other at the University of Illinois in 1968 by the Liberal Arts and Sciences Students Council (unpublished). The situation at both institutions was similar in that the students were enrolled in the FL courses for the purpose of fulfilling the FL requirement. (See Chapter 2.)

Two questions in the Politzer survey have direct relevance to student interest in FL study. The first deals with the student's selection of a particular language for study; the following options were given in the question:

(a) no particular reason

(b) language happened to be more easily available in the secondary school or college schedule

(c) it is easier than any other

(d) it, is more likely to be of specific use

(e) reason for choice was a particular interest in French (or Hispanic) civilization or literature or people

The results are tabulated by type of course in which the students were enrolled: courses lettered A and C are those with admitted emphasis on reading; courses lettered B and D lay greater emphasis on speaking. A and B are first year courses, C and D are second year courses. The total sample consisted of 455 students. Of these, the majority were in the A and C courses (184 and 189, respectively, versus 49 and 33 for the B and D courses, respectively). The figures in the table refer to percentages.

French Spanish

a+b+c d+e a+b+c d+e

A 36 64 48 52

C 40 60 57 43

B 18 82 12 88

D 28 72 37 63

The answers in this table are lumped by category of response indicating clearly extrinsic interest (a, b, and c) versus probable intrinsic interest (d and e). The following points are evident upon inspection: (1) the students who enroll in a course with a greater emphasis on speaking (B, D) have a more intrinsic interest in the language they are studying; (2) the extent of intrinsic interest held in the first year course decreases in the second year course; (3) anywhere from 1/3 to 1/2 of the students in the A and C courses have no intrinsic interest in the language they are studying. In addition, a breakdown of answers by grades indicates that more of the good students (in all courses) have an intrinsic interest (75%) than the bad students (53%), as indicated by their course grades.

The second question asked the students to indicate their opinion on what they felt ought to be the primary purpose of instruction. The choices given were:

(a) acquisition of reading knowledge

(b) ability to speak with some fluency on everyday topics

(c) acquaintance with some major literary works in the original (d) better understanding of French (or Hispanic) culture The results were:

French Spanish

a b c+d a b c+d

A 64 31 5 62 34 4

C 48 43 9 52 44 4

B 39 61 0 17 79 4

D 25 71 4 0 100 0

Inspection of the table permits the following conclusion: more students in the A and C courses believe that reading should be the primary purpose of FL study, while the B and D students believe in the primacy of a speaking knowledge. Separate tabulation combining the opinion of the total sample of 455 students reveals that more students believe in the primary importance of reading over speaking (46% vs. 41%). Furthermore, the distribution of answers for "good" students and "bad" students for this question is about equal.

Two significant pieces of information emerge from the Politzer survey. One is that one-third to one-half of the students taking a FL to fulfill a college requirement have no intrinsic interest in the particular language they are taking. The other is that a reading knowledge of the language is held to be of equal or greater importance than a speaking knowledge. Both of these conclusions are further confirmed by the pattern of results at the University of Illinois survey, which was answered by about 838 students. (Participation was voluntary; about 5,000 questionnaires were distributed to the student body.) The results showed that 50% preferred "a language course oriented toward understanding of grammar and reading comprehension," versus 47% who preferred "a course oriented toward oral-aural comprehension." The fact that they have little intrinsic interest in FL study is shown by the following pattern of answers: only 28% read any material voluntarily in the language they are taking, 80% feel that they have to work harder in FL courses, a situation which they consider unfair, and for 6 1 % of the students this extra work prevents them from taking other courses that they are interested in. Furthermore, 53% don't even feel that they would be able to use the FL they studied to meet graduate school requirements, and 8001o doubt that FL study is helpful in developing "discipline" or "better study habits." Finally, 76% disapprove of the FL requirement and 4001o feel that FL study in college has actually been detrimental to them.

In considering the dissatisfaction which FL teachers experience with respect to the low degree of success of the FL training program, it is necessary to pay attention to at least the following three factors: (1) the method of instruction, (2) the distribution of FL aptitude in the general school population, and (3) the apparent lack of intrinsic interest on the part of students in studying FLs. The general considerations relating to the first two factors have already been discussed in previous sections. The remainder of this section will consider the specific ways in which student interest is affected by his FL aptitude and the decisions the FL teacher can make about the method of instruction he practices.

In the definition of aptitude given earlier, it was stated that aptitude may be either innate or dependent upon transfer or prior learning or exposure to certain situations. One of the exposure conditions that may affect FL aptitude for college students might be prior FL study in high school. There are indeed some indications that the study of a FL in high school facilitates success in study of another FL in college (Carroll, 1966, p. 31), and students entering college who have had no lapse between high school and college in FL study do better than either students who have had no previous language study or students who have had a lapse of at least two years (Carron, 1960, p. 68). However, the quality of FL study in high school appears to be generally low, as suggested by the fact that, at the University of Illinois, more students are enrolled in 101 and 102 type courses (considered remedial) than 103 and 104 type courses despite the fact that practically all incoming freshmen have had two years of study in high school (and 40% of them have had more than two years). It is well known that lack of achievement in a subject lowers student motivation and thus the lack of intrinsic interest in FL study at the college level may, to a certain extent, be the result of previous and concurrent failure in FL study. At any rate, tests with the MLAT have shown that FL aptitude remains fairly stable throughout one's life history past puberty, and the distribution of scores in the general population indicates that the FL teacher must be resigned to the fact that a certain (undetermined) proportion of students have aptitude scores too low to achieve at what he might consider an adequate level under the time requirements and instruction conditions of the school environment.

If this conclusion is accepted, the FL teacher may have to adjust his expectation of the proficiency to be attained by the student with a given aptitude, and he may profitably ask himself what steps he can take in his instruction to make FL study more worthwhile and more relevant to the student within the latter's capacities. Carroll (1966) reports certain cases in which "well-developed programs of instruction, particularly of the 'programed' variety, yielded low correlations between [FL] aptitude, and performance suggesting that the obstacle of low aptitude may sometimes be surmounted by the use of smallstep increment materials that do not challenge language aptitudes" (p. 29). Language study is unlike the study of most other school subjects in that the student has in it very adequate feedback of his failure to reach the goal. Unless sub-goals are clearly defined for him, he may get discouraged and lose interest or stop trying. The FL teacher ought to be aware of the psychological importance to the student of the latter's self-evaluation of his progress and take steps to help him to define his progress in realistic and relevant terms. Some students (and, indeed, FL teachers) tend to measure progress by inappropriate criteria. They may judge their progress in terms of how closely they come to a native speaker model instead of in terms of the attainment of sub-goals. They may insist on the early command of a large vocabulary disregarding the fact that the biggest problem in language acquisition lies in the mastery of phonological and syntactic skiffs, not the extension of vocabulary. They may insist on native-like pronunciation and frustrating phonetic exercises despite the fact that there is no evidence that such accuracy is essential for communicative competence, which, actually, is unlikely, quite apart from the fact that many learners have too low an aptitude for this degree of achievement. The aesthetic value placed on a "good accent" may be too high a price to pay when such insistence hinders the attainment of communicative competence. The student should also be given more help in the choice of an FL. An individual with low aptitude will experience more problems with languages that have a complex grammatical structure or a difficult writing system. Ferguson (1964) has outlined certain criteria that may be used for evaluating the intrinsic complexity of the grammar of a language (morphophonemic simplicity, number of obligatory categories marked by inflections or concord, extent of symmetry of paradigms, degree of strictness of concord). One might consider preparing rankings of modem languages in terms of difficulty for Americans based on norms of time requirements (such as in Table 1) and counsel the student for a choice on the basis of his aptitude and interest. The level of proficiency to be required may be set in advance on the basis of aptitude test results and either require substitute work to fill in the rest of the time or, award less credit. Another possibility is to set different proficiency requirements for different skiffs. While existing aptitude tests, such as the MLAT, are not quite suitable for this purpose, a try-out course might be: thus, if it is found that a student's audiolingual attainment will be low, he can switch to a reading course where his chances of success might be better. Finally, FL study can be rendered more relevant by making it useful; for example, its requirement for readings in the student's major area of study and its use for communication purposes at an early stage without insisting on prior mastery of mechanical manipulation.

5.5 THE GOALS AND BENEFITS OF FL STUDY

To the question of what are the goals or benefits of FL study one usually obtains answers that fall into four categories (not necessarily independent): a reading knowledge, a speaking knowledge, communicative competence, and cultural awareness. The traditional goal of FL training and the one still dominant in the minds of undergraduate and graduate university students is the attainment of a reading capacity sufficient to serve library research requirements and to provide the possibility of enjoying major literary works in a language other than one's own. The major goal of the Intensive Foreign Language Program which sparked the, "new" audiolingual approach during World War H was to produce a "practical speaking knowledge" in the shortest possible time. This result satisfied the immediate requirements of a need at hand: to train military, paramilitary, and diplomatic personnel assigned to overseas duty. As a result of these efforts, coupled by the increasing number of private American citizens who travel abroad, there has developed a strong feeling among many individuals connected with education, that the primary goal of FL study in the school ought to be the development of oral skills. With respect to this change of emphasis, Moulton raises certain important questions:

"As part of a liberal education, however, we may also want the student to retain an understanding of the structure of the foreign language, just as we want him to gain and retain an understanding of the structure of his native language.... Likewise, as part of a liberal education we must be interested not only in teaching our students to speak, but also in teaching them to say something worth listening to; and this means that part of their work must consist in reading some of the great things which have been said in the particular language, some of its best works of literature" (1962, p. 90).

While most teachers today would not dispute the fact that reading literature in an FL is beneficial, and indeed such is required in advanced language courses, yet the emphasis on oral skills in the popularized audiolingual courses shows that when study time is short and a choice has to be made, the preference is for a development of oral skills and literature reading is left largely to the student who wants to specialize in FLs. The rationale for this preference is not obvious and the decision needs justification, for in fact it may not have any. The fact is that the practical considerations for FL study such as travel and a job abroad are still not sufficiently important for most Americans, and given the dominance of English in the world, which is still increasing, these considerations may never by themselves fully justify the emphasis of oral skills in FL study. The present wide insistence on a goal that is justifiably felt unwarranted by many students in our educational system may be responsible in large measure for the lack of high motivation in FL study. The choice of which skill to emphasize in FL instruction ought to be made in response to the goal or need felt by the student, not by some arbitrary decision. The emphasis on oral skills in the Intensive Foreign Language Program of World War II, in many current efforts such as the Peace Corps Training program, and in private FL training programs designed for business men, is a rational choice justified by the trainee's particular needs. Such a single purpose goal for FL training in our schools is not similarly responsive to the potentially variable needs of the general student population.

