teacher.htmlTEXTMSWDEY{{ Teacher Training Workshop In Community-Classroom Techniques

Teacher Training Workshop In Community-Classroom Techniques

Dr. Leon James
Dr. Diane Nahl
University of Hawaii
Table of contents
Theoretical Principles
Benefits of Community-Classroom
What Students Say
Summer Intensive Program
Grading Techniques
Interdisciplinary Research Opportunity
Lecture Meetings
To the bottom

OBJECTIVE: To introduce teachers (K-12) to teaching strategies that get pupils to assume greater responsibility for the learnings to be acquired and the work to be accomplished.

METHOD: Workshop participants (between 50 and 100, anticipated) will form into a "class" taught by the Workshop staff. Teachers will thus experience being pupils. They will be instructed in the new method of community-classroom and given assignments, collective field projects, and grades. Through this process, teachers experience 'what it feels like' to be a pupil in community-classroom. As well, they learn the very techniques which they themselves might wish to use in their own classroom, with any subject matter and at any level. Finally, participants can judge for themselves regarding the usefulness or lasting value of community-classroom, by discovering whether it produces valuable peer relationships among the participants as a result of the two-week intensive.

HISTORY AND FACILITIES: COMMUNITY-CLASSROOM was invented and developed at the University of Hawaii by Dr. Leon James and Dr. Diane Nahl, the Instructors for the Workshop. They have co-authored several sets of bound Lecture which will be made available to Workshop participants.



= =Workshop participants learn about the variety of uses of sentences in daily life: e.g., reading, writing, speaking, note-taking, thinking, and reporting. (Note: these are the academic issues now in the "language sciences", i.e., applied psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, language teaching, discourse analysis, higher cognitive processes, etc.).


= =Workshop participants learn the techniques currently used in community-classroom at the University of Hawaii to counteract anti-social competitiveness common among pupils. Participants will practice collective exercises and field projects in which they read each other's work and make "annotations" (written comments), which are then read and commented on by the original writers. These techniques build literacy skills, and neutralize the negative effects of secretiveness, shyness, and timidity which are anti-social forces common in classrooms.


Workshop participants learn about the techniques used in community-classroom to treat size and heterogeneous composition (=different abilities) as advantages: how functional teams of pupils can be organized that are small in size yet co-ordinate to add up organically. In this way, everyone in the class profits from the overall human resources available (e.g., special skills or talents or knowledge possessed by various individuals are "made to count" for the benefit of the class). A system of "collective points" earned by the Workshop participants for their activities, will be used throughout the two-week intensive. In this manner, teachers will experience 'first-hand,' what it feels like, and what effects it may have on their pupils, should they decide to use these techniques in their own classroom.


WORKSHOP participants learn about instructional procedures that get pupils to partially manage their course-assigned activities, while making them responsible for deadlines, quality control (neatness, relevance, length, etc.),progress, and study aids (pupil feedback reports, class News Bulletin, shared assignments through the telephone (including telephone quizzes"), class committee activities, "Poster" convention, typists' pool, and many others that will be practiced by Workshop participants).



-expressing; thinking explicitly; communicating; note-taking; transacting with others; following directives; telephoning; writing longer & more relevantly; typing, organizing, presenting work; indexing, filing; etc.


-collective pacing of work; attentiveness & focus; involvement in cooperating; amount of effort willing to expend; mutual help orientation; favorable relationship with teacher; enthusiasm; etc.


(Note to Oahu teachers: these are your students, a few years later in "Psych 222(2)" at the UH...)

After seeing some of my old DFFs (Delayed Feedback Forms filled out by students after each class), I saw a lot of negative points which I brought about in my forms. By witnessing them I suddenly grew up as I saw myself better and actually learning from them...

This comment was written by the student on his feedback report for lecture 14 (mid-term). It illustrates the beneficial effects students experience when able to review their own work regularly and cumulatively, and thereby to see change in the self.

Your project is good because you were more conscious than me though some of the thoughts did pop up in my head but never ended up on paper because l didn't consider it a "money thought". Maybe you could comment more to complete your entries a bit more...

This comment was written by a fellow pupil. Illustrates how guided peer processing of one another's work, when guided away from evaluation, results in mutually and reciprocally induced insights.

After reading all the feedback (on a field project called my "Money thoughts")from three of my fellow "cell" members (learning cell or team), I realize that money has a very dynamic effect on people. Different people are affected differently by money. This is evident in the type of reasoning they use when dealing with money.

Illustrates how guided peer processing can reinforce concepts and understandings from the lecture.

PART A: Intimidation Project: When asked to play the piano, I became intimidated because I do not play the piano as well as I should...

PART B: Huddle Buddy strategy: I feel this intimidation assignment would be of great value to me if I am able to overcome this specific feeling of intimidation. Being able to "objectify" and "Overcome intimidation" with a Huddle buddy (a peer pupil) may enable me to overcome other intimidations

PART C: Huddle Buddy for ID #209: I can relate to your intimidation situation because I also get intimidated when asked to play a piece on the piano... In most cases, when a person asks you to play the piano it's because he wants to hear music, not because he wants to be a judge...

Illustrates step-wise process used in guided peer processing. Shows that benefits to students accrue through being given the chance to use oral and written speech exchanges with each other through class work. Note how first student's because (in Part A) is modified and reclassified by the second student.

My name is S.T., but everyone either calls me Susie or Suzy. I'm 21, female and a '78 graduate

Punahou... Presently l'm working part-time at Long's as a cashier-sales person... I have a known reputation for being indecisive and have a habit of ... I enjoy meeting... I would call myself 'shy' but those who know me never agree.

