University of Hawaii, Spring 2004, Psychology 409a

Seminar on Driving Psychology

Dr. Leon James, Instructor

 

Driving Psychology

(version 1b)

 

This online book is still being written. Please note the version number you've read or printed out before, given that the document is still expanding. Please email me any mistakes, inconsistencies, or omissions that you notice.

 

Contents

 

Introduction: The Driver's Threefold Self

Driving Psychology Theory and Charts

Reading List and References
Form to Keep Track of the Class's Driving Psychology Model
Instructions for Your Report 1: Driving Psychology: Theory and Definitions
Instructions for Your Report 2:  Driving Psychology: Applied Project
Instructions for Your Report 3: My Proposal for Lifelong Driver Education
 

 

Introduction: The Driver's Threefold Self

 

This seminar on driving psychology will give you the opportunity to examine driving behavior in detail by identifying the sub-components of driving habits in the three domains of behavior: affective, cognitive, and sensorimotor.

 

The objective of the course is for you to acquire self-witnessing and self-modification skills in the area of your driving behavior. Students who don't drive regularly can alter the objective to focus on witnessing the driving behavior of others and training them to modify their behavior.

 

Driving behavior is defined along three interacting domains called "the driver's threefold self." The driver's "affective self" operates the feelings and motivations we maintain behind the wheel. The "cognitive self" operates the thinking and reasoning we do behind the wheel. The driver's "sensorimotor self" operates the sensations, perceptions,  and motor acts we perform behind the wheel.

 

The driver's threefold self is a joint product of biology, culture, and socialization. As children we acquire the driving style of our parents, other adults, and the media (TV, movies, magazines, cartoons, commercials). By the time we begin to drive in our adolescence we have been exposed to years of aggressive driving behaviors in all three domains: (a) hostile feelings, (b) biased thoughts, and (3)  aggressive actions. Surveys show that most drivers report experiencing these negative feelings and acting upon them by driving aggressively or engaging in road rage behaviors. When drivers reason under the influence of negative emotions, they tend to misinterpret the intentions of other drivers.  Finally, most drivers admit that they take unnecessary risks when feeling impatient or enraged, including breaking laws on a regular basis (e.g. driving over speed limit, tailgating, changing lanes without signaling, going through red light, racing, driving under the influence).

 

Dr. James and Dr. Nahl are pioneers in the method of self-witnessing one's threefold self and they have applied this technique to drivers. You've seen various applications in the student reports of the generational curriculum that Dr. James is running.

 

You will be publishing three reports this semester as part of your contribution to the generational curriculum on driving psychology. Dr. James has noted that thousands of people who navigate the Web find these student reports through Web search engines when they are looking for topics on driving. Your contribution will contribute first, to yourself for improving your driving personality; second, for future students who will be reading your reports, and third, for the public at large. Your research, observations, and conclusions will be beneficial to others who will read your reports in the ensuing years. Long after you're no longer a student, your driving psychology reports will still be serving the public.

 

Note on Privacy: Students can use a pseudonym on their reports instead of their real name. Students who publish their reports on the Web can delete their reports after being graded. They can also request to have their reports deleted from the Web after the semester at any time in the future by emailing Dr. James. Usually the request is honored on the same day it is received. Students can also submit their reports in typing privately to the instructor instead of publishing them on the Web. This will not affect their grade.

 

Driving Psychology Theory and Charts

 

Here is a selection from the articles by Dr. James and Dr. Nahl that are posted on their Web site at DrDriving.org The specific address of the document is given below each Chart or Selection.

 


 

 

Table 1  Driver Behavior as Skills and Errors in Three Behavioral Domains

 

SKILLS (+)

AFFECTIVE (+A)

COGNITIVE (+C)

SENSORIMOTOR (+S)

I've got to be careful here. Don't want to cut anybody off.

This person looks like he's in a hurry to get in. I better let him in.

(Gesticulating and smiling:) Go ahead. You go first.

ERRORS (-)

AFFECTIVE (-A)

COGNITIVE (-C)

SENSORIMOTOR (S)

I wish I could give that guy a piece of my mind.

