Psychology 409 Syllabus Instructions -- Spring 1995

How to read this: First, page down (SPACE BAR) and up (b or -) to get a feel for the document. Then go back to the top of the document, and read it the hypertext way: by pressing RETURN on the various links provided (highlighted). You can come back by pressing u (for up a link) successively until you're back where you want. If you want more information on how to navigate, see below now.

Are you a visitor? I would appreciate your reactions or comments. How did you get here? What did you see?
Leave a massage for Leon James?

The instructor's Home Page Instructor's Weekly Comments


**** Course objectives *** Your UNIX directory files **** Points and Grading **** Activity points **** Weekly Tasks **** Browsing with Lynx **** Writing your first lab report **** Using the EMACS editor **** Formatting HTML documents and Making HTML links See also this **** Glossary entries (glossary.html) Are you aware of Mr.Bogan's **** Help Files?

Course Objectives

This seminar is experimental. Welcome for the ride! The instructor's educational strivings are:
*** to provide for you a Cyberspace Learning Community as a human lab experience for better understanding affective and cognitive behaviors in information seeking; and
*** to help you gain the skills needed to navigate the Internet and make use of the information superhighway.

Your UNIX Directory Files

You will be provided with a free UNIX account, world wide e-mail services, and unlimited access to Internet. Lucky you!! You have privacy and ownership rights: (a) You type all your entries into your own file, on your own UNIX account. (b) Permission for people to see your file is turned on and off by you, at any time, with a simple command (chmod). However, since it is easy to forget to do it, your files will have read permission on as a default, until you want to turn it off. If you prefer to change this default feature, please e-mail our Webmaster, Eric Hagen (To: (c) You add and remove links yourself. (d) You may edit any of your text, at any time, without notice. (e) You may delete all your files at the end of the semester, OR you may submit a copy to be left in place in cyberspace. In this way, the space you've created continues to live and be linked by future generations of students. You may even revisit your files years later from any Internet access point on the World Wide Web, and see how it has been modified and integrated by the generations! (assuming it doesn't get erased for lack of disk space!)
Back to the top.

	When you are at the UNIX prompt:

Using EMACS, create 3 files:



	Useful UNIX commands to memorize

cd				move to my root dir
cd ..				move to the dir just above this one
dir				show dir of files (names with / are sub-dirs)
mkdir www			make a sub-dir called www
mv file1 www			move file1 from this dir into the www dir
mv labre.html labreport.html	change the name of labre.html to labreport.html
mv * www/instructor		move all files from this dir into the
				instructor dir
mv  *.html ..			move all files in this dir that end in
				.html to the dir above this one
mv ~/www/instructor/* .		move all files in the instructor
				sub-dir to this dir
rm tempura.html			remove (delete) file tempura.html
				(answer y to prompt)
rm * .				remove (delete) all files in this dir
cp labreport.html home-wk3	copy the contents of my labreport.html
				file to a new file called home-wk3
cp ~/www/rtf/*.zip ~/bin	copy all files in the rtf sub-dir
				which end in zip and place copies in the bin su					b-dir
more glossary.html		display this file with SPACE BAR
				brakes (/ to search string in the file)
				       (q to stop display)
chmod 755 * .			give read permission to all files in
				this dir	
chmod 755 o-w me.html		remove read permission from file me.html
C-z				(control z) stop, exit to UNIX (type fg
				to get back)

Points and Grading

Your Lab Report File			40 points
Your Home Page File			20 points
Your Glossary File			20 points
Your Activity Points			20 points

Grading scale:

 A=100-85   B=84-70   C=69-51    F=50-

Each class absence (for any cause) = -4 points (1 grace absence
given).  Being late = -1 point.  Being behind in weekly tasks = -3
points for each week late.

Activity Points AWARDS
  1. Making 10 valid entries in the Taxonomic Inventory = 5 points
  2. Receiving the Creative Home Page Award = 5 points
  3. Receiving the Most Linked Cyberspace Award = 5 points
  4. Receiving the Longest Legitimate labreport.html File Award = 5 points
  5. Receiving the Longest Legitimate glossary.html File Award = 5 points
  6. Receiving the Longest Legitimate homepage.html File Award = 5 points
  7. Receiving the Cyberspace Gatekeeper Award = 5 points
    (for significantly influencing the flow of information in the cyberspace learning community)
  8. Receiving the Cyberspace Friendly Nerd Award = 5 points
    (for regularly helping others with their technical problems)
Back to the top.

Weekly Tasks

Make weekly additions to your labreport.html file.How?
Make links between various parts of your labreport.html file with various parts of other people's labreport.html file.
Make links between parts of your labreport.html file and parts of other students' labreport.html file. How?

