FORMAT FP-3


(Re-do questions 2-7 if you're on Campus. Use your own Form)

1. Response Type: WILLING _______ NOT WILLING _______
(Note: if "not willing," fill out questions 8 by guessing)

2. Can you give me the names of some streets on Oahu?_________________
_______________________________________________________

3. Can you give me the names of some hotels on Oahu? _________________
_______________________________________________________

4. Can you give me the names of some beaches on Oahu? _______________
_______________________________________________________

5. Can you give me the names and characters of some neighborhoods on
Oahu? _________________________________________________

6. How far is it, in miles, from Waikiki to the following places:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)
(ix)
(x)
State Capital _____________________
Ala Moana Shopping Center?____________________
Polynesian Cultural Center? _____________________
Honolulu International Airport? ____________________
The Zoo? _____________________
Downtown Honolulu? _____________________
Hawaii Kai? _____________________
Haleiwa? _________________ ____
Makaha? _____________________
Around the Island and Back? ____________________


FORMAT FP-3 (Continued)


7 Here is a map of Oahu. (May use Campus map.) Tell me the names of the
numbered areas.
1. ____________________ 6. _____________________
2. ____________________7. _____________________
3. ____________________8. _____________________
4. ____________________9. _____________________
5. ____________________10. ____________________




FORMAT FP-3 (Continued) -


8. Demographic Variables:
Age: ______________________ Sex: ______________________
Nationality or Ethnicity: __________________________________
Dress: ________________________________________________
Home Town & State: ____________________________________
Length of Time Here: _____________________________________
Alone or With Whom: ____________________________________
Place: ________________________________________________
Time and Date: _________________________________________

9. Your Own Demographic Characteristics:
Age:__________ Sex: __________
Ethnicity: ____________________
Dress: _____________________

10. Comments You Have:


FIELD PROJECT NO. 4


Title: Extending Handshake to Strangers.

Objectives: To determine different patterns in behavior towards strangers between
tourists and local residents. To identify demographic factors related to
these differences.

Instructions: (1) Go down to Waikiki (may also be done on Campus); (2) Approach
a stranger, smile, say "Hello, " and extend your hand. (3) Engage the
stranger in talk. Try to find out their nationality, or ethnicity, their
approximate age, their home town and State. If stranger declines to be
interviewed, fill in as much information as you can guess from visual
appearance alone. (4) After the encounter, fill out the Form below.
(5) Repeat as many times as is practicable, using a separate Form for
each encounter. (6) Repeat with local residents in a non-tourist area.
(7) Type, make a Xerox, and hand in original.


FORMAT FP-4


1. Response Type:
(give a score of "+2" for a ready response;
"+1" for a positive but hesitant response;
"-2" for total non-responsiveness or for unfriendly response;
"-1" for some responsiveness but short of reciprocating hanshake.)

2. Demographic Variables:
Age: ______________________ Sex: ______________________
Nationality or Ethnicity: __________________________________
Dress: ________________________________________________
Home Town & State: ____________________________________
Length of Time Here: _____________________________________
Alone or With Whom: ____________________________________
Place: ________________________________________________
Time and Date: _________________________________________

3. Your Own Demographic Characteristics:
Age:__________ Sex: __________
Ethnicity: ____________________
Dress: _____________________

4. Comments You Have:





FIELD PROJECT NO. 5


Title: The Neurosemantics of T. V. Watching.

KEY CONCEPTS:
NEUROSEMANTICS MASS MEDIA
CONDITIONING IMPRESSION FORMATION
E MOTIONS TOPICALIZATION
SOCIODYNAMICS DRAMATIZING
AWARENESS


Objectives: To assess the extent of one's involvement during regular T. V. watching.
To identify the range and intensity of impressions received. To observe the
operation of sociodynamic forces upon one's reactions to social stimuli.
Read pages 61-66.
Instructions: (1) Have attached Form with you while watching. You'll no doubt
want to have a number of copies to record several incidents. (2) As soon
as you become aware of an intense involvement, observe its manifestations
and record it as soon as possible giving the details suggested on the Form.
(3) Do this for as many incidents as you become aware during a program, or
evening of watching (or any over time). (4) Further developments, such
as flashbacks you experience over the next few hours or days, or talking
about it to others, etc. may be added later ("Additional Comments").
(5) Type, make a Xerox, and hand in original.