I don't think people like that should be allowed on the road

(Yelling:) "You stupid idiot, why don't you watch where you're going!"

 

The above comes from:   www.drdriving.org/articles/taxonomy.htm

 


 

 

Behavioral Zones of Driving

 

Affective Responsibility
in Driving
A3 (+ or -)

 

Cognitive Responsibility
in Driving
C3 (+ or -)

 

sensorimotor Responsibility
in Driving
S3 (+ or -)

 

(7)altruism and morality

vs.
(16) egotism and deficient conscience

 

(8)positive dramatizations and mental health
vs.

(17)negative dramatizations and insanity

 

(9)enjoyment and satisfaction


vs.
(18) stress and depression

 

 

Affective Safety
in Driving
A2 (+ or -)

 

Cognitive Safety
in Driving
C2 (+ or -)

 

Sensorimotor Safety
in Driving
S2 (+ or -)

 

(4) defensive driving and equity
vs.
(13) aggressiveness opportunism

 

 

(5)objective attributions
vs.
(14) biased attributions

 

 

(6) polite exchanges and calmness
vs.
(15) rude exchanges and overreaction

 

Affective Proficiency
in Driving
A1 (+ or -)


Cognitive Proficiency

in Driving
C1 (+ or -)

 

Sensorimotor Proficiency
in Driving
S1(+ or -)

(1) respect for regulations and self-control
vs.
(10) disrespect for authority and deficient self-control

 

(2) knowledge and awareness

vs.
(11) untrained and faulty thinking

 

 

(3) correct actions and alertness

vs.
(12) faulty actions and inattention

 

 

 

The above comes from:   www.drdriving.org/articles/taxonomy.htm

 


 

 

Table 4.  Two Stages of a Driving Personality Makeover Plan

 


Stage 1--Avoiding Being an Aggressive Driver
 


Affective Level
Overcoming my resistance to change

 

Cognitive Level
Learning to do rational analyses of traffic incidents

Sensorimotor Level
Acting out civil behavior

  • committing myself to inhibit or mitigate states of anger and retaliation
  • making it acceptable for passenger to complain or make suggestions
  • making it unacceptable for myself to ridicule or demean other drivers
  • activating higher motives within myself such as love of order and fair play, public spiritedness, charity, kindness to strangers
  •  reasoning against  my attribution errors (It's always their fault.  It's never my fault)

  • counteracting my self-serving bias in how I view incidents

  • acquiring more socialized self-regulatory sentences I can say to myself

  • waving, smiling, signaling

  • not crowding, not rushing in, not swearing

  • not aggressing against passengers

  • pretending that I'm in a good mood even when not

 


Stage 2--Becoming a Supportive Driver
 

Affective Level
Maintaining a supportive orientation towards other drivers

 

Cognitive Level
Analyzing driving situations objectively

Sensorimotor Level
Behaving in a cooperative style

        feeling responsible for errors and seeking opportunities to make reparations

        feeling regret at my unfriendly behaviors and impulses

        feeling good about behaving with civility or kindness

        feeling appreciation when being given advice by passenger

        being forgiving of others' mistakes and weaknesses

        acknowledging and knowing my driving errors

        planning and rehearsing the modification of those habits

        analyzing other drivers' behaviors objectively or impartially

 

 

        anticipating the needs of other drivers and being helpful to them

        verbalizing nice sentiments

        enjoying the ride and relaxing

 

 

 

 

The above comes from:   www.drdriving.org/articles/taxonomy.htm

 


 

 

The AWM Approach in Driver Self-Modification

 

        First step:  Acknowledging that I have this particular negative habit. (A)

        Second step:  Witnessing myself performing this negative habit. (W)

        Third step:  Modifying this habit. (M)

 