Browsing with Lynx

To start the Lynx browser, type lynx at the UNIX prompt.  This takes
you to the HCC Home Page.  The following commands are frequently used:

q		quit lynx, back to UNIX
SPACE BAR	show next screen
b or -		show previous screen
=		show information page with file name and link name
\		show source page with html formatting
/		search for a string within the document on the screen
RETURN		go to the link that is highlighted
u		go up (or back) one link (from where you came from)
DELETE		(delete key) show history of links traveled (hot)
v		view your bookmark
a then l	add this link to my bookmark
o		(options) add numbering to your screen links
arrows		hot (see bottom of screen for instructions)

Your Home Page File

Make a Home Page for yourself.
Make links on your Home Page to:< The Instructor's Home Page
Other students' Home Page
Other students' labreport.html file
Other people's or organizations' Home Page on the World Wide Web
What does one populate one's Home Page with?
	** Anything you can scan into a file such as pictures,
	drawings, maps, videos, audio recordings, your writings, others'
	writings, descriptions of places to go to with active links, etc.

Using the EMACS Editor

Starting EMACS At UNIX prompt: 1) emacs labreport.html (means: open emacs with that file or create it) Now type your entry 2) C-x C-c (answer yes) (this saves it and quits emacs) You can then repeat this for the other two files (glossary.html and yournalstname.html). WARNING It was discovered by Mr.Bogan and others that the procedures for IBMs is slightly different. See Bogan's Help files.
	EMACS File ManagementCommands
Find file and open				C-x C-f
Insert contents of another file			C-x i
Write to file (save permanently)		C-s C-w
(type RETURN when prompted for file name)
Save file changes and exit			C-x C-c
Cancel command (might need to do it 3 or 4
	times until it says Quit!"		C-g
Suspend emacs and go to UNIX prompt		C-z
(you return with typing fg)
Help 						C-h
Help in describing a command			C-h f
Help in describing a key function		C-h k
Restart emacs					C-q
Complete partially type command			SPACE BAR
	Moving cursor around in emacs
Caution:   "C-n" means:  While holding CONTROL key down, type letter n.
BUT note that ESC-f means:  First press ESC key, release it, then
type letter f.  If you forget this, you may not get the desired result!  If
that happens, just cancel by using C-g command one to three times.)
Next or previous LINE                      C-n or C-p                                 
Beginning or end of LINE                   C-a or C-e                                 
WORD forward or backward                   ESC-f or ESC-b                             
PARAGRAPH forwd. or backwd                 ESC-] or [                                 
PAGE up or down                            C-v or ESC-v                               
DOCUMENT beginning or end                  ESC-< or ESC->                             
Note: arrow keys also work!                                                    
	Editing the Document in Emacs
Caution:    "C-n" means:  While holding CONTROL key down, type letter n.
BUT note that ESC-f means:  First press ESC key, release it, then
type letter f.  If you forget this, you may not get the desired result!  If
that happens, just cancel by using C-g command one to three times.)
DELETE                                     use DELETE key (if it works)               
DELETE character                           C-d                                        
KILL line (delete,copy,yank)               C-k                                        
PASTE what's been killed                   C-y                                        
RETRIEVE prior kills (repeats up to 100    ESC-y                                      
REFORMAT (fix) paragraph                   ESC-q                                      
UNDO edits (repeats)                       C-x u (control x, then u)

SEARCH forward and REPLACE the             ESC-%, then options: Replace?
                                              y=yes and go to next occurr.  
specified string after asking for         
                                              n=no and go to next occurr.
                                               , (comma)=yes and quit
search options to replace.
                                               ^ (caret)=go back one occurr.
                                               ESC=quit search                                     
Create 2 horizontal WINDOWS                C-x 2                                      
Create 2 vertical WINDOWS                  C-x 5                                      
Make this my only WINDOW                   C-x 1                                      
Move cursor into other window              C-x o (as in "other")                      
Delete my current WINDOW                   C-x 0 (meaning "zero")              
Drawing a Picture in EMACS

Switch to DRAW mode                        ESC-x edit-picture RETURN                  
Switch back to TEXT mode                   C-c C-c                                    
Step 1: choose direction                                                              
North (straight up).                       C-c ^ (caret)                              
North East (NE) (right up)                 C-c ' (apostrophe)                         
East (E) (right)                           C-c > (greater than)                       
South East (SE) (down right)               C-c \ (back slash)                         
South (S) (straight down)                  C-c . (period)                             
South West (SW)(down left)                 C-c / (slash)                              
West (W) (left)                            C-c < (less than)                          
North West (NW) (up left)                  C-c ` (above the TAB key)                  
Step 2: type any character (repeatedly)                                        