Irrespective of whether the goal of FL study is specified as a reading knowledge or a speaking knowledge, or both, there is one ultimate benefit that receives universal consensus. This is that FL study increases cultural awareness, reduces ethnocentrism, and is an effective "antidote to cultural myopia." Despite the undisputed status of this benefit, FL teachers often are incapable of making an efficient case for it to the student who often remains skeptical. It may be instructive to examine, in some detail, the arguments that some writers have used relative to this question.

The relationship between language and culture is often discussed in the literature in relation to the so-called linguistic or cultural relativity hypothesis, whose best known modern proponents have been Sapir and Whorf (sometimes also called the "Whorfian hypothesis" or the "Sapir-Whorf hypothesis"). Writers have disagreed concerning the strength of the influence of the language system upon thought, perception, and motivation. The strong formulation of the hypothesis posits that with each different language system there is correlated a unique thought pattern which determines the speaker's world view. The consequence of this position is the denial of the possibility of an exact correspondence between two linguistic expres- sions that belong to different language systems. The weak formula- tion only admits that coding systems in general, of which language represents one example, facilitates or inhibits memory functions. This position denies a direct influence of the language system on perception, and admits the possibility of "equivalent expressions" across different language systems.

Carroll has edited a book on some selected writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf (1956), but he seems to reject the strong version of the relativity hypothesis. He inclines toward the weaker proposition that language "predisposes" an individual toward a particular view insofaras the grammatical and semantic classes peculiar to a language emphasize certain aspects of experience and the environment in a way that is different from another language. He writes: "Insofar as languages differ in the ways they encode objective experience, Ian- guage users tend to sort out and distinguish experiences differently according to the categories provided by their respective languages. These cognitions will tend to have certain effects on behavior" (Carroll, 1963b, p. 12). Some examples will illustrate the process Carroll has in mind. It is well known that the Eskimos have some dozen different words for varieties of snow, and so a person who is to communicate in their language must change his usual perceptions of snowflakes by learning certain differentiations he failed to make before. The realization that classification of objects as expressed by the names we give them is arbitrary may come when an English speaker learns Chinese and discovers that two categories of things that he has hitherto considered very different ("fruits" and "nuts") are in this language lumped into one class having but one name. To give an example that might be more familiar, when an American learns German his attention is drawn to the fact that German speak- ing people must specify the manner of transportation when they talk about displacing themselves: A German cannot just "go" to his country house; he must either walk (gehen), use a vehicle (fahren), ride on horseback (reiten), or whatever. Where English uses the verb "to pick up" something, Navaho uses several variants depending on the shape of the object that is handled-a difference which may account for the fact that Navaho speaking children pay attention to the form of objects at an earlier age than American children (Carroll, 1963b, p. 16). An American learning Spanish must consciously make a type of distinction about the concept of "to be" (ser versus estar) which he normally doesn't think of when speaking English. The student of a second language becomes sensitized to the fact that many of his values are not shared by members of another culture when he learns the different connotations of so-called "translation equivalent" words: The word "fat" in American English has a nega- tive connotation, while in the Hindi language, among others, it carries a positive affect. It is sometimes argued that this kind of 64 cultural awareness" could be taught in an anthropology type course and one need not go to the trouble of acquiring a particular FL. Actually this is highly unlikely for it assumes that all or most cultural differences'can be explicitly identified and stated verbally-a claim that no serious student of anthropology would dare make. In fact, recent developments in anthropology use a type of linguistic contrastive analysis to isolate cultural differences ("componential analysis"), and in psychology methods of "comparative psycholinguistics" are employed to isolate cross-cultural differences of a psychological nature (Jakobovits, 1966). There is recent evidence that linguistic differences in the connotation of translating equivalent words provides a clue to deep psychological factors related to the need system (personality) of individuals that distinguish economically "advanced" from economically "disadvantaged" societies (Jakobovits, 1969f). One recalls in this context Lambert's observation that becoming bilingual is more than just acquiring a "third signalling system": it may have weighty consequences not unlike the acculturation process of the immigrant. Ervin-Tripp (1955) has shown that the personality profile of a bilingual as revealed by his responses to the Thematic Apperception Tests picture cards varies depending on which of the two languages he uses. In extreme instances one may even speak of 'bilingual schizophrenia.'

Of course, one would not expect such strong effects to take place as a result of Fl, study in the school situation. But it is a question of degree only, and Carroll's following remark is expected to apply, to some extent, to all students engaged in FL study: "An individual learning a second language must be taught to observe and codify experience as nearly as possible in the same way as native speakers of that language" (1963b, p. 17). It is in this, much more than in his pronunciation, that the native speaker becomes a worthwhile object to be modelled.

5.6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The main conclusions that emerge from a review of the research on language learning and teaching as it is relevant to an evaluation of the FL requirement will now be summarized.

a. Two major approaches in method of instructing FLs can be identified: the habit-skill approach that emphasizes oral skills through a method of repetitive pattern drills and the rule-governed grammar approach that emphasizes the knowledge of structure. Both approaches draw upon modern linguistic theory, but the extent to which reading and writing skills are also emphasized varies greatly within either approach.

b. The habit-skiff approach is based on a theoretically untenable position and the justification given for repetitive pattern drills appears invalid.

c. A scientific assessment of effectiveness of different methods of instruction is not now possible. Comparative studies that have been carried out support the following generalization: the student learns, if anything, precisely what he is being taught and there are no mysterious transfer effects across different language skins.

d. A proposal to give FL credit on the basis of attained proficiency in self-instructional programs for some students with high FL aptitude appears to be feasible.

e. The quality of instruction depends on the extent to which it is made clear to the learner just what he is supposed to be learning at each level. Hence a "standard" method of instruction which does not vary with the learner's characteristics (aptitude and ability to understand instructions) cannot be of high quality.

f. Evidence is now available that an important factor determining success in FL study is a special talent for languages and that this FL aptitude can be estimated by a short test.

g. Given a certain known level of FL aptitude, one can specify how long it will take to attain a particular level of proficiency.

h. Given a certain limited amount of time available for study, one can predict what proportion of students will fail to attain a certain level of proficiency on the basis of their estimated FL aptitude score.

L Phonetic discrimination per se (i.e., hearing ability) is not an important factor in FL aptitude. What is crucial is the ability to code phonetic material so that it can be stored in memory. In all, four separate abilities have been identified as components of FL aptitude.

j. Existing FL aptitude tests can be used for placement and diagnostic purposes. When they are combined with a trial course, it should be possible to predict the level of attainment for each of the separate language skills. These expectations could then be used to establish variable FL requirements for each student.

k. Standard proficiency tests are inadequate on two accounts: (i) they do not indicate the student's absolute competence-only his relative standing to a "typical group"; (ii) they are intended to test mastery of mechanical manipulation or structural knowledge and say nothing about communicative competence. What is needed is a specification of levels of standards in terms of practical requirements in communication.

1. Attainment in FL study can be evaluated on two levels: degree of mastery of mechanical manipulation and extent of communicative competence. There appears to be no good reason for withholding training in the latter until advanced mastery of the former. Teaching at both levels conjointly would be preferable on several grounds.

in. As it is usually defined in FL courses or requirements, a 66 speaking knowledge" is not closer to communicative competence than a "reading knowledge." The emphasis of the former over the latter does not appear to be justified.

n. A consideration of motivational and attitudinal factors in FL study is relevant from two points of view: (i) a way in which these affect learners' perseverance (an intrinsic-integrative orientation has been found to be superior to an extrinsic-instrumental orientation); (ii) the way in which these affect the individual's reactions to contact with a foreign culture (there is evidence that becoming bilingual carries with it the tendency of becoming bicultural).

o. Two available surveys of college students' interest in FL study indicate that (i) one-third to one-half have no intrinsic interest in the language they are taking; (ii) one-half consider the primary goal to be the development of a reading knowledge of the language; and (iii) most of them disapprove of the college graduation FL requirement and almost one-half actually feel that FL study has been detrimental to them.

p. Given the wide distribution of FL aptitude scores in the general student population, it is unrealistic to expect a uniform level of achievement. The FL teacher must adjust his expectation of achievement to be attained to the student's particular aptitude.

q. The low level of intrinsic interest in FL study on the part of many students may be a result of a number of undesirable features of present practices in FL instruction. Some of these can, be mentioned: (i) a failure to clarify appropriate criteria for student self-evaluation of his progress; (ii) insistence on a degree of phonetic mastery that is not justified by the requirements of communication; (iii) inadequate counseling on the choice of an FL in terms of considerations appropriate to the student's perceived needs; and (iv) failure to make FL study seem relevant to the student in terms of its practical use.

r. A single-purpose goal for FL study, such as the development of oral skills in the "progressive" audiolingual courses, is not responsive to the potentially variable needs of the general student population.

s. Although proponents of FL study agree that one of its main benefits is increased cultural awareness, they have apparently failed to communicate this idea to many students. It is possible to justify this claim on a number of grounds and it behooves the FL teacher to try to make a better case for it.

5.7 RECOMMENDED CHANGES IN FL REQUIREMENTS

In this section are some observations on present FL requirements and some alternatives which I offer as recommendations for consideration by the profession.

At the outset, I would like to affirm my belief in the unique value of the knowledge of a FL, both to the individual person as a liberation of linguistic and cultural chauvinism and to the larger community of men, nations, and the world. In a previous section, I have outlined some specific arguments on the nature of this benefit to the individual. Despite this feeling, I would be in favor of eliminating the present FL graduation requirement in colleges; I would offer the following arguments in support of this recommendation:

  1. It is my opinion that most college students who successfully meet present requirements fail to achieve a level of proficiency that allows them to reap the benefits of FL study, whether it be at the humanistic level or the practical level of communicative competence.

b. I believe that this failure of the intended goal has several causes, the most important ones being the following: (a) FL study is not perceived by the students as relevant to their educational needs and aspirations. This feeling is strengthened by blanket college requirements which they view as archaic, arbitrary, and insensitive to their wishes; (b) serious study of an FL, of the type from which intrinsic benefits can be derived, entangles the student in a psychological involvement that may lead him to invidious comparisons between the foreign culture and his own. To some individuals, this involvement may be threatening, especially when he feels that it is being "forced down his throat." Failure to achieve any meaningful proficiency is an effective protection against such perceived threat; (c) present methods of instruction are geared toward a standard goal, while the students' needs are variable. This helps reinforce the feeling of the irrelevance of FL study. Apart from neglecting individual needs, such instruction disregards the variation that exists in FL aptitude.

c. The acquisition of a meaningful level of language competence cannot be achieved without intrinsic motivation on the part of the learner. No amount of duress in the form of a barrier against graduation can change this. In this sense, the FL requirement is selfdefeating.