For example, having picked the item "feeling regret at my unfriendly behaviors and impulses" for today's trip to work on, constitutes step 1, because selecting it is an act of acknowledgment.  Then, the driver has to witness this behavior during the trip.  In other words, drivers need to stay alert, maintaining focus on their emotions as they drive.  As soon as we detect the presence of hostile feelings, we need to follow it up with sentiments of regret or some form of disagreement with the hostile feeling.  This will serve to weaken the negative affective habit of entertaining hostile feelings towards other drivers on the road. The normal habit acquired in our socialization, would be to give in to the initial hostile impulse, to magnify it, to rehearse it several times.  All these habitual maladaptive procedures need to be interfered with or interrupted by means of the sentiments of regret that we introject into the event.  This constitutes the modification.  When the threestep process is practiced on repeated trips, the old affective habit sequence gradually weakens and is replaced by a new positive affective habit sequence.  The cyclical process is repeated item by item.  It is apparent from this why driver self-improvement needs to go on on a lifelong basis, and why social methods of motivation, like QDC groups, are needed to help drivers to persist in it and not give up.

 

Basic Principles in Driving Psychology  

These can be stated as follows:

1.      Driving is a complex of behaviors acting together as cultural norms.

 

2.      Driving norms exist in three domains: affective, cognitive, and sensorimotor.

 

3.      Driving norms are transmitted by parents, other adults, magazines, movies, TV.

 

4.      The primary affective driving norms for this generation are:

  • valuing territoriality, dominance, and competition as a desirable driving style

  • condoning intolerance of diversity (in needs and competencies of other drivers)

  • supporting retribution ethics (or vigilante motives with desire to punish or amend)

  • social acceptance of impulsivity and risk taking in driving

  • condoning aggressiveness, disrespect, and the expression of hostility

These affective norms are negative and anti-social. Socio-cultural methods must be used to reduce the attractiveness of these aggressive norms and to increase the attractiveness of positive and cooperative driver roles.

 

5.      The primary cognitive driving norms are:

  •  inaccurate risk assessment

  • biased and self-serving explanations of driving incidents

  •  lack of emotional intelligence as a driver

  •  low or underdeveloped level of moral involvement (dissociation and egotism)

These cognitive norms are inaccurate and inadequate. Self-training and self-improvement techniques must be taught so that drivers can better manage risk and regulate their own emotional behavior.

 

6.      The primary sensorimotor driving norms are:

  • automatized habits (un-self-conscious or unaware of oneís style and risk)

  • errors of perception (e.g., distance, speed, initiating wrong action)

  • lapses (in oneís attention or performance due to fatigue, sleepiness, distraction, drugs, boredom, inadequate training or preparation)

These sensorimotor norms are inadequate and immature. Lifelong driver self-improvement exercises are necessary to reach more competent habits of driving.

 

7.      Driving norms and behavior can be changed by socio-cultural management techniques that create in the driver a desire for change, by weakening negative norms and strengthening positive norms of driving.  Since driving is a habit in three domains of behavior, driving self-improvement is possible and effective in improving this habit. Specific elements in each domain must be addressed in recognition of the fact that driving consists of thousands of individual habits or sub-skills, each of which can be identified, measured, and improved, on a long term basis.

 

8.      Drivers maintain strong resistance to externally imposed restrictions and regulations so that these methods alone are not sufficient to create real changes in driver behavior. Socio-cultural methods of influence need to be used, such as QDCs (Quality Driving Circles).  Driving Psychology uses socio-cultural methods that act as change agents. Group dynamic forces are powerful influencing agents that can overcome driversí resistance to change. This is achieved by group activities that focus on this resistance in an explicit way, and afterwards, are put into conscious practice through follow up self-witnessing activities behind the wheel. These informal groups are called QDCs (Quality Driving Circles) and their function is to exert a long term or permanent socio-moral influence on the driving quality of its members. This positive influence is exerted by members on each other when they adhere to a Standard QDC Curriculum, as approved by designated safety officials or agencies on a regional or national basis. The QDC Curriculum is created through the principles of driving psychology.

 

9.      Driving is a semi-conscious activity since much of it depends on automatized habits acquired through culture and experience over several years. Thus, the driverís self-assessment is not objective or accurate, until trained in objective self-assessment procedures.