Your Weekly Lab Report

Each week the instructor will be assigning specific homework tasks for you to do. See his Weekly Homework section in the Instructor's Weekly Comments file.
Suggestions Answer each question and sub-question. 1. (a) What were you trying to do? (b) Why? 2. (a) What did you try? (c) How did you react? 3. (a) Looking back now, analytically, what do you think was the problem? (b) How do you feel about it? 4. (a) What lessons do you draw from this experience? (b) Anything else? NOTES:
1)Re-read your entry for the two problems and make sure you answered all questions and sub-questions in sufficient detail.

2)Check your entry formatting using html marks (remember how?).
Be sure to add two kinds of LINKS: name links and href links. Name links should be created to every paragraph or other significant segment of text or entry. You can also create name links in the middle of a sentence, anchored to single word, or phrase.

Remember this: The more name anchors you provide to your entries, the more it is possible for others to comment specifically on something you've written or designed. The more occasions to link to your entries, the more they can be enriched by others.

You might want to use some way of showing browsers that there is a name anchor there. But even if you don't, by simply pressing the \ (backslash) key, you can suddenly see the html marks, and whether there is an anchor name there you can use to which you can make a link from your own document. (But to find the right screen, you need to use the / (regular slash) command, remember?

3)Test all your links to be sure they work. Quit emacs and go into lynx, then test your new entries to see if they work properly. Sometimes an extra space or a missing quotation sign is hard to spot! Go back and forth between emacs and lynx until you know that all your new links work as you want them to.

4)Similarly, create links between your entry and other people's Lab Report or Comments. The more links you make that are really relevant, the better.

5)Throughout the semester, continue to add links to your entries as you encounter new stuff that is related to it. This is important!

Formatting HTML documents and Making links

A good method of learning is to look at other people's formatting techniques. Anytime in Lynx, press the \ key to see the "back" of the document, that is, the html markings. Press the key again to return. By alternating the view, front/back, you can learn the rules.

Try this now:

First look at the 2 steps before trying it:
Step 1: Press the \ key (back slash) and the text will change showing html formatting code. You'll be at the top of the document.
Step 2: To get to the screen you're presently at, type / (regular slash), then type in some text from this paragraph, e.g., Try this now: You will then be at the back of the right screen. To get back, press the \ key again. By repeatedly pressing the \ key, and finding the corresponding screen you are looking at, you can learn a lot about how to produce certain effects in hrml code. Now go ahead and try Steps 1 and 2.

Here are some useful formatting code to remember:

(Note: In the following examples, a * (asterisk) will be used where a lesser than, or greater than, sign is needed in order to block its showing. To make it run in lynx, copy the example into a new temporary emacs file, replace the * with the lesser and greater sign using the search and replace command (first, the lesser than sign, then the greater than sign. You can then view it in Lynx.) Here is the example:

*title* My Lab Report in Psych 409 */title*

*a name="week2"* *h1* My Second Week */h1* */a*

Here you type in your report using paragraph separators. This is paragraph one. *p*

Here is some text from paragraph two: " ...and this is a big improvement on my *a href="#week1"* first week. */a* Can you believe it folks? It's just amazing!" In this example, the words "first week" will be highlighted as a link. Pressing RETURN there would bring up your First Week entry in the same file. After reading it, pressing u will return you to your paragraph here where you made the link. The word "believe" is marked with a *b* (bold) code and the word "amazing" is marked with a *em* (emphasis) code. To make a numbered list:

*li*Week 1
*li*Week 2
*li*Week 3

When you replace the * with the less than or greater than sign, this will execute as follows:
  1. Week 1
  2. Week 2
  3. Week 3
Indenting text is done as follows:
*dt*Week 5
	*dt* Navigation
	*dt* Resources
	*dt* Plans
When you replace the * with the less than or greater than sign, this will execute as follows:
Week 5
Note that you need to mark the place you want a break (new line) by typing *br* or *p* (where the * should normally be less than or greater than sign don't forget!)

Now here is a typical session in 10 steps which can be varied in many ways. Be sure to discuss the meaning of these steps and commands with others.