FORMAT FP-5


Your Name: _____________________________ Date Handed In: ______________
TYPE OF INFORMATION
REPORTED
DETAILS OF THE OBSERVATION
1. Physical sensations
(breathing, muscle
tightnings, eyes
tearing, etc.)




2. Thoughts, feelings,
impressions,
imaginings, interior
dialog





3. Things you said
out loud about it




4. Descriptive of T.V.
event referred to
(i.e., Program, Time,
data, participants
involved, and
circumstances)


5. Additional Comments









Special Exercises. The following Instructions and Forms are to be used for all
special exercises, except as modified in discussion with the instructor. For criteria
of judgment, see the Note on Field Projects.

SPECIAL EXERCISE NO. 1

(Max. Value = 50) (You may submit up to 10 for the semester. )

Title: DRA Annotations

Key Concepts: Titles of Sections -- see
Table of Contents, p. 1.

Objectives: To practice deriving social psychological facts from specially prepared
documentary evidence.

Instructions: (1) Read Section 12 in textbook. (2) Browse through the DRA Volumes for
items that illustrate any statement made in the textbook either for or against
it. For example, p. 69 in the text depicts three types of conflicts: browsing
through the DRA you find evidence of one or all of these types of conflicts.
You then report the finding using the Form below. Another example: on p. 78
you see a chart contrasting types of birds on a variety of activities, and on
p. 79, a formula for calculating overlap or degree of similarity between types.
Browsing through the DRA, you can contrast "types of people" along a variety
of behaviors as evidenced from the data in the DRA. (e. g., text, p. 96 shows
relation of age, sex, ethnicity, to one's connections as reported in DRA
data). (3) Report each finding on a separate form (up to total of 10). Make
sure your presentation of evidence is sufficient to explain to the reader what
social facts are being illustrated. (4) Keep Xerox copy and hand in original.


FORMAT FP-5


Your Name:_______________________________ Date Handed In: ________________
TYPE OF INFORMATION
REPORTED
DETAILS OF THE OBSERVATION
1. Physical sensation
(breathing, muscle
tightening, eyes
tearing, etc.)


2. Thoughts, feelings,
impressions,
imaginings, interior
dialogue





3. Things you said
out loud about it



4. Description of T.V.
event referred to
(i.e., Program, Time,
date, participants
involved, and
circumstances)


5. Additional Comments




Special Exercises? The following Instructions and Forms are to be used for all special excersices, except as modified in discussion with the instructor. For criteria of judgment, see the Note on Field Projects.

SPECIAL EXERCISE NO 1


(Max. Value = 50) (You may submit up to 10 for the semester.)

Title: DRA Annotations

Key Concepts: Titles of Sections - see
Tables of Contents, p. 1.

Objectives: To practice deriving social psychological facts from specially prepared
documentary evid ence.

Instructions: (1) Read Section 12 in textbook. (2) Browse through the DRA Volumes for
items that illustrate any statement made in the textbook either for or against
it. For example, p. 69 in the text depicts three typ es of conflicts: browsing
through the DRA you find evidence of one or all of these types of conflicts.
You then report the finding using the Form below. Another example: on p. 78
you see a chart contrasting types of birds on a variety of a ctivities, and on
p. 79, a formula for calculating overlap or degree of similarity between types.
Browsing through the DRA, you can contrast "types of people" along a variety
of behaviors as evidenced from the data in the DRA. (e.g., text, p . 96 shows
relation of age, sex, ethnicity, to one's connections as reported in DRA
data). (3) Report each finding on a separate form (up to total of 10). Make
sure your presentation of evidence is sufficient to explain to the reader what
social facts are being illustrated. (4) Keep Xerox copy and hand in original.