Given these considerations, I would like to suggest some alternatives, which, in my opinion, will be more effective in promoting the goal that the present requirement attempts, but fails, to promote.

a. The student ought to be given as much latitude as he feels he needs in the following areas: (i) the choice of a language (he ought not to be pressured to "stick to" a language he took in high school at a time when his needs may have been different and when the choices available to him were restricted); (ii) the type of instruction and the skills to be emphasized (he ought not to be made to suffer in self-respect by choosing a "starred"' course when his interests lie in developing reading and writing skills; typically, starred courses are for "D" students). The high aptitude student ought to be given the opportunity of pursuing self-instructional programs where he can achieve a desired level of proficiency at a rate much faster than the typical course affords; and (iii) the amount of credit he wishes to

receive in FL study. This last point is elaborated in the following recommendation.

b. A -variable credit allotment ought to be made available based on the student's attainment of certain defined levels of standards stated in terms relevant to competence in language use. The following plan is intended as an illustration rather than a firm proposal (See Table 3):

The scheme of variable credit illustrated here is flexible enough to meet the variable needs and interests of the student body. Credit

TABLE 3

WRITTEN SKILLS

Units of

Levels Definition credit

W1 Be able to understand simple written material of a non-technical

nature with the use of a dictionary 1

W2 Same as the above without the use of a dictionary 2

W3 Be able to understand written material of a technical nature

(student's choice of area) with the use of a dictionary 2%

W Same as the above without the use of a dictionary 3%

Be able to write a non-technical composition without the use

of a dictionary 4

W6 Be able to write a technical paper with the use of a dictionary 4

Oral Skills

01 Be able to carry on a conversation (in formal style) with a native

speaker on simple everyday subjects (weather, travel, shopping,

etc.) 3

02 Be able to carry on an active discussion on various subjects

(political, social, cultural) with native speakers, and in a group 6

03 Be able to speak effectively with command of different stylistic

varieties required in social situations 9

Humanistic Skills

HL Demonstrated knowledge of FL literature (test to be taken in

English) 2%

HC Demonstrated knowledge of the history and culture of the target

language (test to be taken in English) 2%

can be obtained at any level with three types of skills. An ambitious student with high aptitude can pile up as many as 18Y2 credit units with the combination [W 6 + 03 + HL + Hcl. Or, a student may simply choose to write a technical paper on his major subject and receive 02 credit units for W6, etc. The exact credit allotments and levels of standards should be worked out more carefully and with some justifiable rationale.

c. I would also recommend that each department in a college spell out for its majors the desired levels of standards, types of skills that it recommends, and in which language(s). These recommendations ought to be flexible and be based on demonstrable usefulness to the program in question.

It is my belief that if these recommendations are put into effect, FL study will quickly lose its notorious status as "the bad child" of the college curriculum and will provide the type of benefits that we all want the liberally educated person to experience.

'A term used at the Univ. of Illinois to denote sections for individuals with special problems.

5.8 FOREIGN LANGUAGE ATTITUDE QUESTIONNAIRE: INTRODUCTION

The notion that student attitude toward FL study and culture is one of the major determinants of achievement has been stressed and discussed in several places throughout this book (see for instance Chapter 2, Section 2.4 and Chapter 3, Section 3.2). Some additional evidence and discussion is given in the first half of this chapter, and this is followed by the presentation of several questionnaire forms which were designed to measure attitudes towards a number of factors related to FL learning. These are presented here with the hope and expectation that the FL teacher and administrator will see the value of making use of them. Systematic evaluation procedures are not the sole prerogative of the academic researcher. They can be powerful tools in the hands of the educator for assessing where the students are, psychologically and attitudinally, so that they might take these factors into consideration in the over-all instructional effort. In my opinion these psychological tools should be used routinely by the teacher and administrator. It should be stressed that these are not additional "psychological tests" to be imposed on the hapless student: these are special communication devices whereby the students and their parents tell the school officials what they are interested in and where their satisfactions and dissatisfactions lie.

Sections 5.8.1 through 5.8.19 present 19 questionnaire forms, most of which were designed to index attitudes (called "Scales"). The first II scales are intended for students, while the last 8 are for their parents. These scales, many of which were originally developed by Professor W. E. Lambert and his collaborators at McGill University, reflect a specific interest in the study of French as a second language in Canada. However, these can easily be adapted by the teacher for his specific purposes; in most cases nothing more is needed than replacing references to "French," "French culture," "Canada," etc., by the appropriate equivalent terms.

The teacher who is planning to administer to his students a "test battery" for assessing FL aptitude, study habits, FL attitudes, and communicative skills should consider not only the choice of the specific tests but also the climate of test taking in the classroom. In my opinion tests should never be "forced upon" students who resent taking them, for, besides the ethical issue involved, the quality and reliability of information obtained under conditions of duress is questionable, and furthermore, the resentment that is generated outweighs whatever advantages there are to be gained by the test administration. Nevertheless, I believe that in the vast majority of instances students will gladly cooperate in test taking if their participation is voluntary and if the true purpose of the testing program is made clear to them, namely, that it is a two-way communication device rather than a punitive or manipulative attempt. Such a favorable attitude on the part of the students is practically assured if the teacher has respect for their feelings and shows understanding of them. Frank discussions of test results, where disagreements are accepted as legitimate, will not only draw students and teachers together in a community of fellowship and mutual respect, but can be an occasion for dynamic "attitudinal movement" and change.

Section 5.9 of this chapter presents an attitude questionnaire form that contains parts of several of the scales just discussed and a few additional others. It was prepared for the purposes of providing the teacher with a convenient test form that would measure several aspects of FL attitudes and which could be administered in approximately half-an-hour. The instructions of the original form (here reproduced) invite the teacher to send the results to me through the Northeast Conference organization. I hereby extend the same invitation to the readers of this book to send the data directly to me so that we may all share in the advantages to be accrued by comparing information obtained in diverse school and community settings. (My address: Dr. Leon A. Jakobovits, Department of Psychology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801).

5.8.1 French Attitude Scale

This is made up of 20 positively worded statements about French-speaking people. The higher the score obtained by a student on this form, the more favorable his attitudes are towards French-speaking people and their culture. The total score for this form (as well as for measures 2-5 which have the same instructions) is obtained by summing algebraically the plus and minus values. (Care must be taken to invert the sign of the score for items that are inversely worded.) Students with favorable attitudes toward the culture and people whose language they are studying are expected to be more successful in achievement (other factors being equivalent), especially in oral communicative skills. If the teacher finds that some of the students have negative attitudes toward the specific foreign culture they are studying, he should discuss this matter with the students concerned. In many cases frank discussions and explorations may turn up misconceptions about the foreign culture and threats to cultural identity which can be corrected and alleviated. In some cases, however, the negative attitudes may be too deep (for whatever personal or family reasons), and in these instances the student should seriously consider switching to another language.

FRENCH ATTITUDE SCALE

The following statements are ones with which many people agree, and many people disagree. There are no right or wrong answers since many people have different opinions. Please indicate your agreement or disagreement by writing on the line preceding each statement the number from the following scale which best describes your feelings:

+1 slight support, agreement

+2 moderate support, agreement

+3 strong support, agreement

- I slight opposition, disagreement

-2 moderate opposition, disagreement

-3 strong opposition, disagreement

_____ I . The French who have moved to this country have made a great contribution to the richness of our society.

_____ 2. The more I get to know French-speaking people, the more I want to be able to speak their language.

_____ 3. French-speaking people are very democratic in their politics and philosophy.

_____ 4. French-speaking people have produced outstanding artists and writers.

_____ 5. By bringing the old French folkways to our society, they have contributed greatly to our way of life.

_____ 6. French-speaking people's undying faith in their religious beliefs is a positive force in this modem world.

_____ 7. The French-speaking person has every reason to be proud of his race and his traditions.

_____ 8. If Canada should lose the influence of French-speaking people, it would indeed be a deep loss.

_____ 9. French-speaking peoples are much more polite than many Canadians.

_____ 10. We can learn better ways of cooking, serving food, and entertaining from the French-speaking people.

_____ 11. French-speaking people are very dependable.

_____ 12. Canadian children can learn much of value by associating with French-speaking playmates.

_____ 13. French-speaking people set a good example for us by their family life.

_____ 14. French-speaking people are generous and hospitable to strangers.

_____ 15. Canadians should make a greater effort to meet more French-speaking people.

_____ 16. It is wrong to try to force the French-speaking person to become completely Canadian in his habits.

_____ 17. If I had my way, I would rather live in France than in this country.

_____ 18. London would be a much better city if more French-speaking people would move here.

_____ 19. The French-speaking people show great understanding in the way they adjust to the Canadian way of life.

_____ 20. In general, Canadian industry tends to benefit from the employment of French-speaking people.

5.8.2 Anomie Scale

This consists of 12 statements designed to index an individual's dissatisfaction with his role in society. The successful development of communicative skills in a second language often involves a prior tendency to "identify" with people who are native representatives of the foreign culture. Such an identification process appears to facilitate the acquisition of communicative skills, but at the same time it can create feelings of dissatisfaction with one's own culture and "ways of doing things." These feelings of dissatisfaction are referred to as "anomie." Frank discussions of anomic reactions by students with themselves and with the teacher can reduce their potentially negative effects (e.g., withdrawing or reducing involvement).

ANOMIE SCALE

The following statements are ones with which many people agree, and many people disagree. There are no right or wrong answers since many people have different opinions. Please indicate your agreement or disagreement by writing on the line preceding each statement the number from the following scale which best describes your feelings:

+1 slight support, agreement

+2 moderate support, agreement

+3 strong support, agreement

-1 slight opposition, disagreement

-2 moderate opposition, disagreement

-3 strong opposition, disagreement

_____ 1. In Canada today, public officials aren't really very interested in the pr oblems of the average man.

_____ 2. Our country is by far the best country in which to live.

_____ 3. The state of the world being what it is, it is very difficult for the student to plan his career.

_____ 4. In spite of what some people say, the lot of the average man is getting worse, not better.

_____ 5. These days, a person doesn't really know whom he can count on.

_____ 6. It is hardly fair to bring children into the world with the way things look for the future.

_____ 7. No matter how hard I try, I seem to get a "raw deal" in school.

_____ 8. The opportunities offered young people today are far greater than they have ever been.

_____ 9. Having lived this long in this culture, I'd be happier living in some other country now.

_____ 10. In this country, it's whom you know, not what you know, that makes for success.

_____ 11. The big trouble with our country is that it relies, for the most part, on the law of the jungle: "get him before he gets you."

5.8.3 Ethnocentrism Scale

The present version is designed for children and is made up of 7 statements. High scores on this scale indicate an ethnocentric orientation. One of the traditional goals of FL study has been the reduction of ethnocentric attitudes (or "cultural myopia"), but there are indications that this desired effect is not an automatic consequence for all students engaged in FL study. In some instances high ethnocentric values may stand in the way of FL achievement. Ethnocentrism, cultural allegiance (Measure 5.8.4), and authoritarianism (Measure5.8.5) tend to go together and usually reflect parental and wider sociocultural influences. The specific ways in which these attitudes interact with anomie and interest and success in FL study are not well understood but correlational evidence usually indicate a negative relationship. The FL teacher ought to be aware of the presence of these attitudes, although at the moment we do not quite know how to induce changes in them and what might be the full psychological ramifications of such changes.