  1. % cd www (at UNIX prompt change to www dir)
  2. dir (show dir of files)
  3. emacs labreport.html (call up your labreport.html file in emacs)
  4. ESC-> (move cursor to the end of the document)
  5. Type your entries using HTML formatting
  6. Add anchor names and internal and external links
  7. C-x C-c, yes save (saves your document and quits emacs)
  8. %lynx, v, 409 HP, Lab Reports, yours (test out the links)
  9. Switch between Lynx and emacs until all problems are fixed

Here is some advice from Tim Liguori:

From timlig@community.netSat Feb 11 00:24:12 1995
Date: Thu, 9 Feb 1995 10:19:19 -1000
From: Tim Liguori 
Reply to: Mailinglist 'Swedenborg' 
Subject: HTML basics

Hi folks,

Made this up for Jan, and am passing it along to you all...
At the bottom are some samples. (sorry for the length!)


Basically you enter your text in a normal TEXT EDITOR, and then put the 
following  in the text to turn it into HTML.

#1 Use small letters for all your  AND MORE IMPORTANTLY, for all
   your ".htm" and graphics references.

#2 Use ".htm" instead of ".html" while working on your PC
    I've made a conversion script the change these once you download to
    the UNIX server.  Your text editor should read these OK.

#3 Optional - Get ahold of NETSCAPE for windows for your testing.
   This is optional, but otherwise you'll be doing it semi-blindly.

Some basic codes: Codes are placed in brakets 

Makes a large HEADING

Makes a smaller Heading

Makes the next smaller Heading

Makes the next smaller Heading

Makes the smallest Heading
# The "/" terminations must be there or all the following fonts will be affected (If your fonts are all screwy, check to ensure the '/' codes are included.) ------------------------------------------------------------------- BOLD Italics
Centers text and/or graphics
--------------------------------------------------------------------- To terminate a paragraph:

- Use

at the end of the paragraph to end the paragraph and leave a space between this and the next paragraph... or
- Use
at the end of the paragraph to end the paragraph and leave NO space between this and the next paragraph. !! If you don't terminate a paragraph with

, it will run on to the next line !! ## You do not need to use a

to terminate the

commands. --------------------------------------------------------------------- To change paragraph font sizes in a paragraph: Prints the next normal size font, etc. Prints the next smaller normal size font, etc. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- To make a line:

- Use
to make a line across the page. (No "/hr" needed). ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ## A typical LINK reference looks like this: Heaven and Hell The href="paper1.htm" is the document which you want to go to. The text between the "> <" is what you can use to select the link. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ## A typical GRAPHICS designator looks like this:

## The graphics will be able to go in the middle of a paragraph if you wish (in-line graphics) and acts LIKE a paragraph. You'll need to terminate the graphic with a

if you don't want it to run on to the next line. ## Align='top' aligns the graphic to the text. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- If you just want the page to show up AS IT IS PRINTED use:

text         text
text         text
text         text                   more text

("pre" = preformated - will print EXACTLY as shown) !! This is the quickest way to get your documents on line, you can do some of the fancy stuff later. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- General set up stuff: Always use the following in your .htm documents: (*title* is not seen; it's used for an application header) ++++++++++ Header (this line not neded) ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ *title* ## Place TITLE here ## */title* ## BODY TEXT ## +++++++++++ Footer (line not needed) +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
## Notice the "/" terminations. +++++ There's more at: ++ S A M P L E S ------------------------------------------------ (HomePage should be called "index.html on the Internet *********** HomePage Template ******************************* *title*New Church Outreach*/title*

New Church Outreach

Welcome to New Church Outreach!

View our on line documents

Grandman Search Information

Other Swedenborg Links

Copyright © 1995 NCO
2650 Hascienda St, La Crecenta, California 9xxxx
Tel (818) xxx-xxxx / FAX (818) xxx-xxxx
Email address:

Information subject to change - please call or write for verification. (1/1/95)
***************OtherPage(s) Template *************************************** *title*New Church Outreach - General Information*/title* Welcome to:

New Church Outreach

2650 Hascienda
La Cresenta, California 9xxxx
(818) xxx-xxxx

New Church Outreach was incorporated in 19xx to explore concepts in the Theological Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg that can change and improve the spiritual health of an individual, of a marriage, of a family, and of society.

ADD MORE TEXT HERE...................

View our on line documents

Grandman Search

Other Swedenborg Links

Back to New Church Outreach HomePage

Copyright © 1995 NCO
2650 Hascienda St, La Crecenta, California 9xxxx
Tel (818) xxx-xxxx / FAX (818) xxx-xxxx
Email address:

Information subject to change - please call or write for verification. (1/1/95)
************************* END ************************************************ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^ TIM LIGUORI || ^ ^ Fairfield, CA = () = ^ ^ (Carson, NM) || ^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ -- Forwarded by: Swedenborg@NeoPost.Bryn-Athyn.PA.US "Nothing unconnected ever occurs ..." -- Emanuel Swedenborg (AC 2556)

You will be creating two types of links in all your documents and entries, repeatedly, throughout the semester. So you'll learn quickly how to do it!