Passages from a student's Self-introduction Letter for her community-classroom Class Registry project. Illustrates how students typically like to have an "identity" and a "reputation" with each other when anonymity, secretiveness, competition, and solitary work are counter-acted through community-classroom management techniques. Students report that there is less fear of each other, and individual progress is more evident, both to the teacher and to the student.

From today's lecture, I became cognitive (sic) of our "cross-cultural differences" and how they affect our community relations. Our reputations which include our "roles" in society, our work and school "status", our "lifestyle" and our customs all affect the way people interrelate with each other. Of course, I was aware of this before, but I never related it to my life in my daily round" "

Illustrates how the Delayed Feedback report helps the student make use of lecture concepts and apply them to one's own life. The Delayed Feedback report is written by the student at home and handed in at the next lecture. Students have access to each other's feedback reports and are encouraged to read them. The instructor reads all feedback reports as information on how lecture concepts are assimilated by students. Regular feedback comments are given in class by the teacher regarding the quality and helpfulness of the reports. Visible improvement is evident in the reports as the semester goes on: in neatness, in length, in relevance, in ability to use concepts, in attentiveness, -and others. Students tend at first to give evaluations and criticisms of the teacher or lecture, but with guided steps, they abandon evaluation and learn descriptive and more objective "data" and " "demonstration" feedback.

I totally agree that everyone should be mindful of another. I feel that students should be ready on time for class and with the same token, professors should be prepared to let the class go on time. Both should be aware of each other's responsibilities.

Illustrates the involvement students in community-classroom experience with self-management responsibilities. This issue is explicitly dealt with in community-classroom under the rubric of "Professionalizing Yourself as a Student."

Our ethnicity does not determine what intimidating forces are around us. As a result of our family community connections, we crate biculturalism and cross-cultural differences which create competitive forces in our lives and creates intimidating influences. So, intimidation is stimulated by external forces rather than internal forces. The role you assume has intimidation inherent in it. these roles are taught through typology of ethnicity. This can be exemplified by the different responses to the intimidating stimuli of biculturalism. Community connections ties this all together.

The preceding are two different students' answers to a take home quiz written on their Delayed Feedback report. The quiz requires the student to make up a paragraph in which are used the newly introduced lecture concepts (underlined words in their answers). A variation of the technique is to have students discuss the quiz answer by two's (dyadic exchanges), in class or on the telephone, then have the students write their own answers on the Delayed Feedback report.


The two-week intensive Workshop consists of ten working days, 8 to 4 daily, or 80 hours of total supervised instruction time. This includes a proportioned time chunks each day for lectures, doing exercises in teams, carrying out individual projects, library research, and socializing discussions (including taking food together). Thus, there is to be no additional assigned homework or readings for the evenings or week ends, so that participants can use these in between times for incubating and self-rehearsal of the course concepts and ideas. Peer telephone exchanges and a couple of telephone practice quizzes will however be given. the Workshop participants will constitute The Summer 1980 DRA Generation and will be incorporated in the Psychology 222(2) DRA Collection used by regular students of that course at the University of Hawaii. By becoming a regular DRA generation, the work of the participants, bound and indexed, will enrich the collection. As alumni, participants will continue to have the privilege of using and contributing to the DRA Generational Curriculum. Teachers who will wish to start a DRA Generational collection in their schools may call the workshop staff for advice and help.


In community-classroom every pupil is essential. Credit is given both for individual contribution and for relative worth or effort (i.e., dedication, sincerity, good will). Pupils are endowed with variable talents and skills (due to birth and prior experience), and the teacher attempts to maximize each pupil's contribution to the class, each according to their own capacities. "Trying hard" is rewarded equally irrespective of the absolute size of a person's contribution at any one time, or even, cumulatively. This policy is consistent with the actuality in community life, namely that so-called 'individual achievement' is never truly individual, but rather presupposes a collective community context that is essential and contributory. The principle is: if each tries hard. all will succeed.

A collective point-system is used in community-classroom which is in accordance with community-building principles (such as "the essentialism of the individual"), and Workshop participants will be operating under such a grading system for the summer intensive course. In this manner, teachers can gain a first hand experience with these new psycho-economic values used as classroom management techniques.


The Workshop staff will seek to have available an interdisciplinary research team that will attempt to assess the effects of community-classroom management principles upon human behavior and social organization. Workshop participants will be given a chance to cooperate with and participate in this collective research effort, and later, will be able to share in the findings.


Tasty Vegetarian snacks served every two hours throughout the day!


8:00 - 8:45 AM Learning Cells meet with their Class Managers for class preparation

8:45 - 9:00 AM Practicing "Force song" (an aid in memorizing new terminology)

9:00 - 10:30 AM Lecture 1, plus dyadic or team exercises

10:30 - 11:00 AM Socializing Break

11:00 - 12:30 Individual work period (reports, library, etc.)

12:30 - 1:00 PM Learning Cells meet with their Class managers for class preparation

1:00 - 2:30 PM Lecture 2, plus dyadic or team exercises

2:30 - 3:00 PM Socializing Break

3:00 - 4:00 PM Individual work period (reports, library, etc.)


A repetition of the above for Lectures 3 through 20


A) Comfortable Lecture Room (air conditioned and quiet) with blackboard, overhead projector, recording facilities.

B) Floor space for team meetings, needed for informal groups.

C) Electric typewriters and tape recorders: minimum one each for every 5 participants.

D) Duplicate tapes of the recorded lectures made available to take home.

E) Xeroxing facilities available twice a day (for each lecture) for distributing copies to staff and peers.

F) Vegetarian snacks every two hours to maintain high mental energy output.

G) Poster convention supplies: Photography and Art supplies: typing supplies: staplers: name tags: ribbons. prizes. certificates.

Back to the Generational Curriculum Page