ETHNOCENTRISM SCALE

The following statements are ones with which many people agree, and many people disagree. There are no right or wrong answers since many people have different opinions. Please indicate your agreement or disagreement by writing on the line preceding each statement the number from the following scale which best describes your feelings:

+1 slight support, agreement

+2 moderate support, agreement

+3 strong support, agreement

-1 slight opposition, disagreement -2 moderate opposition, disagreement -3 strong opposition, disagreement

_____ I . The worst danger to real Canadians during the last 50 years has come from foreign ideas and agitators.

_____ 2. Now that a new world organization is set up, Canada must be sure that she loses none of her independence and complete power as a sovereign nation.

_____ 3. Certain people who refuse to salute the flag should be forced to conform to such a patriotic action, or else be imprisoned.

_____ 4. Foreigners are all right in their place, but they carry it too far when they get too familiar with us.

_____ 5. Canada may not be perfect, but the Canadian way has brought us about as close as human beings can get to a perfect society.

_____ 6. It is only natural and right for each person to think that his family is better than any other.

_____ 7. The best guarantee of our national security is for Canada to get the secret of the nuclear bomb.

5.8.4 Cultural Allegiance Scale

The following statements are ones with which many people agree, and many people disagree. There are no right or wrong answers since many people have different opinions. Please indicate your agreement or disagreement by writing on the line preceding each statement the number from the following scale which best describes your feelings:

+1 slight support, agreement

+2 moderate support, agreement

+3 strong support, agreement

-1 slight opposition, disagreement

-2 moderate opposition, disagreement

-3 strong opposition, disagreement

_____ I . Compared to French-speaking people, Canadians are more sincere and honest.

_____ 2. Family life is more important to Canadians than it is to the French-speaking.

_____ 3. Canadian children are better mannered than French-speaking children are.

_____ 4. Canadians appreciate and understand the arts better than do most people in France.

_____ 5. Compared to Canadians, the French are a very unimaginative people.

_____ 6. The French way of life seems crude when compared to ours.

_____ 7. The French would benefit greatly if they adopted many aspects of the Canadian culture.

_____ 8. People are much happier in France than they are here.

_____ 9. The opportunities offered young people in Canada are far greater than in France.

5.8.5 California F-Scale

(As mentioned above, these forms are designed as additional indicants of attitudes towards a specific foreign culture (Measure 5.8.4) and attitudes towards authority in general.)

The following statements are ones with which many people agree, and many people disagree. There are no right or wrong answers since many people have different opinions. Please indicate your agreement or disagreement by writing on the line preceding each statement the number from the following scale which best describes your feelings:

+1 slight support, agreement

+2 moderate support, agreement

+3 strong support, agreement

-1 slight opposition, disagreement

-2 moderate opposition, disagreement

-3 strong opposition, disagreement

_____ 1. Obedience and respect for authority are the most important virtues children should learn.

_____ 2. What youth needs is strict discipline, rugged determination, and the will to work and fight for family and country.

_____ 3. Nowadays when so many different kinds of people move around and mix together so much, a person has to protect himself especially carefully against catching an infection or disease from them.

_____ 4. What this country needs most, more than laws and political programs, is a few courageous, tireless, devoted leaders in whom the people can put their faith.

_____ 5. No weakness or difficulty can hold us back if we have enough will power.

_____ 6. Human nature being what it is, there will always be war and conflict.

_____ 7. A person who has bad manners, habits, and breeding can hardly expect to get along with different people.

_____ 8. People can be divided into two distinct classes: the weak and the strong.

_____ 9. There is hardly anything lower than a person who does not feel a great love, gratitude, and respect for his parents.

_____ 10. The true Canadian way of life is disappearing so fast that force may be necessary to 'preserve it.

_____ 11. Nowadays more and more people are prying into matters that should remain personal and private.

_____ 12. If people would talk less and work more, everybody would be better off.

_____ 13. Sometimes I can't see much sense in putting so much time into education and learning.

_____ 14. Most people don't realize how much our lives are controlled by plots hatched in secret places.

5.8.6 Orientation Index

This form lists eight reasons for studying a FL. Four of these reflect an "instrumental" orientation (odd numbered questions) and four are indicative of an "integrative" orientation (even numbered questions). Degree of instrumental and integrative orientation can be assessed by summing over the two sets of questions after assigning a numerical value to each alternative (e.g., definitely my feeling = +2, pretty much my feeling = +1, slightly my feeling = 0, not very much my feeling = - 1, definitely not my feeling = -2). An individual thus receives an overall instrumental score as well as an overall integrative score. For certain purposes it might be useful to classify an individual as either an "instrumentalist" or an "integrationist" depending on which of the two over-all scores is higher. There is evidence that under certain conditions an integrative orientation leads to greater success in oral communicative skiffs, although under the conditions that hold in most American schools an instrumental orientation is not necessarily an indication of lower expected achievement. Nevertheless, an integrative orientation is more likely to be predictive of willingness to engage in activities that supplement the regular classroom work (independent study, travel abroad, language camps). This would be particularly important under conditions of compensatory instruction.

Orientation Index

Below are eight reasons which might be given for studying French. Please read each reason carefully and rate it, indicating the extent to which it is descriptive of your own case. Circle the letter in front of the answer that best represents your feeling.

THE STUDY OF FRENCH CAN BE IMPORTANT TO ME BECAUSE:

1. 1 need it in order to finish high school.

a) definitely my feeling

b) pretty much my feeling

c) slightly my feeling

d) not very much my feeling

e) definitely not my feeling

2. It will enable me to gain good friends more easily among French-speaking people.

a) pretty much my feeling

b) slightly my feeling

c) not very much my feeling

d) definitely my feeling

e) definitely not my feeling

3. One needs a good knowledge of at least one foreign language to merit social recognition.

a) definitely not my feeling

b) not very much my feeling

c) slightly my feeling

d) definitely my feeling

e) pretty much my feeling

4. It will help me to understand better the French-speaking people and their way of life.

a) definitely not my feeling

b) not very much my feeling

c) slightly my feeling

d) pretty much my feeling

e) definitely my feeling

5. 1 think it will some day be useful in getting a good job.

a) slightly my feeling

b) definitely not my feeling

c) pretty much my feeling

d) not very much my feeling

e) definitely my feeling

6. It will allow me to meet and converse with more and varied people.

a) definitely my feeling

b) pretty much my feeling

c) slightly my feeling

d) not very much my feeling

e) definitely not my feeling

7. 1 feel that no one is really educated unless he is fluent in French.

a) definitely not my feeling

b) not very much my feeling

c) slightly my feeling

d) pretty much my feeling

e) definitely my feeling

8. It should enable me to think and behave as do the French-speaking people.

a) pretty much my feeling

b) slightly my feeling

c) not very much my feeling

d) definitely my feeling

e) definitely not my feeling
 

5.8.7 Desire to Learn French Scale

I . Place a check mark anywhere along the line below to indicate

how much you like French compared to all your other courses.

French is my French is my

least preferred most preferred

course---------------------------------------------------------course.

2. When you have an assignment to do in French, do you:

a) do it immediately when you start your homework

b) become completely bored

c) put it off until all your other homework is finished

d) none of these (Explain)

3. During French classes, I:

  1. have a tendency to daydream about other things
  2. become completely bored
  3. have to force myself to keep listening to the teacher
  4. become wholly absorbed in the subject matter

4. If I had the opportunity and knew enough French, I would read French newspapers and magazines:

  1. as often as I could
  2. fairly regularly
  3. probably not very often
  4. never

5. After I have been studying French for a short time, I find that 1:

  1. have a tendency to think about other things
  2. am interested enough to get the assignment done
  3. become very interested in what I am studying

6. If I had the opportunity to change the way French is taught in our school, I would:

  1. keep the amount of training as it is
  2. increase the amount of training required for each student
  3. decrease the amount of training required for each student

7. 1 believe French should be:

  1. omitted from the school curriculum
  2. taught only to those students who wish to study it
  3. taught to all high school students

8. 1 find studying French:

  1. very interesting
  2. no more interesting than most subjects
  3. not interesting at all

9. In my French class, L

  1. am generally not prepared unless I know the teacher will ask for the assignments
  2. am always prepared for each lecture having done my assignments or read the material we are to cover
  3. am sometimes prepared for the lecture, but mostly not
  4. none of these (explain)_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


5.8.8 Motivational Intensity Scale

The answers to the next two forms may be summed to give an overall score of "motivation intensity" (by assigning a numerical value to each alternative on the basis of their meaning and direction). The expectation is that the higher the score is, the greater the effort the student might be willing to spend in active study ("perseverance").

Read each of the statements below and for each one place a check mark (V) to the left of the alternative which seems to best describe you. Your answers will not be seen by any of the school authorities, so please try to be as accurate as possible.

1. Compared to the other students in my French class, I think 1:

a) do less studying than most of them

b) study about as much as most of them

c) study more than most of them

2. If French were not taught in high school, I would:

a) not bother learning French at all

b) try to obtain lessons in French somewhere else

c) pick up French in everyday situations (i.e., read French books and newspapers, try to speak it whenever possible, etc ......

    1. none of these (explain)

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3. 1 actively think about what I have learned in my French classes:

a) hardly ever

b) once in a while

c) very frequently

4. On the average, I spend about the following amount of time doing home study in French (include all French homework):

5.8.9 Parental Encouragement to Learn French Scale
An overall score may be obtained by assigning a numerical value of, say I to 7 (or + 3 to - 3) to the seven positions on each scale and summing over the six items. (Reverse directions for Questions 2 and 4.)
1. My parents encourage me to study French.
very definitely                              very definitely
YES -----------------------------------NO
2. My parents think that there are more important things to study in school than French.
very definitely                              very definitely
YES -----------------------------------NO
3. My parents have stressed the importance that French will have for me when I leave high school.
very definitely                              very definitely
YES -----------------------------------NO

4. My parents feel that studying French is a waste of time.
very definitely                              very definitely
YES -----------------------------------NO
5. Whenever I have homework in French, my parents make sure I do it.
very definitely                              very definitely
YES -----------------------------------NO
6- My parents feel that I should really try to learn French.
very definitely                              very definitely
YES -----------------------------------NO
 

5.8.10 Attitude Toward Learning FLs Scale

The higher the score obtained on these seven items, the more favor- able the attitude is expected to be toward studying a FL. (Reverse direction of scoring where appropriate.)