 

10.  Driving inherently involves taking risks, making errors, and losing emotional self-control. Thus, drivers need to be trained in risk taking, error recovery, and emotional control under emergency or provocation conditions.

 

11.  Obtaining a driverís license cannot be considered the end of driver training. Continued driver training in the form of guided lifelong self-improvement activities is essential for acquiring new skills. These new skills are needed as driving gets more complex with technology such as managing car audio devices , reading maps on screens , using computers , note taking , talking on phone or radio , keeping to a schedule , eating, etc.  The Standard QDC Curriculum (Quality Driving Circles) needs to be kept up-dated continuously and the latest additions are to be made available to all functioning QDCs in a region. These up-dates are to focus on new developments that technology brings to vehicles and roads, all of which require the acquisition of new skills by drivers.

 

The above comes from:   www.drdriving.org/articles/taxonomy.htm


 

 

Emotionally Intelligent Driver Personality Skills
 

Driver Competence Skills

Aggressive
NEGATIVE DRIVING

Supportive
POSITIVE DRIVING

YOUR DRIVING

Not
Emotionally Intelligent
(REPTILIAN DRIVING)
 

Emotionally
Intelligent
(CORTICAL DRIVING)
 

What would be your words here?
1. Focusing on self vs. blaming others or the situation "This traffic is impossibly slow. Whatís wrong with these jerks. Theyíre driving like idiots."
 
"Iím feeling very impatient today. Everything seems to tick me off."  
2. Understanding how feelings and thoughts act together
"Iím angry, scared, outraged. How can they do this to me."
 
"I feel angry, scared, outraged when I think about what could have happened."
 
 
3. Realizing that anger is something we choose vs. thinking it is provoked
 
"They make me so mad when they do that." "I make myself so mad when they do that."  
4. Being concerned about consequences vs. giving in to impulse "I just want to give this driver a piece of my mind. I just want him to know how I feel." "If I respond to this provocation I lose control over the situation. Itís not worth it."
 
 
5. Showing respect for others and their rights vs. thinking only of oneself
"They better stay out of my way. Iím in no mood for putting up with them. Out of my way folks."

"I wish there was no traffic but itís not up to me. These people have to get to their destination too."
 
 
6. Accepting traffic as collective team work vs. seeing it as individual competition "Driving is about getting ahead. I get a jolt out of beating a red light or finding the fastest lane. Itís me vs. everybody else."
 
"I try to keep pace with the traffic realizing that my movements can slow others downólike switching lanes to try to get ahead."
 
 
7. Recognizing the diversity of drivers and their needs and styles vs. blaming them for what they choose to do
 
"How can they be so stupid? Theyíre talking on the phone instead of paying attention to the road."
 
"I need to be extra careful around drivers using a hand held cellular phone since they may be distracted."
 
 
8. Practicing positive role models vs. negative "Come on, buddy, speed up or Iíll be on your tail. Go, go. Whatís wrong with you. Thereís no one ahead."
 
"This driver is going slower than my desires. Now I can practice the art of patience and respect for the next few minutes."
 
 
9.  Learning to inhibit the impulse to criticize by developing a sense of driving humor "I canít stand all these idiots on the road. They slow down when they should speed up. They gawk, they crawl, anything but drive."
 
"Iím angry, Iím mad
Therefore Iíll act calm, Iíll smile and not compete.  Already I feel better.  Be my guest, enter ahead."
 
 
10. Taking driving seriously by becoming aware of oneís mistakes and correcting them "Iím an excellent driver, assertive and competent, with a clean accident recordójust a few tickets here and there." "I monitor myself as a driver and keep a driving log of my mistakes. I think itís important to include thoughts and feelings, not just the overt acts."  