A name link is called an anchor because it anchors or tags your text or entry so that you and others can link to it. For example, I am putting a name link at the beginning of this paragraph. You can't see it on the front screen, but you can see it on the back by pressing \ and then / and searching for the string "A name link is called". You will then see the html source paragraph for this one. Note the anchor I've placed there. It looks like this:
*a name="namelinkillustration"**/a*
But of course, instead of *, there is the lesser than and greater than sign.

An href link is the actual trigger point: pressing RETURN on it sends you to the target anchor marked by the name link. For instance, if I wanted to catapult you from here to the top section of this syllabus, I would type this:

*a href="#topofsyl"*Back to the top.*/a*
Of course, the * sign would be instead the less than or greater than sign. Try it: (you can come back here by typing u)
Back to the top.

While reading other people's lab reports and comments, you come across
places you wish to make a comment.  Procedure:

1. Open your labreport.html file in emacs and type in your comment
entry at the end of the file.
2. Create the appropriate link to the text
that you are commenting on.
3. You can make several links to your comment.  In fact, the more
links you make, the more likely it is for people to see it.

What kind of comments?  Not any kind, please!  It
might help to consider three things: (1)This is a learning
community in a university setting. (educational purpose)
(2)Your entries are on the stage of the world wide web!
(public).  (3)A valuable comment is one that shows others a
new, revealing angle on some topic being discussed.

Glossary Entries

Your glossary.html file is the place for making all your weekly
entries.  Procedure:
(1)Enter some new terms or expressions, every week.
(2)Update some old entries by typing in your current version.
Please do not erase or edit old entries:  just make new, revised
entries, placing the new underneath the old.  In this way we can
see the progression in your understanding!
(3)Make internal links within the glossary.html file, if
appropriate.  Make external links between your glossary entry and
those of others.  This should give readers the maximum benefit.

What kind of comments?  Those that you care about...
Because the are:
		** important to you
		** valuable to others
		** interesting to you
		** revealing to all
How long should the comments be?  Long enough to be of use to readers,
short enough to be convenient.
More Instructions> on how to navigate hypertext documents.

*** Procedures to Use for Your First Week:

Step 1:

Obtain your student UNIX account in Keller 204. Walk into the MacLab or IBM Lab (two rooms over) and familiarize yourself with procedures (ask attendants where is the room where you can find written handouts for using UNIX). Study these. Come back in 48 hours, and again the next day, to check if your account has been activated.

Step 2:

Logon to your UNIX account. At the UNIX prompt type this:


Note: If it doesn't work try again after checking your spelling. In the above command there is only one space, after the x. There is a dot (.) after w,c,i, and between leon and html. If it works, you'll taken to the Instructor's Home Page on the World Wide Web.

Step 3:

Move around and explore this way (nothing bad can happen no matter what you do!):

** up and down arrows move you from one link to another on the screen. You can see a link by the words that are highlighted (reverse video).

** RETURN or ENTER activates the link that is highlighted and brings you there.

** type u (for "up") to go back one link recursively through all the links you've traversed

** press SPACEBAR to advance one screen at a time

** press b (for "back") or press - (hyphen) to go back one screen

** press a then l to save a link to your bookmark file

** press v (for "view) to see your bookmark file (the you can select any link and go there again. They remain there all semester until you erase them.

** press o (for "options") and change option K to numbered list. This will allow you to select links by numbers, which is more convenient than arrowing up and down one at a time).

** press q for quitting Lynx and going back to the UNIX prompt.

(to logoff, type logout at the prompt).

How to examine World Wide Web Documents

Step 1:

First, navigate global. That is, use SPACEBAR and b (or -) to browse through the main headings of the document. Notice the sub-headings and where the links are (highlighted words in reverse video).

Step 2:

(a) Go back to screen one and navigate one depth. That is, press RETURN on the first link.

(b) Browse through the document, noticing the links and sub-headings. When done, press u to go back to the original document.

(c) Now arrow down to the second link and press RETURN. Browse through, then press u to go back.

(d) Now arrow down to the third link and do the same.

(e) When you've explored all the links at the first depth, repeat the whole operation with depth 2, 3, or as many as there are.

Step 3:

Go anywhere and browse anything in all possible orders, or as you feel like. Especially recommended: From the Instructor's Home Page (the original document), select the Psych 409 link to go to the Psych 409 Home Page. Now select the Syllabus and study it over and over. New information gets added to it throughout the semester. Use it as a reference for how to do things.

Leave a message for Leon James?

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