1. I would study a foreign language in school even if it were not required.
a) Definitely
b) Probably
c) Possibly
d) Probably not
e) definitely not

2. 1 would enjoy going to see foreign films in the original language.
a)   some
b)   not much
c)   quite a bit
d)   not at all
e)   a great deal
3. Our lack of knowledge of foreign languages accounts for many of our political difficulties abroad.
a)   strongly disagree
b)   disagree
c)   doubtful
d)   agree
e)   strongly agree
4. 1 want to read the literature of a foreign language in the original. a)   strongly agree
b)   doubtful
c)   agree
d)   strongly disagree
e)   disagree

5. 1 wish I could speak another language perfectly.
a)   a great deal
b)   quite a bit
c)   some
d)   not much
e)   not at all
6. If I planned to stay in another country, I would make a great
effort to learn the language even though I could get along in English.
a)  definitely not
b)  probably not
c)  possibly
d)  probably
e)  definitely
7. Even though Canada is relatively far from countries speaking other languages, it is important for Canadians to learn foreign languages.
a)  strongly agree
b)  doubtful
c)  agree
d)  disagree
e)  strongly disagree
 

5.8.11 Study Habits Questionnaire
These 25 items are designed to give the teacher an indication of the student's study habits. The form may be used as a diagnostic device with students who seem to have trouble in FL study.
I. Whether I like a course or not, I still work hard to make a good grade.
a)   rarely
b)   sometimes
c)   frequently
d)   generally
e)   almost always
2. 1 lose interest in my studies after the first few days or weeks. a)  almost always
b)  mostly
c)  frequently
d)  sometimes
e) rarely

3. 1 memorize grammatical rules, definitions of technical terms, formulas, etc., without really understanding them.
a)  almost always
b)  mostly
c)  frequently
d)  generally
e)  rarely
4. When I get behind in my school work for some unavoidable reason, I make up back assignments without prompting from the teacher.
a) rarely
b) sometimes
c) frequently
d) generally
e) almost always
5. Daydreaming about dates, future plans, etc., distracts my atten- tion from my lesson while I am studying.
a)  almost always
b) mostly
c) frequently
d) sometimes
e)  rarely
6.  Even though an assignment is dull and boring, I stick to it until it is completed.
a)  rarely
b)  sometimes
c)  frequently
d)  generally
e)  almost always
7. 1 keep all the notes for each subject together, carefully arranging them in some logical order.
a) rarely
b) , sometimes
c) frequently
d) generally
e) almost always
8, When I am having difficulty with my school work, I try to talk over the trouble with the teacher.
a)  rarely
b)  sometimes
c)  frequently
d)  generally
e)  almost always
9. 1 keep my place of study business4ike and cleared of unnecessary or distracting items such as pictures, letters, etc.
a)  rarely
b)  sometimes
c)  frequently
d)  generally
e)  almost always
10. It takes a long time for me to get warmed up to the task of studying.
a)  almost always
b)  mostly
c)  frequently
d)  sometimes
e)  rarely
11. When I sit down to study, I find myself too tired, bored, or
sleepy to study efficiently.
a)  almost always
b)  mostly
c)  frequently
d)  sometimes
e)  rarely
12. Prolonged reading or study gives me a headache. a)  almost always
b)  mostly
c)  frequently
d)  sometimes
e)  rarely
13. After reading several pages of an assignment, I am unable to recall what I have just read.
a)   almost always
b)   mostly
c)   frequently
d)   sometimes
e)   rarely
14. 1 waste too much time "chewing the fat," reading magazines, listening to the radio, going to the movies, etc., for the good of my studies.
a)   almost always
b)   mostly
c)   frequently
d)   sometimes
e)   rarely
15. My   studying is done in a random, unplanned manner, and is impelled mostly by the demands of approaching classes.
a) almost always
b) mostly
c)   frequently
d)   sometimes
e) rarely
16. 1 utilize the vacant hours between classes for studying so as to reduce the evening's work.
a)   rarely
b)   sometimes
c)   frequently
d)   generally
e)   almost always
17. 1 am on time with written assignments.
a)   rarely
b)   sometimes
c)   frequently
d)   generally
e)   almost always
18. 1 like to have the radio playing while I am doing my homework. a)  almost always
b)  mostly
c)  frequently
d)  sometimes
e)  rarely
19. When reading a long assignment, I stop periodically and mentally review the main facts and ideas that have been presented.
a)  rarely
b)  sometimes
c)  frequently
d)  generally
e)  almost always
20. 1 seem to accomplish very little in relation to the amount of time I spend studying.
a)  almost always
b)  mostly
c)  frequently
d)  sometimes
e)  rarely
~
21. 1 prefer to sit in the back of the classroom.
a)  almost always
b)  mostly
c)  frequently
d)  sometimes
e)  rarely
22. With me, studying is a hit-or-miss proposition, depending on the mood I'm in..
a)  rarely
b)  sometimes
c)  frequently
d)  generally
e)  almost always
23. 1 study three or more hours per day outside of class. a)   rarely
b)   sometimes
c)   frequently
d)   generally
e)   almost always
283
24. Before each study period I set up a goal as to how much material I will cover.
a)   rarely
b)   sometimes
c)   frequently
d)   generally
e)   almost always
25. 1 keep my assignments up to date by doing my work regularly from day to day.
a)  rarely
b)  sometimes
c)  frequently
d)  generally
e)  almost always

5.8.12 through 5.8.19 Parental Attitudes
 

These questionnaire forms parallel those designed for the students and need not be discussed further. There is evidence that children's and parents' attitudes correlate with each other, and this is, of course, no surprise although the extent of parental influence on the development of attitudes in children can be underestimated in this age of the so-called "generation gap." The parental questionnaire forms are presented here for the sake of completeness, but I am aware that in the majority of situations the teacher's access to parents for testing purposes is no doubt very restricted, especially when dealing with such a sensitive area as ethnocentrism and authoritarianism. On the other hand the teacher and school administrator may wish to fill out themselves these questionnaire forms so as to become more explicitly aware of their own attitudes.

5.8.12 Parental French Attitude Scale

The following statements are ones with which many people agree, and many people disagree. There are no right or wrong answers since many people have different opinions. Please indicate your agreement or disagreement by writing on the line preceding each statement the number from the following scale which best describes your feelings:
+1  slight support, agreement
+2  moderate support, agreement
+3  strong support, agreement
-1  slight opposition, disagreement
-2  moderate opposition, disagreement
-3  strong opposition, disagreement

_____  1. The French who have moved to this country have made a great contribution to the richness of our society.
_____  2. The more I get to know French-speaking people, the more I want to be able to speak their language.
_____  3. French-speaking people are very democratic in their politics and philosophy.
_____  4. French-speaking people have produced outstanding artists and writers.
_____  5. By bringing the old French folkways to our society, they have contributed greatly to our way of life.
_____  6. French-speaking people's undying faith in their religious beliefs is a positive force in this modem world.
_____  7. The French-speaking person has every reason to be proud of his race and traditions.
_____  8. If Canada should lose the influence of French-speaking people, it would indeed be a deep loss.
_____  9. French-speaking people are much more polite than many Canadians.
_____  10. We can learn better ways of cooking, serving food, and entertaining from the French-speaking people.
_____  11.  French-speaking people are very dependable.
_____  12. Canadian children can learn much of value by associating with French-speaking playmates.
_____  13. French-speaking people set a good example for us by their family life.
_____  14. French-speaking people are generous and hospitable to strangers.
_____  15. Canadians should make a greater effort to meet more French-speaking people.
_____  16. It is wrong to try to force the French-speaking person to become completely Canadian in his habits.
_____  17. London would be a much better city if more French- speaking people would move there.
_____  18. French-speaking people are generally more friendly, sincere, and likeable than any other group of people.
_____  19. The French-speaking people show great understanding in the way they adjust to the way of life of other Canadians.
_____  20. In general, Canadian industry tends to benefit from employment of French-speaking people.
 
 

FL APTITUDE AND ATTITUDE
285
5.8.13 Parental Anomie Scale
The following statements are ones with which many people agree, and many people disagree. There are no right or wrong answers since many people have different opinions. Please indicate your agreement or disagreement by writing on the line preceding each statement the number from the following scale which best describes your feelings:
+1  slight support, agreement
+2  moderate support, agreement
+3  strong support, agreement
-1  slight opposition, disagreement
-2  moderate opposition, disagreement
-3  strong opposition, disagreement

I .In Canada today, public officials aren't really very interested in the problems of the average man.
2. Our country is by far the best country in which to live.
3. The state of the world being what it is, it is very difficult for the student to plan for his career.
4. In spite of what some people say, the lot of the average man is getting worse, not better.
5. These days, a person doesn't really know whom he can count on.
6. It is hardly fair to bring children into the world with the way things look for the future.
7. No matter how hard I try, I seem to get a "raw deal" in my work.
8. The opportunities offered young people are far greater than they ever have been.
9. Having lived this long in this culture, I'd be happier living in some other country now.
10. In this country, it's whom you know, not what you know, that makes for success.
11. The big trouble with our country is that it relies, for the most part, on the law of the jungle: "get him before he gets you."
12. Sometimes I can't see much sense in putting so much time into education and leaming.
 
 
 

5.8.14 Parental Ethnocentrism Scale
The following statements are ones with which many people agree, and many people disagree. There are no right or wrong answers since many people have different opinions. Please indicate your agreement or disagreement by writing on the line preceding each statement the number from the following scale which best describes your feelings:
+1  slight support, agreement
+2  moderate support, agreement
+3  strong support, agreement
-1  slight opposition, disagreement
-2  moderate opposition, disagreement
-3  strong opposition, disagreement

I -The worst danger to real Canadians during the last 50 years has come from foreign ideas and agitators.
2. Certain people who refuse to salute the flag should be forced to conform to such a patriotic action, or else be imprisoned.
3. Canada may not be perfect, but the Canadian way has brought us about as close as human beings can get to a perfect society.
4. It is only natural and right for each person to think that his family is better than any other.
 
 

FIL APTITUDE AND ATTITUDE
5.8.15 Parental Cultural Allegiance Scale
The following statements are ones with which many people agree, and many people disagree. There are no right or wrong answers since many people have different opinions. Please indicate your agreement or disagreement by writing on the line preceding each statement the number from the following scale which best describes your feelings: +1  slight support, agreement
+2  moderate support, agreement
+3  strong support, agreement
-1  slight opposition, disagreement
-2  moderate opposition, disagreement
-3  strong opposition, disagreement
1. Compared to French-speaking people, other Canadians are more sincere and honest.
2. Family life is less important to French-speaking people than it is to other Canadians.
3. Canadian children are better mannered than French- speaking children are.
4. Canadians appreciate and understand the arts better than do most people in France.
5. Compared to other Canadians, the French are a very un- imaginative people.
6. The French way of life seems crude when compared to ours.
7. The French would benefit greatly if they adopted many aspects of the Canadian culture.
8. People are much happier in France than they are here.
9. If I had my way, I would rather live in France than in this
country.
10. The opportunities offered young people in Canada are far greater than in France.
 