FORMAT E-1


Your Name:_______________________________ Date Handed In: ________________

1. Relevant textbook pages: ___________________
Title of Section: ____________________________________________________
2. Source of DRA Data Segment: ____________________________________________
(vol. No., report title, volume page no.)
3. Presentation of Evidence:






SPECIAL EXERCISE NO. 2


(Max. Value = 100)

Title: Writing Synopses

Key Concepts: ACADEMIC LITERACY SKILLS
QUIZ BEHAVIOR
READING SKILLS

Objective: To practice certain writing skills related to reading comprehension in
the academic register (or "style") and dealing with social psychology topics.

Instructions: (1) Read Sections 6 (pp. 74-77) and 14 (pp. 184-189).
(2) Underline or highlight main propositions. And/or: take notes or make
a CHART as you go along. (3) Write out a synopsis for both sections using
a style similar to the other synopses in the book (for page location, see
SYNOPSES in Concordance Index). (4) Type on attached Form and hand in.
Keep a Xerox copy.


FORMAT E-2


Your Name:_______________________________ Date Handed In: ________________

Number and Title of Section: ________________________________________________
(must be either Section 6 or 14 or both)


Synopsis: (TYPE)




SPECIAL EXERCISE NO. 3


(Max. Value = 100)

Title: Making up a Quiz

Key Concepts:
ACADEMIC LITERACY SKILLS
QUIZ BEHAVIOR
PSYCHOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE
GRE PREPARATION

Objective: To practice study and comprehension skills relating to social psychological
concepts. As well, to provide other students with study questions for more
effective learning.

Instructions: (1) You may cover any page or pages, not necessarily sequentially.
For example, while reading, studying, or meditating, a good question may
pop into your head. Write it down and save it! (2) Use any format of the
forced-choice and objective type of quiz: sets of alternatives, true/false,
fill in missing word, graph or table plus inference, etc. (3) Type questions
numbering them sequentially, in the usual, familiar format. (4) Attach
a KEY for answers and page references in the book where answer may be
found. This is essential. (5) Type your Name and Date Handed in on top
of front sheet. (6) Keep Xerox copy, and hand in original.


SPECIAL EXERCISE NO. 4


(Max. Value = 100)

Title: Indexical Reconstruction of Topic

Key Concepts:
STUDY TECHNIQUES
PROFESSIONALIZATION
COMPREHENSION
ACADEMIC LITERACY SKILLS
CONCEPTUAL UNITY
THEORY BUILDING

Objective: To earn points while studying text and preparing for quizzes.
To practice tying concepts together and to form issues in social
psychology. To facilitate one's verbalizing skills with regards
to topics in social psychology.

Instructions: (1) Look up a concept or name in the concordance Index.
Pick one that interests you or promises to be interesting.
(2) Check each page location indicated and mark the relevant sen-
tences on each indicated page. (3) Paraphrase in your own words.
Add page numbers in your paraphrases to indicate source. (4) Add
chart, diagram, overall comment, or conclusion. (5) Type, make
xerox, and hand in original.


SPECIAL EXERCISE NO. 5: TEAM PROJECT


(Max. Value = 200 for each participating member)

Title: Psych 222 Sociomap

Key Concepts:
GROUP SPACE
COMMUNITY VITA
SOCIALIZATION PRACTICES
DEMOGRAPHIC STIGMA
ETHNICITY
PERSONALITY
VITA SLOGANS


Objective: To practice ethnographic techniques for characterizing a com-
munity. To develop a "sociomap" for this Psych 222 class community.
To practice graphic and mapping techniques for representing socio-
psychological data.

Instructions: (1) Fill out Forms E-5i, E-5ii, E-5iii, and E-5iv.
(2) Type, make xerox, and hand in original.


