hpa82.htmlTEXTMSWD*C|4{d TRANSCRIPT ANALYSIS AS A POTENTIAL TOOL in Psychotherapy

Transcript Analysis
as a Potential Tool in Psychotherapy

LEON JAMES
Department of Psychology, Univ. of Hawaii
Hawaii Psychological Association
Annual Convention, Honolulu, HI, Dec. 1982

This paper describes the procedures involved in analyzing transcripts or portions of talk in the therapy interview. Transcripts may be prepared in full through recording and transcribing, or they may be merely recorded and listened to, or they may be merely remembered quotations from clients' talk. Instructions for analyzing transcripts may be found here. This paper shows in particular how talk is analyzable into "speech acts" which have clearly discernable psychodynamic information about the clients' level of functioning interpersonally and intra personally. The method illustrated here is based on a system of thought developed by Emanuel Swedenborg (1668-1771) and developed for this purpose by me. The following steps are involved in the use of this analytic system:

Step 1. Study and learn CHART OF SYMPTOMS (table 5) which relates clients' discourse or talk to basic psycholinguistic functioning.

Step 2. Select discourse segments (or units) that are of particular interest to you as therapist because of their "psychodynamic" import (such as clients' statements, comments, expressions, etc.).

Step 3. Score selected discourse units using CHART OF SYMPTOMS

Step 4. Retrain clients for each dysfunction you've thus identified by focusing their attention on them and providing them with better alternatives.

Table 1: Applied Psycholingusitics in Clinical and Community Psychology
Talk analysis/Discourse analysis/Transcript analysis/Self-witnessing analysis
Applied Psycholinguistics Consultation Services
Service Dialogs Group dynamics Relationships
face-to-face written telephone task groups family dyads monad
repairman/client
-----
doctor/patient
-----
supervisor/worker
-----
etc.
litigation
-----
business & personal correspondence
-----
etc.
messages & instructions relayed to repairmen in the field
-----
etc.
training of new employees
-----
assimilation training for immigrants
-----
etc.
family therapy
-----
family court
-----
church
-----
etc.
couples
-----
marital counseling
-----
etc.
self-improvement training
-----
career burnout or change
-----
etc.

Table 2: Domain by Level Enneadic Behavioral Matrix
A C S
Affective Domain Cognitive Domain Sensorimotor Domain
Level 3
Organizational functions
7 8 9
Level 3
Normative functions
4 5 6
Level 3
Informational functions
1 2 3

Table 3: Assessment of Client's Psycholinguistic Functioning
A C S
Affective Domain Cognitive Domain Sensorimotor Domain
Level 3
Organizational Functions
WHY HOW WHAT
Client's ability to use general standards of judgments and categorizations client doesn't use valid or good standards of judgment client misjudges or miscategorizes WHERE and WHEN judgments and categorizations are being misused
Level 2
Normative Functions
WHY HOW WHAT
Client's ability to apply objective norms to self and others client doesn't use appropriate or fair norms client misevaluates WHERE and WHEN client misuses norms
Level 1
Informational Functions
WHY HOW WHAT
Client's ability to remember facts and notice things client doesn't remember and notice things client manages not to remember and notice client doesn't remember and notice
Notes:

a) Levels (1, 2, 3) correspond to stages of natural language development and use. For example: reading (level 1); writing (level 2); theme organization (level 3).

b) Domains (A, C, S) correspond to internalized depth of functioning from inmost (affective) to outmost (sensorimotor).

c) Direction: Forward direction (A-->C-->S) is synthetic, generative, or actual. Reverse direction (S-->C-->A) is analytic, inductive, observational.

Table 4: Discourse Analysis and Speech Acts
A C S
Affective Cognitive Sensorimotor
Level 3
Organizational Functions
BECAUSE WE NEED TO THROUGH TO PRODUCE
-- persuade others and make determinations
-- select and conclude
-- judge and decide
-- justify and confirm
-- request and govern
-- valuate and prioritize
-- etc.
-- traditions or presuppositions
-- taxonomies
-- inventories and surveys
-- standards and general plans
-- laws and guiding strategies
-- principles and premises
-- etc.
-- choices, values and catalogues
-- taxonomies
-- specific steps and recommendations
-- schedules, charts and filing systems
-- budgets, proposals and thesauruses
-- reviews, essays and subject headings
-- orders, requests and themes
-- etc.
Level 2
Normative Functions
BECAUSE WE NEED TO THROUGH TO PRODUCE
-- evaluate and assess
-- compare and line up with
-- qualify and question
-- delimit and restrain
-- challenge and defend
-- formulate alternatives
-- revise and edit
-- etc.
-- reasonings
-- argumentations
-- explanations
-- special considerations
-- relevant norms
-- accountings
-- structures and outlinings
-- etc.
-- norms and guides
-- instructions
-- replies and commentaries
-- ratings and abstracts
-- outlines and graphs
-- results and tables
-- reports and summaries
-- etc.
Level 1
Informational Functions
BECAUSE WE NEED TO THROUGH TO PRODUCE
-- retrieve information
-- identify
-- describe
-- copy information
-- represent
-- paraphrase
-- translate
-- etc.
-- tags and labels
-- words and symbols
-- names and titles
-- specific locations
-- diagrams and pictures
-- intersections
-- associations
-- similarities
-- etc.
-- descriptions
-- definitions and dictionaries
-- messages and assertions
-- indices
-- meanings and translations
-- paraphrases and formulaic expressions
-- etc.

Table 5: Illustrative Chart of Symptoms
A C S
Affective Cognitive Sensorimotor
Level 3
Organizational Dysfunctions
1) feels lonely
-----
2) witholds expression of emotions with relevant others
-----
3) feels failure
-----
4) feels unworthy
-----
etc.
1) cannot meet own minimum standards
-----
2) lacks insight of self and others
-----
3) challenges community premises
-----
etc.
1) draws invalid conclusions
-----
2) makes wrong judgments
-----
3) denies propositions that are true or proven
-----
4) acts destructive to self and others
-----
etc.
Level 2
Normative Dysfunctions
1) feels anger
-----
2) feels guilt
-----
3) feels unproductive
-----
4) feels hesitant, unsure, shy
-----
5) is disinterested
-----
etc.
1) reasons defensively
-----
2) thinks critically of others
-----
3) justifies unfair attitudes
-----
4) exaggeratesbr> -----
etc.
1) makes unreasonable requests
-----
2) misattributes causes of things
-----
3) shirks responsibility and is careless
-----
4) acts destructive to self and others
-----
5) neglects dueties and agreements
-----
etc.
Level 1
Informational Dysfunctions
1) feels role strain
-----
2) feels tired
-----
3) feels distracted
-----
4) feels frustration
-----
5) is excessively indulgent
-----
etc.
1) is confused and unclear about obligations
-----
2) is insufficiently informed
-----
3) has deficient literacy skills
-----
etc.
1) forgets facts
-----
2) loses things
-----
3) doesn't keep appointments
-----
4) fails to carry out instructions
-----
5) is generally unreliable
-----
etc.


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