 

288
FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING
5.8.16 Parental California F-Scale
The following statements are ones with which many people agree, and many people disagree. There are no right or wrong answers since many people have different opinions. Please indicate your agreement or disagreement by writing on the line preceding each statement the number from the following scale which best describes your feelings:
+1  slight support, agreement
+2  moderate support, agreement
+3  strong support, agreement
-1  slight opposition, disagreement
-2  moderate opposition, disagreement
-3  strong opposiiton, disagreement
1. Obedience and respect for authority are the most important virtues children should learn.
2. What youth needs most is strict discipline, rugged determination, and the will to work and fight for family and country.
3. Nowadays when. so many different kinds of people move around and mix together so much, a person has to protect himself especially carefully against catching an infection or disease from them.
4. What this country needs most, more than laws and political programs, is a few courageous, tireless, devoted leaders in whom the people can put their faith.
5. No weakness or difficulty can hold us back if we have enough will power.
6. Human nature being what it is, there will always be war and conflict.
7. A person who has bad manners, habits and breeding can hardly expect to get along with different people.
8. People can be divided into two distinct classes: the weak and the strong.
 9.        There is hardly anything lower than a person who does not feel a great love, gratitude, and respect for his parents.
10.        The true Canadian way of life is disappearing so fast that force may be necessary to preserve it.
11.        Nowadays more and more people are prying into matters
that should remain personal and private.
12.        If people would talk less and work more, everybody would be better off.
13.        Most people don't realize how much our lives are con- trolled by plots hatched in secret places.
 
 

FL APTITUDE AND ATTITUDE
289
5.8.17 Parental Orientation Index
Below are eight reasons which might be given for studying French. Please read each reason carefully and rate it, indicating the extent to which it is descriptive of your own case. Circle the letter in front of the answer that best represents your feelings.

THE STUDY OF FRENCH CAN BE IMPORTANT TO MY CHILD BECAUSE HE (SHE)

1. Needs it in order to finish high school.
a)  definitely my feeling
b)  pretty much my feeling
c)  slightly by feeling
d)  not very much my feeling
e)  definitely not my feeling
2. Will be able to gain good friends more easily among French- speaking people.
a)  definitely my feeling
b)  pretty much my feeling
c)  slightly my feeling
d)  not very much my feeling
e)  definitely not my feeling
3. Needs a good knowledge of French to merit social recognition.
a)  definitely my feeling
b)  pretty much my feeling
c)  slightly my feeling
d)  not very much my feeling
e)  definitely not my feeling
4. Will better understand French-speaking people and their way of life.
a)  definitely my feeling
b)  pretty much my feeling
c)  slightly my feeling
d)  not very much my feeling
e)  definitely not my feeling
5. Will need it to get a job.
a)  definitely my feeling
b)  pretty much my feeling
c)  slightly my feeling
d)  not very much my feeling
e)  definitely not my feeling
6. Will be able to meet and converse with more and varied people. a)  definitely my feeling
b)  pretty much my feeling
c)  slightly my feeling
d)  not very much my feeling
e)  definitely not my feeling
7. Will not be really educated unless he (she) is fluent in French.
a)  definitely my feeling
b)  pretty much my feeling
c)  slightly my feeling
d)  not very much my feeling
e)  definitely not my feeling
8. It should enable him (her) to think and behave as do French- speaking people.
a)  definitely my feeling
b)  pretty much my feeling
c)  slightly my feeling
d)  not very much my feeling
e)  definitely not my feeling
 
 

FL APTITUDE AND ATTITUDE
291
5.8.18 Parental Encouragement to Learn French
1. We, as parents, encourage our child to study French.
Very Definitely                                Very Definitely
YES-------------------------------------- NO

2. We think that there are more important things to study in school than French.
Very Definitely                                Very Definitely
YES-------------------------------------- NO
3. We have stressed the importance that French will have for our child when he (she) leaves high school.
Very Definitely                                Very Definitely
YES-------------------------------------- NO

4. We feel that studying French is a waste of time.

Very Definitely                                Very Definitely
YES-------------------------------------- NO

5. When our child has homework in French, we make sure he (she) does it.
Very Definitely                                Very Definitely
YES-------------------------------------- NO

6. We feel that our child should really try to learn French.
Very Definitely                                Very Definitely
YES-------------------------------------- NO

5.8.19 Parental Perceived Study Habits
1. We feel that our child wastes too much time "chewing the fat," reading magazines, listening to the radio, watching TV, etc., for the good of studies.
Very Definitely                                Very Definitely
YES-------------------------------------- NO

2. Our child likes to have the radio playing while he (she) is doing his (her) homework.
Very Definitely                                Very Definitely
YES-------------------------------------- NO

3. Our child seems to accomplish very little in relation to the amount of time he (she) spends studying.

Very Definitely                                Very Definitely
 YES-------------------------------------- NO
4. With our child, studying is a hit-or-miss proposition, depending
 upon his (her) mood.
 Very Definitely                                Very Definitely
    YES-------------------------------------- NO
 

5. Our child is easily distracted when he (she) is studying.

Very Definitely                                Very Definitely
            YES-------------------------------------- NO
6. Our child keeps his (her) assignments up to date by working regularly from day to day.

Very Definitely                                Very Definitely
            YES-------------------------------------- NO
7. When our child has difficulties with school work, he (she) tries to talk over the trouble with the teacher.

Very Definitely                                Very Definitely
            YES-------------------------------------- NO

8. Even though an assignment is dull and boring, our child sticks to it until it is completed.

Very Definitely                                Very Definitely
               YES-------------------------------------- NO

9. It takes a long time for our child to get warmed up to the task of studying.

Very Definitely                                Very Definitely
    YES---- - - - - - -- - - - -- - - - - -- - - NO
 

5.9 ILLINOIS FOREIGN LANGUAGE ATTITUDE QUESTIONNAIRE FORMS S, and S2
Instructions to the Teacher... This questionnaire, completed in October of 1969, was undertaken upon request of Committee I of the 1970 Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages: "The Relevant Curriculum." This Preface is intended as a guide to the teacher in the use of the questionnaire and the interpretation of the data. It should be pointed out at the outset that this questionnaire is not to be construed as a "standardized test." The items that are included have been carefully selected from previous studies on student attitudes.
The questionnaire should be administered in an atmosphere that does not put pressure upon the student to give "acceptable" answers as opposed to "true feelings." It is a good idea to maintain the anonymity of the respondent, unless there are valid reasons for knowing his identity. Under conditions of freedom and anonymity, there is much less likelihood that the student would qualify his answers. Where the teacher has strong reasons to suspect that respondents are not entirely candid, the data can still be useful as an indication of what students feel to be the "official" or "acceptable" line.
The questionnaire data will be useful to the teacher for three principal reasons: (a) to find out how students really feel about various aspects of the foreign language curriculum; (b) to change aspects of the instruction process to the extent that these are pedagogically feasible and desirable; and (c) to help correct erroneous ideas, unrealistic expectations, or negative attitudes that students may hold. In connection with this last aim, providing information to the students about the results of the questionnaire may be helpful by showing how they agree or disagree with each other.
The questionnaire contains two sections. The first (Sj) is in- tended for students who are currently enrolled in a foreign language course, or have been at one time. Section 2 (S2) is intended for students who have never taken a foreign language course. The following is a brief explanation of the factors the questions are intended to index and their potential significance.

Section 1: Form S,
Questions 1-3: Information about the respondent's foreign language background. The student's ethnic-linguistic background may be an important source of his attitude toward foreign language study. One should not expect a simple relationship here, for to the individual the ethnicity of his parents may be a disturbing source of estrangement or loss of identity in the American setting ("anomie"). On the other hand his ethnic background may be a source of pride that intensifies his interest in the family's culture and language of origin.
Questions 4 and 5: Information concerning the choice of the foreign language being studied. The attitude of the parents towards foreign languages is likely to exert significant influence upon the student (see also 5.8.12 through 5.8.19). It should be pointed out that the "real" reasons that have influenced the student in his language choice may in fact be other than those stated by him here. This is not the issue. However, the reasons he publicly claims (actually, his "rationalizations") are likely to be most salient in his mind at the present time and, therefore, to influence his current efforts.
Question 6: The student's publicly stated claims about the language skills he is most interested in. It is not suggested here that the teacher ought automatically to give the student what he wants (this may be either foolish or impossible, or both). Rather, the purpose of this question (and 7-14 as well) is to provide information to the teacher concerning disagreements between his ideas and those of the students, disagreements which should not be ignored. If the students have unrealistic expectations frank discussion may lead to a more mature attitude. If their expectations are justifiable within the con- text of a particular school, changes ought to be instituted, if feasable.
Questions 7-14: Direct feedback from the student to the teacher concerning specific aspects of the instruction process. Most students evaluate and pass judgment on the teacher and what goes on in the school. At issue here is whether such critical activity is to be given legitimate expression or whether it is to be squelched in an authoritarian manner. Suppression of feelings simply drives them under ground, rather than resolves them. It is better to face them openly and realistically. Even where resolution is not possible (for a multiplicity of reasons), legitimization of these feelings through acceptable overt expression is psychologically beneficial in reducing their destructive effects. Question I I is included to assess whether students generally feel they want to have more say in the content of courses, or whether this feeling is restricted to foreign language courses.
Questions 15-28: Interest in foreign language study and degree of personal involvement in it. These questions not only tap various sources of direct motivation (e.g., enjoyment, importance, benefit) but attempt also to get at some factors that are indirectly but importantly related to motivation, e.g., perceived support from others (19), extent of desirable training (20), sources of unease (23 and 27), self attribution of talent, (24-26). It is possible to sum the answers to several of the questions and to come up with an over-all and rough interest or motivation score. If this is done caution should be exerted in the interpretation of the magnitude of difference between respondents since there is no evidence that the answers are linearly related as indices of interest (some questions may be more crucial than others).
Questions 29-31: Anomie related to language study. Agreement with these statements indicates the presence of anomie, which is a clue to the teacher that the student is experiencing feelings of doubt and conflict. The presence of anomie may be a source of resistance to progress in foreign language study, but on the other hand if it is successfully resolved, it may be the source of positive motivational drive since it indicates the student is "involved." The teacher through class discussion and choice of content of readings can play a through class discussion and choice of content of readings can play a crucial role in helping the student to manage anomie.
Question 32: This information may be used to construct additional questions in future forms of the questionnaire.
Section 2: S2
There is little need for additional explanations here.
Note that there is a good deal of overlap between the two sections and comparisons can be made between foreign language students and those who did not choose such study on factors such as interest and involvement (Questions 8-18 in this section), anticipated anomie (Questions 19-20 in this section) and ideas about course content (Questions 4-7 in this section). Information obtained on reasons for not taking foreign languages (Question 3) can conceivably be used to prepare students for thinking about their future foreign language study plans in realistic and relevant terms.
 