FORMAT E-5i

FIRST IMPRESSIONS TRAIT CHECKLIST


Your Name:_______________________________ Date Handed In: ________________

Check the adjectives that apply to your initial reactions to the person.
Person's name:
P1 ____________________________________ Date _____________
P2 ____________________________________
P3 ____________________________________
P4 ____________________________________

P1P2P3P4
Generous....
Wise....
Happy....
Good-natured....
Humorous....
Sociable....
Popular....
Reliable....
Important....
Humane....
Good-looking....
Persistent....
Serious....
Restrained....
Altrustic....
Imaginative....
Strong....
Honest....
Shy....
Quiet....
Anxious....
Talkative....
Neat....
Attractive....
Beautiful....
Smart....
Responsibility....
Athletic....
Creepy....
Rich....
Gross....
Intelligent....
Dull....
Aggressive....
Outspoken....
Sexy....
Rude....
Sloppy....
Obsene....
Talkative....
Handsome....
Fat....
Self-confident....
Short....
Tall....
Others?....
.....
.....
.....
.....



FORMAT E-5ii

Cognitive Map of Oahu

Your Name:_______________________________ Date Handed In: ________________
Major _______________________________ Year ________________________
How long have you lived on Oahu? ________ in Hawaii? __________ elsewhere? _______
1. The three most complicated places ti get to? ___________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
2. The place that
is windiest? _______________ is noisiest? _______________
is hottest? ________________ is most romantic? __________
is driest? _________________ has best view? ____________
is wettest? ________________ is quietest? _______________
is coldest? ________________ other? __________________
is highest? ________________ ________________________

3. Beaches: best during weekend. __________________________________________
worst during weekend _____________________________________________
other? __________________________________________________________
4. Favorite places for buying
gifts ______________________ clothes ____________________
shoes ______________________ books _____________________
records ____________________ browsing ___________________
cars _______________________ local food __________________
other? _____________________

5. Ideal place to live? ___________________________________________________
Why? __________________________________________________________
6. Schools you'd like your children to go to? __________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Why? __________________________________________________________




FORMAT E-5ii (p. 2)

7. Favorite resturants you'd recommend?
Reasons, if any:
after a date _________________________________________________________
for breakfast ________________________________________________________
for lunch ___________________________________________________________
for dinner _________________________
with tourist ___________________
with parents __________________
with best friends _______________
boy/girlfriend _________________
other (specified) _______________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________

8. How many restaurants on Oahu have you every been to? _____________ Which
ones would you really like to go? _______________________________________
9. Hangouts ____________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
10. Other favorites; comments; etc. ___________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________



FORMAT E-5iii


Psy 222 Self-Description Profile (DRA Items)

INSTRUCTIONS: Circle the number that is most accurate of you on the answer sheet provided, FORMAT E-5iii.
0 = the statement is never true to me
1 = the statement is rarely true to me
2 = the statement is regularly true to me
3 = the statement is particularly true of me

1. If you want to lose weight you have to eat everything only moderately.
0123

2. Some people get me really upset and I feel so angry that I want to do
something but I have learned to control my temper.
0123

3. If I see someone that I don't want to see or someone that is really
nosey, I avoid them by going through another path.
0123

4. I carry kleenex around me all the time because my nose is always runny.
0123

5. My umbrella is very important to me because the rain here in Honolulu
especially in Manoa is so unpredictable that you need to be prepared
all the time.
0123

6. I wear my sun glasses a lot so I carry it around with me all the time.
0123

7. I always carry my checkbook because I'm one person that can go through
checks like water.
0123

8. I usually do not give much thought to my inner dialogs and various daily
activities, which occur throughout each day's event.
0123



9. I often say to myself "Hurry up stupid!" when I am taking longer to
complete a task than I had originally expected to.
0123

10. I love to go to the beach to bask in the sunlight and read a good book
or magazine, go for a swim, and to watch people.
0123

11. I felt uncomfortable in an elevator being with so many strangers in
such a limited area of space.
0123

12. My boyfriend (or: girlfriend) and I love to go to the movies and eat
popcorn when there is an especially good movie playing.
0123

13. I love to window-shop and see what's new in the fashion world.
0123

14. My family and I enjoy dining out at least once a week - it breaks the
monotony of the week.
0123

15. I enjoy small gatherings with just a few close friends, rather than
really large parties.
0123

16. Some mornings when I get up I look horrible.
0123

17. I often worry too much or think too hard about my problems; in this
way I enlarge the problems.
0123

18. Like everyone else, I want to help and get involved with whatever
concerns me, but try not to get involved unless I am asked to do so.
0123