5.9.1 Analysis of the Questionnaire Data
The data obtained by means of these questionnaires can be analyzed in at least three ways. These are discussed below.
A. Simple Class Profile.
This method consists of simply summing the answers given for each question to get an indication of the prevalent attitudes of students in a particular class. A convenient procedure is to use a blank form of the Questionnaire to record the summary data. Here are some examples:
4. Indicate whether or not each of the following persons influenced you in the choice of the foreign language you are studying:
a.   your parents                 Yes       40        No     20
b.   your friend(s)               Yes      10       No       50
c.   your high school
teacher or counselor         Yes      25        No      35
d.   someone else? please specify                 10          .
[Note: this example indicates that of the 60 students in the class, 40 of them indicated that their parents influenced their choice, 20 indicated that their parents did not influence their choice; and so on. The answer to (d) shows that 10 students indicated a fourth source of influence, but the identity of the source is not recorded in this summary; it may be done so on a separate sheet, if it is of any interest. ]
19. In your judgment, to what extent do the following people consider foreign language study important? In each case, circle one of the three numbers:
3 = extremely important
2 = important
I = not so important
a.  your parents:     3    2     1    [30, 30, 0]
b.  your friends:     3     2     1    [25, 5, 20]
c.  your high school    teachers other than the foreign language teacher:     3    2     1    [5, 10, 45]
e.  yourself:     3    2    1     [40, 20, 0]
[Note: this example indicates that, in the case of subpart (a), for instance, 30 students indicated that their parents consider foreign language study extremely important, 30 indicated "important," and none indicated "not so important"; and so on.]
29. Our lack of knowledge of foreign languages accounts for many of our political difficulties abroad:
4     3    2    1     0        [5,    10,    15,    20,    10]
B. Relating Answers to Outside Factors.
In this method the teacher or administrator is interested in a comparison between different Simple Class Profiles (Method A) when classes are distinguished on the basis of some outside criterion. For instance, what is the distribution of answers to question 18 between Class X and Class Y when both were taught by the same teacher but different instructional procedures were used in the two instances? Or, between two classes taught by the same teacher in different semesters? Or, between a class at level 4 and a class at level P Another example would be this: what is the difference in distribution to question 7 between two subgroups of students in Class X,
those that obtained grades A or B versus those who obtained C or D? And so on.
C. Interrelating Answers to Each Other:
Here the teacher may be interested in making up subgroups on the basis of the distribution of answers on one question, and seeing the difference on the distribution of answers to another question. For instance, on the basis of question 1, three subgroups in the school can be made up: (i) all those studying Latin at level 1; (ii) all those studying French at level 1; (W) all those studying Russian at level 1; now a comparison can be made between those three subgroups with respect to the distribution of answers to question 7. Another example, would be the following: Two subgroups of students can be made up on the basis of the answers to questions 29 to 31 such that group (i) is made up of students who experience anomie (those who check alternatives 4 or 3) and group (h) is made up of students who do not experience anomie (those who check alternatives 2 or 1); now these two groups can be compared with respect to their answers to any of the other questions.
 

5.9.2 Recording the Data
It is suggested that a Summary Transcription Form be used to record the data contained in the individual questionnaire booklets. These forms are available from the Northeast Conference and may be obtained along with the Attitude Questionnaire forms. All three of the methods of analysis here described may be carried out using the Summary Transcription Forms. Teachers and administrators who wish to cooperate with the surveys carried out by the Northeast Conference and the author are asked to send along the Summary Transcription Forms or a copy thereof. In return, they will be en- titled to receiving a statistical analysis of the data as well as any summary reports based on data sent in by the other cooperative participants.
Illinois Foreign Language Attitude Questionnaire
Form S,
Summary Transcription Form: Page 1
Name, level and location of school:
Student I.D. Number:                       Level of study:
Q.1.
Q.2.
Q.3.
Q.4. a.                 Q.5.  a.                 Q. 6. a.
b .                     b .                      b .
c .                     c .                      c .
d .                     d .                      d .
Q.7. a.                       e.                       e.
b.                      f.                       f.
C.                      9.                       9.
d.                      h.                       h.
e.                      i.
f.                      j.
9.                      k.
h.                      1.
Q.8.                     Q.9.
j.                Q.10.                    Q.1 1.
k.                Q. 12.                   Q.13.
1.
M.                Q. 14.                   Q. 15.
n.                Q. 16.                   Q. 17.
0. Q. 18.
Illinois Foreign Language Attitude Questionnaire
Form S,
Summary Transcription Form: Page 2
Q. 19.   a.                 Q.20. a.                  Q.21.
b.                           b.              Q.22.
C.                           C.              Q.23.
d.                           d.                      a.
e.                                                   b.
C.
Q.24.                                                         d.
Q.25.                       Q.26.                     Q.27.
Q.28. a.                    Q.29.                     Q.30.
b.
C.                 Q.3 1.
d.
Instructions: Fill in blanks so as to reproduce unambiguously the student's answers. Examples: For Q. 1, fill in "I " for "Yes" and "211 for "No." For Q.5, fill in the number circled by the student. For Q.9, fill in "I" for  "Yes," "@" for "No     '11 "Y' for "Can't say." For Q.15, fill in "I" for "Very much so," "2" for "Yes "I "Y' for "Maybe." And so on. Add comments where you think transcription may be ambiguous.

Illinois Foreign Language Attitude Questionnaire
Form S2
Summary Transcription Form
Name, level, and location of school:
Student I.D. Number:                         Level of study:
Q-1.
Q.2.
Q.3.    a.                  Q.4.     a.               Q.9.
b.                           b.               Q.10.
C.                           C.               Q.1 1.  a.
d.                           d.                       b. e.                           e.                       C. f.                           f.                       d. 9.                           9-                       e. h.                           h.
i.                                            Q. 12.  a. i -                 Q.5.                              b. k.                  Q.6.                              C. 1.                  Q.7.                              d. M.                  Q.8.
Q. 13. a.                   Q. 14.                    Q.16.
b .                 Q. 15.   a.
b.               Q. 17.
C.               Q. 18.
d .              Q. 19.
Q.20.
Instructions: Fill in blanks so as to reproduce unambiguously the student's answers. Examples: For Q. 1, fill in "I " for "Yes" and "2" for "No." For Q.3, check those that were checked off by the stu- dent. For Q.4, fill in the number circled by the student. For Q.5, fillin "I" for "Yes," "2" for "No," "3" for "Maybe." For Q. 16, fill in 64 1 " for "Yes," "2" for "No," "3 " for "Don't know"-first part; and for second part, fill in " 1 " for "Above average," "2" for "Average," "3" for "Below average" and "4" for "Don't know." And so on. Add comments where you think transcription may be ambiguous.
Form S1
Instructions. This is not a test. Your grades will in no way be affected by your answers and you need not put your name on this form. This questionnaire has been designed to find out from you how students feel about foreign language study. Your teacher is honestly interested in improving the quality of the foreign language curriculum and one kind of information that would help him would' be an honest expression of student opinion on this matter. If you fail to express your true feelings you are evading the responsibility you have towards yourself, your fellow students, and the school as a whole. This is your chance to "tell it like it is" in your own mind.
There are two sections to this questionnaire. This is Section I and it is intended for students who are now, or have previously been, enrolled in a foreign language course. (Section 2 is to be filled out by students who have never taken a foreign language course.)
Thank you for your cooperation.
[Note: Many of the questions make reference to speaking the foreign language and its use in travel, etc. If the foreign language you are studying is Latin or Greek, these questions may not apply to you. You may skip them and answer the other questions that are relevant. ]
Circle the appropriate information.
Present Level or Year of Study:      1    2    3    4        FLES
 J H S
 S H S
 College
 Graduate
1. Which foreign language(s) are you studying now (or have studied in the past) in school?
2. Have you ever studied a language other than English outside school?
Yes               No
If "Yes," which language(s) and under what circumstances (e.g. while living abroad, in a "language camp," at home, through T.V., etc.)?
3. Do you personally know anyone (other than your language teacher) who can speak a language other than English?
Yes               No
If "Yes," please specify your relationship to that person (e.g. grand- father, friend, neighbor, etc.):
4. Indicate whether or not each of the following persons influenced you in the choice of the foreign language you are studying:
a.   your parents                 Yes             No
b.   your friend(s)               Yes             No
c.   your high school
teacher or counselor         Yes             No
d.   someone else? please specify
5. What   were your reasons for choosing the foreign language you are studying? For each item given, rate the importance it had for you by circling one of the three numbers as follows:
3 = very important
2 = slightly important
I = unimportant
a. There was no other language available for study:  True______
False______
 
 

FL APTITUDE AND ATTITUDE          305
[Note: If you check "True," skip to question 6.1
b. This language is prettier (sounds better, is more musical, etc.) than others I could have taken:     3     2    1
c. This language seemed easier than others I could have taken:
3   2     1
d. This language seemed of great importance in today's world:
2     1
e. This language will probably be useful in getting a good job some day:     3     2   1
f. This language will be useful in my probable field of study (e.g. medicine, law, graduate work, etc.):     3     2    1
g. I want to visit the country where the language is spoken:
3   2     1
h. I want to understand better the people who speak that language and their way of life:    3    2     1
L This language will enrich my background and broaden my cul- tural horizons:    3     2    1
j.    This language is (or was at one time) spoken by my relatives or persons who are (or were) close to me:      3     2    1
k. Knowledge of this language will add to my social status:
3   2     1
1. Any other reason? Please state briefly:
6. The following are various skills that a foreign language course can emphasize. Rate the extent to which you are interested in each of them by circling one of the three numbers as follows:
3 = great interest
2 = some interest
I = very little interest
a. being able to engage in an everyday conversation with native
speakers of that language:     3    2     1
b. being able to listen to news broadcasts in that language:
3   2     1
c. being able to enjoy films in the original language:      3     2     1 d. being able to read the classical literature in that language:
3     2     1
e.  being able to read the current literature in that language      (e.g. newspapers, magazines, best sellers, etc.):   3     2    1
f.  being able to write letters in that language for various purposes (e.g. business, social, etc.): 3    2     1
g.  being able to write stories, articles, etc. in that language:
3    2      1
h. any others?
7. Indicate the  extent to which   you are satisfied with each of the following aspects of your foreign  language courses by circling one of the three numbers as follows:
3 = quite satisfied
2 = fairly satisfied
I = dissatisfied
a.  the type of skills you were taught in the course:       3     2     1 b.  the text you have used:      3    2     1
c.  the classroom activities:    3    2     1
d.  the language laboratory:       3    2     1 (leave blank if no lan- guage laboratory in your school)
e. the homework you were assigned:          3    2    1
f.  the readings you were assigned:      3    2     1
g.  the outside opportunities you have had to practice the language (e.g. conversing with native speakers, listening to radio broadcasts, reading magazines, etc.):     3   2     1
h. the information you received from your teacher as to how you were progressing in the language course:     3     2    1
i.  the way your progress and achievement were evaluated (e.g. grades):    3    2     1
j.  the overall amount of time you were given for study:
3    2      1
k.  the teacher's personality:    3     2    1
1.  the teacher's ability to speak the language:     3    2     1
m. the teacher's ability to help you learn (his helpfulness):
3      2   1
n. the teacher's availability for consultation outside the regular classroom -hour:    3     2    1
o. any other aspects of the course for which you wish to indicate your satisfaction or dissatisfaction:
8. Do you feel the teacher placed too much emphasis on speaking correctly at all times?
Yes                No
9. Would you have found it helpful to be able to use the language more to express your thoughts even if it meant speaking incorrectly?
Yes            . No                Can't say
10. Do you think it's necessary to be able to speak a language cor- rectly (pronunciation, grammar) in order to be able to communicate in that language?
Yes                No              No opinion
11. Do you think students should have a greater say in the content and method of courses in mathematics or the sciences?
Yes                No -            No opinion
12. Do you think students should have a greater say in the content and method of foreign language courses?
Yes                No              No opinion
13. Would you have liked to spend more time discussing the culture of the people whose language you were studying?
Discussions in the foreign language:
Yes                No              No opinion
Discussions in English:
Yes                No              No opinion
14. Could you have accomplished more if the foreign language you took had been organized in a different way?
Yes - No                         Can't say
If "Yes," describe briefly the suggestions you have (e.g., more or less structure in class, more or less explanations in grammar, more or less drills, more or less use of English, etc.):
15. Do you wish you could speak a foreign language like a native speaker?
Very much so                Yes             Maybe
16. If you had to stay in another country for an extended period of time, would you make a great effort to learn the language spoken there even though you could get along in English?
Definitely               Maybe                No
17. How important is it for Americans to learn foreign languages? Extremely important                 Important
Not so important
18. Would you say that the time you have spent in studying a for- eign language has been beneficial to you?
Definitely, yes             Yes
Not sure
19. In your judgment, to what extent do the following people con- sider foreign language study important? In each case, circle one of the three numbers:
3 = extremely important
2 = important
I = not so important
a. your parents:      3    2     1
b. your friends:      3    2     1
c. your high school teachers other than the foreign language teacher:    3     2    1
d. society as a whole:      3     2     1
e. yourself:      3    2     1
20. To what extent are you in     favor of the following? In each case, circle one of the three numbers:
3 = very much in favor
2 = slightly in favor
I = not in favor
a. beginning the study of a foreign language in elementary school: 3   2     1
b. having four years of foreign language study in high school:
3    2    1
c. eliminating the teaching of foreign languages in our schools: 3   2     1
d. requiring that everyone take a foreign language at some time during his schooling:     3    2      1
21. Would you consider      going abroad to increase your skills in the use of a foreign language?
Definitely               Maybe                 No
22. How enjoyable do you find the study of a foreign language?
Very enjoyable                Slightly enjoyable
Not enjoyable
23. Do you feel at ease when making use of the skills you are learn- ing in a foreign language?
a.   in listening: Yes                No               Not sure b.   in speaking: Yes                 No               Not sure c.   in reading: Yes                  No               Not sure d.   in writing:   Yes                No               Not sure
24.  Do you agree with the notion that to be           good in a foreign language one must have a special talent for it?
Yes                 No              Don't know
If "Yes," how much of this special talent do you think you
have?
Above average                 Average
Below average                 Don't know
25. How probable is    it, do you think, that you will one day be a fluent speaker of a second language? Place a number "0" (Com- pletely improbable) to 'T' (completely probable) to indicate your estimate:
26. Do you feel that you have a lack of a special talent for foreign languages to such an extent that it will prevent you from gaining any benefit whatsoever from foreign language study?
Yes               No              Not applicable
27. Some people feel uneasy, or are afraid to make mistakes, or to sound ridiculous when they try to speak a foreign language they are studying. Rate the extent to which you tend to feel this way your- self: "0" (not at all, never) to "5" (very much so, all the time): _
28. In these situations, to whom do you attribute any uneasiness? Check all those that apply to you:
a.               mostly to yourself
b.               mostly to the teacher
C.               mostly to the other students in the class
d.               don't know
Please indicate your agreement or disagreement with each of the following statements by circling one of the five numbers as follows:
4 = strongly agree
3 = agree
2 = disagree
I = strongly disagree
0 = no opinion
29. Our lack of knowledge of foreign languages accounts for many of our political difficulties abroad:   4     3    2     1    0
30. A whole-hearted commitment to the study of a foreign language and the culture of its people endangers one's own cultural identity:
4    3    2      1   0
3 1. Through my exposure to the foreign culture of the language I am studying, I have discovered that some aspects of American cul- ture are not as good as I had previously thought:
4    3    2      1   0
This realization has caused me concern and worry:
4    3     2     1   0
This realization has interfered with my progress in the study of that language:    4      3   2    1    0
Because of the possibility of such conflict, it would be better if foreign language courses concentrated on the language itself rather than the culture of the people who speak it:
4    3     2     1   0
32. Please add any comments you might wish to make about foreign languages or about this questionnaire:
Foreign Language                      Questionnaire
Form S2
Instructions. This questionnaire is intended for students who have never been enrolled in a foreign language course. This is not a test. Your grades will in no way be affected by your answers and you need not put your name on this form. You are being asked to fill out this questionnaire to help foreign language educators improve the quality of the foreign language curriculum. One kind of information that would help them is an honest expression of student opinion on this matter. You owe it to yourself, your fellow students, and the school as a whole to let your true feelings be known. This is your chance to "tell it like it is" in your own mind.
Thank you for your cooperation.
1. Have you ever studied a language other than English outside school?
Yes               No
If "Yes," which language(s) and under what circumstances (e.g. while living abroad, in a "language camp," at home, through T.V., etc.)?
2. Do you personally know anyone (other than your language teacher) who can speak a language other than English?
Yes                No
If "Yes," please specify your relationship to that person (e.g. grand- father, friend, neighbor, etc.):
3. What are the reasons you have never studied a foreign language in school? Check all of the reasons that apply to you.
a.  None of the schools I ever attended offered a foreign language course:
b.  I already know a language other than English, so there was no need to study one in school:
c.   I postponed taking a foreign language to the future, perhaps later in high school or even in college:
d. No one ever told me to take a foreign language:
e.   It was suggested to me that I take a foreign language but I was never convinced of its value:
f.   There was not enough time to take a foreign language, as I was busy with too many other courses I had to or wanted to take:
g. I thought a foreign language course would be too difficult, or, at least, would not be worth the effort:
h. Getting involved with the study of a foreign language and for- eign culture might have endangered my American identity:
i.   I did not like the foreign language teachers:
j.   I did not like the way in which foreign languages were taught in my school:
k. I wanted to take a foreign language, but the one I was interested in was not offered in my school:
If so, which language was it?
1.   People whose judgment I trust were against it:
If so, specify your relationship to those persons (e.g. father, friend, teacher, etc.):
m. Any other reasons you might like to specify?
4. The following are various skills that a foreign language course can emphasize. Assuming that one day you might wish to take a foreign language course, which of these skills would you be interested in learning? Rate each of them by circling one of the three numbers as follows:
3 = great interest
2 = some interest
I = very little interest
a. being able to engage in an everyday conversation with native
speakers of that language:     3    2    1
b.  being able to listen to news broadcasts in that language:
3      2     1
c.  being able to enjoy films in the original language:          3      2     1 d.  being able to read the classical literature in that language:
3      2     1
e.  being able to read the current literature in that language            (e.g. newspapers, magazines, best sellers, etc.):        3    2     1
f.  being able to write letters in that language for various purposes (e.g. business, social, etc.):    3    2      1
g. being able to write stories, articles, etc. in that language:
3      2     1
h. any others?
5. If a special foreign language course had been available in which almost all the time had been spent on the study of foreign culture in English, would you have taken it?
Yes                No                Maybe
6. Do you think students should have a greater say in the content and method of courses in mathematics or the sciences?
Yes             No                   No opinion
7. Do you think students should have a greater say in the content and method of foreign language courses?
Yes                No                No opinion
8. Do you wish you could speak a foreign language like a native speaker?
Very much so                   Yes                  Maybe
9. If you had to stay in another country for an extended period of time, would you make a great effort to learn the language spoken there even though you could get along in English?
Definitely                Maybe                  No
10. How important is it for Americans to learn foreign languages? Extremely important                  Important
Not so important
11. In your judgment to what extent do the following people con- sider foreign language study important? In each case circle one of the three numbers:
3 = extremely important
2 = important
I = not so important
a.   your parents:     3    2    1
b.   your friends:    3    2     1
c.   your high school     teachers other than the foreign language teacher:    3     2    1
d. society as a whole:      3    2     1
e. yourself:      3    2     1
12. To what extent are you in favor of the following? In each case circle one of the three numbers:
3 = very much in favor
2 = slightly in favor
I = not in favor
a.   beginning the study of a foreign language in elementary school: 3    2     1
b.   having four years of foreign language study in high school:
3    2     1
c.   eliminating the teaching of foreign languages in our schools: 3    2     1
d.   requiring that everyone take a foreign language at some time during their schooling:    3    2    1
13. Would you consider going abroad:
a.   to acquire the skills in the use of a foreign language?
Definitely              Maybe                No
b. to increase your skills in the use of a foreign language you are already familiar with?
Definitely              Maybe                No
14. If you took a foreign language course how enjoyable do you think you would find it?
Very enjoyable               Slightly enjoyable
Not enjoyable
15. If you took a foreign language course would you feel at ease when making use of the skills you would be learning?
a.   in listening: Yes            No              Not sure b.   in speaking: Yes             No              Not sure c.   in reading: Yes              No              Not sure d.   in writing:   Yes -No                        Not sure
16.  Do you agree with the notion that to be good in a foreign language one must have a special talent for it?
Yes                No               Don't know
If "Yes," how much of this special talent do you think you have? Above average                 Average
Below average _ Don't know
17. How probable is it, do you think, that you will one day be a fluent speaker of a second language? Place a number "0" (completely improbable) to 'T' (completely probable) to indicate your estimate:
18. Do you feel that you have a lack of a special talent for foreign languages to such an extent that it will prevent you from gaining any benefit whatsoever from foreign language study?
Yes                No               Not applicable
Please indicate your agreement or disagreement with each of the following statements by circling one of the five numbers as follows:
4 = strongly agree
3 = agree
2 = disagree
I = strongly disagree
0 = no opinion
19. Our lack of knowledge of foreign languages accounts for many of our political difficulties abroad:    4     3     2    1    0
20. A whole-hearted commitment to the study of a foreign language and the culture of its people endangers one's own cultural identity:
4    3     2    1     0
21. Please add any comments you might wish to make about foreign languages or about this questionnaire:
Foreign Language              Questionnaire
 
 
 
 
 

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