19. I believe it is necessary to confide in others and to have others
confide in you.
0123



20. I personally feel that the less things a person feels that he has to hide
about himself, the better off he is.
0123

21. I see my friends only occaionally so that when we do meet we try to catch
up on news about each other in a short period of time.
0123

22. Feelings such as happiness change as a person's goals and outlook on
life change, so I wish I had more time to really know my friends again.
0123

23. Night time is always the time of loneliness but as long as I study I
will be fine.
0123

24. I love to dream. It's like at night I go to bed to go home and dream
about my friends and family back home.
0123

25. When I feel I've eaten to much and haven't exercised for awhile, I say
to myself, "I ought to exercise. My stomach is protruding."
0123

26. Whenever I would worry about something I say to myself I say to myself, "I'm just not
going to worry about it' in order to ease my mind.
0123

27. I feel heavy and chubby and my chin feels double.
0123

28. I am very outgoing on a one-to-one basis with people.
0123

29. In situations where I must speak in front of large groups, I freeze up
and become insecure and shy.
0123

30. I enjoy listening and talking to people.
0123


31. People seem to come to me for advice or comforting in troubled time.
0123

32. I have a good sense of humor and smile and laugh readily and often.
0123

33. In social situations, especially with people I am comfortable with, I
talk a lot and joke around all the time.
0123

34. I think of myself as honest, responsible, reliable, and casual.
0123

35. I hope to acquire a degree in elementary education B.A.
0123

36. I hope to become a teacher of an elementary school, own my own house,
maybe get married.
0123

37. I don't believe in any one religion but I do believe in God.
0123

38. I think everyone was put on this earth for a certain purpose or reason and
it's everyone's goal to seek his/her purpose for living.
0123

39. I like to go to different beaches all the time, with friends and just
by myself.
0123

40. Even if it takes me 10 years, someday I will get a degree.
0123

41. One thing that I have noticed as I have grown older, I have less duties
and responsibilities put upon me.
0123

42. I hate yogurt.
0123



43. I hate mushrooms.
0123

44. One of my ambitions is to be a pro-baseball player.
0123

45. I always get depressed cause I always somehow make my problems bigger
than they are and dwell upon them for long periods of time.
0123

46. One of my accomplishments is learning to play the violin.
0123

47. I see almost everyone doing the same thing as me.
0123

48. I know I can get an A in this class if I really try hard.
0123

49. I get off my bed and discover that all my bed sheets are lying on
the floor.
0123

50. I hate getting up in the morning.
0123

51. I won't answer the phone.
0123

52. I usually keep my hair rather short and I notice that it's past
my neckline.
0123

53. In the morning, it always takes me a long time to decide what to wear
because I have so much clothes.
0123

54. I think I'm the happiest person in the world.
0123



55. I cannot live without these rollers.
0123

56. In the morning, when I brush my teeth it really refreshes me and makes me feel good.
0123

57. I have to get rid of some of my clothes.
0123

58. Whenever I wear something, I like to have the colors coordinated and
match so that it will look nice.
0123

59. My skin is quite smooth but occasionally I'll get a pimple and I really
worry about that because I don't like to have pimples.
0123

60. My friends and I usually go down to Hotel Street on weekends or after
a hard night of studying to have fun.
0123



FORMAT E-5iii
Supplement to PSYCH 222 Self-Description Profile (DRA ITEMS)

Your Name:_______________________________ Date Handed In: ________________

Attach this to the questionnaire. Add 10 statements that are not on the current
list and which are particularly true of you.
1.


2.


3.


4.


5.


6.


7.


8.


9.


10.





FORMAT E-5iv

Consciousness Checklist:*

The Behavioral Dispositions
of the Brahman
(The Dhammapada)

understanding1banished impurities21
tranquility2religious recluse22
insight3 capable of self-protection23
fearless4protective of enemies24
unshackled5resisting of the allurement
of life
25
meditative6non-offensive in body26
blameless7non-offensive in word27
settled8non-offensive in thought28
dutiful without passions9worshipping sacrifice29
attained of the highest
end
10truthful30
putting away evil11righteous31
walking quietly (in life)12free from attachments32
ascetic(ism)13endures bonds33
endures reproach14dutiful34
free from anger15virtuous35
subdued16without burden36
knowing the end of
suffering
17possesses wisdom37
without desires18possesses deep knowledge38
withholds punishments19tolerant with the intolerant39
does not kill or cause
slaughter to any
creatures
20free from greed40



mild among the violent41without lust53
takes only what is given42without hatred54
without longings43without pride55
free from doubt44without envy56
above merit and demerit45without inclinations57
free from grief46immersed in the Immortal58
without vanity47blameless59
pure60
free from content48serene61
free of all the bondage49clear62
happy50free from pleasure63
awakened51free from pain64
attained perfection52owns nothing65
has reached the end of
reincarnation
66





* For each item, rate your current degree of attainment:
0 = none; 1 = somewhat along the line; 2 = well along the line;
3 = almost there.
NAME: _______________________________ DATE: ________________


ANSWER SHEET

Your Name:_______________________________ Date Handed In: ________________
For FORMAT E-5iii
1.________31.________
2. ________32.________
3. ________33.________
4. ________34.________
5. ________35.________
6. ________36.________
7. ________37.________
8. ________38.________
9. ________39.________
10. ________40.________
11. ________41.________
12. ________42.________
13. ________43.________
14. ________44.________
15. ________45.________
16. ________46.________
17. ________47.________
18. ________48.________
19. ________49.________
20. ________50.________
21. ________51.________
22. ________52.________
23. ________53.________
24. ________54.________
25. ________55.________
26. ________56.________
27. ________57.________
28. ________58.________
29. ________59.________
30. ________60.________


For FORMAT E-5iv
1.________31.________
2. ________32.________
3. ________33.________
4. ________34.________
5. ________35.________
6. ________36.________
7. ________37.________
8. ________38.________
9. ________39.________
10. ________40.________
11. ________41.________
12. ________42.________
13. ________43.________
14. ________44.________
15. ________45.________
16. ________46.________
17. ________47.________
18. ________48.________
19. ________49.________
20. ________50.________
21. ________51.________
22. ________52.________
23. ________53.________
24. ________54.________
25. ________55.________
26. ________56.________
27. ________57.________
28. ________58.________
29. ________59.________
30. ________60.________
31.________61.________
32.________62.________
33.________63.________



2. SOCIAL DISTANCE AND PENETRATION
Let us now explore Lewin's definition of social distance in-terms of field theory. In the following diagram, based on Lewin (1948, p. 21), the two circular regions are set to represent two persons, Pl and P2. Pl has a personality type different from P2 as can be observed by the differences in their structure.

Person 1 is a region differentiated by five independent zones separated by boundaries. Person 2 similarly has five boundaries, but the shaded area covers up layers 2 through 5 instead of layer 5 only. Now set the meaning of shading or covering up to represent accessibility of layers interpersonally, i.e. from Pl to P2, and vice versa. The diagram specifies that Pl is more accessible to P2 than P2 is to P1, and it shows the degree of non-reciprocity in exact numerical terms. Thus, Pl is more "open" to P2 in that the first 4 peripheral layers are accessible; only the central layer (5) is inaccessible. For example, assume each layer of P stands for an interpersonal parameter such as intimacy, liking, or closeness. Then Pl can share certain information with P2 that concerns the outer, peripheral layers of his personality or self, but would not share "core" intimacies. Person P2, on the other hand, would only share the most superficial region, the outermost layer, and would keep inaccessible, covered up, the other regions of the self.
The idea that persons and personalities behave towards others (interpersonally) in conformance to their "internal regions" (psychological space) is a basic formulation that sets up the cognitivist paradigm in social psychology. Internal regions translate psychodynamically into the wholistic entity of personality. Lewin set himself the strict task of plotting, mapping, diagrammlng, and expressing mathematically the form, structure, and dynamics of personality. Of particular interest to him, and to us, is the notion of the permeability of the boundaries (membranes) within the social organization of the layers of personality. In the diagram, you can note that there is a thick boundary separating region 5 from the other regions in Pl where the boundaries are thin (for P2, the thick boundary is between 1 and 2). The thickness of the boundary line-stands for degree of resistance to penetration;


the open personality structure allows for greater penetration and motion across the layers. The closed personality structure indicates greater resistance to "invasion" from outside, less penetration, and less "communication" between layers within (more than one thick line could be drawn). For instance, with the same amount of penetration energy, effort, or work--say W--one could reach inside the third layer of Pl, but only the first layer of P2, since Pl offers less resistance than P2. More complex relations may hold in that resistance to penetration into the central region (5) may be greater for Pl than for P2. this is because the thickness of boundary layer 2 in P2 is less, given-its peripheral location, in absolute terms than the thickness of boundary 5 in Pl, given its central location. This would mean that it takes greater effort initially to communicate with P2, but once region 2 is penetrated, one gets easily to the central layer; while in Pl, though there is less resistance initially, there is greater difficulty encountered later when penetration of the central region is attempted.
The idea of resistance or ease of social penetration has been developed in another context by Barker's field theory in ecological psychology, as shown by the following diagram (1968, p. 51):

Barker calls these layers "zones of penetration into 6ehavior settings." A person's degree of involvement and responsibility in a setting (zone) varies according to his role: occupants near the periphery have a less active position or role ("onlookers" and "visitors") than those who penetrate the setting more deeply, occupying a more central role ("active members" and "leaders").
Still another application of field theory concepts is illustrated in the following diagram based on Jakobovits (1970, p. 171):



*size and density of rectangle = degree of proficiency or amount of learning
overlap = interference effects


To be able to read the diagram, we need to know the meaning of the notation system used. As you can see, there are four pairs of rectangles appearing in regions al, a2, bl, and b2. Let al and a2 stand for two stages in the acquisition of a learning task, say the pronunciation of words in a foreign language; let bl and b2 stand for the two stages of learning another foreign language skill, say vocabulary knowledge. Let the pairs of rectangles stand for the two languages, Ll or the native language and L2, the foreign language. Let the size and density of the rectangle represent degree of proficiency or amount of learning. We are now ready to read the dynamic relations depicted in the diagram. In regional, the person is at the first stage of learning the grammar of the foreign language. The diagram shows the person's psychological state: the target or foreign language (L2) is smaller in size than Ll (native language)--a state known as "language dominance," the native language dominates the target language. As well, L2 is wholly contained within Ll indicating that, at this stage, one expects a- great deal of interference between one's old grammar and the new one must acquire. At stage 2, the psychological region (a2) has changed: L2 is not only bigger (more grammatical knowledge), but it overlaps less with Ll leading to the expectation of greater independence between the learner's two grammatical systems. Similarly, with bl and b2 which depicts the changes over time in the person's psychological state. Thus, at bl, the person's vocabulary knowledge in L2 is largely independent of Ll and of a fair size; at b2, the vocabulary know- ledge in L2 is now equivalent in size to that of Ll, showing excellent progress. Note, however, that there is still some overlap leading to the expectation of some interference between the two languages (e.g., mixing up


partially overlapping meanings). By representing the process of language learning as a movement in psychological space, and by further specifying the parameters affecting this movement, one is able to make predictions about additional features of the setting that may be important for better strategies of teaching and learning (dominance; interference; rate; quantity).


Synopsis 2: Social Distance and Penetration.
A person is viewed as a region or space with boundaries set up, as in concentric circles. Penetration from peripheral (outer) to central (inner) regions indicates greater accessibility of the person (as in intimate relations). Personality is indexed by the characteristics of these inner regions, fields, and boundaries ("psychological space"). Similarly, the concentric circles can represent layers of penetrating social settings: the outermost layer might be that of an onlooker; then a guest, etc., with the leaders in the central region. Thus "role" is partly a function of the person's degree of penetration of a social setting. In field theory, diagrams depict dynamic relations which otherwise would not be evident.
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