The above comes from:   www.drdriving.org/articles/driving_psy.htm 

 


 

 

THE COST TO SOCIETY OF REPTILIAN DRIVING PROBLEM

DIRECT COSTS

INDIRECT COSTS

  • fatalities (500,000  per decade)
  • injuries (25 million per decade)
  • dollars (250 billion per year)
  • long-term loss of health
  • increased stress levels in daily life (hassles and concerns)
  • fear and threat on streets and highways
  • weakening of our moral IQ   (condoning cynicism and aggressiveness)
  • lowering of our emotional IQ (reptilian driving)
  • promotion of learned negativity in public places leading to automotive vigilantism and widely deployed electronic surveillance systems
  • lowered productivity when arriving at work mad and exhausted
  • learned cynicism (aggressive driving norms and disrespect for regulations) leading to  alienation and disunion among highway citizens
  • greater air pollution caused by the emotional use of the gas pedal ( getting less gas per mileage)
  • breeding the next generation of aggressive drivers, continuing the cultural cycle (our children in the car imbibing our cynicism and aggressiveness

The above comes from:   www.drdriving.org/articles/qdc.htm


 

Exercise: Scenario Analysis to Develop Critical Thinking

Dear DrDriving,

I'm a 16 year old boy and I was driving in tandem with a friend who is unfamiliar with driving in that area and on the freeway. It was almost midnight and we were driving to our homes. I had a friend from work who invited us to a party but we couldn't find his place so we drove back. I lost the address and all we did was drive around then started to go home. We did not have anything to drink and nobody had taken any drugs.

We got onto the freeway and while we were driving, a black SUV pulled up really fast and close behind my friend's car-who was in the center lane. I was in the left lane and wanted to stay close to my friend so he would not get lost. The SUV swerved around my friend's car to the slow lane and went past really fast. He started to swerve around all the other cars ahead of us and we thought he was gone.

A little bit later he was held up in the traffic and my friend and I were both in the left lane and passed him. My friend and I had to change to another freeway that had only two lanes for a while. The SUV took the same exit and my friend and I thought it was funny that he was behind us and we slowed down in both of the lanes (stupid plan). He pulled up behind me and then behind my friend and began pointing a gun. We got really scared and did everything we could to get away. He followed us really fast but never tried to pass us. This went on for miles. We were all swerving through traffic. I think I was driving about 90 miles an hour. Sometimes we thought he was gone and then we would see that he was just kind of hiding behind other cars. We got close to our exit and I started to flash my lights and honk at my friend so that he knew to take the exit. When we took the exit we saw the SUV follow us then pull over on the off-ramp.

When we got onto the road we were met by lots of police cars. We ended up with tickets for reckless driving and we are going to plead not guilty. We think that this driver did something illegal and could have caused an accident. We know that we were stupid and added to the problem but we think that he's an adult and he was the one who was making it into a battle. What do you think? Do you have any suggestions how to handle this? Thanks.

 

The Chart below identifies the specific chain of steps that together make up this road rage incident. There are 13 bad driving behaviors these two teenagers performed in sequence, as evidenced by their own description of the events (middle column). Your comments should answer two questions: (a) how does each step contribute to their trouble (focus on the bold words in column 2), and (b) how could they have backed out of it at each step by doing something else. Have your friends or family members also complete the exercise, then get together to compare and discuss everybody's solutions. Doing this exercise will strengthen your emotional intelligence as a driver by making you more aware of how your behavior influences other people's behavior on highways.

 

Scenario Analysis of Teen Drivers' Unrecognized Road Rage Behavior

Emotionally challenged behavior

Segment from the letter

State how each step contributes to trouble.

Suggest smarter behavior.

1. Playing games on the highway.

"I'm a 16 year old boy and I was driving in tandem with a friend."

 

 

2. Driving after curfew

"It was almost midnight"

 

 

3. Losing the address and going anyway

"I lost the address and all we did was drive around then started to go home"

 

 

4. Driving abreast occupying center lane and fast (left) lane

"I was in the left lane and wanted to stay close to my friend--who was in the center lane"

 

 

5. Blocking the way so the SUV had to pass in the right (slow) lane

"SUV pulled up really fast and close behind my friend's car-who was in the center lane"

 

 

6. Discounting the seriousness of the incident

"we thought he was gone"

 

 

7. Not realizing they were doing something provocative

"My friend and I were both in the left lane and passed him"

 

 

8. Not realizing that the incident has now escalated into a potential duel

"The SUV took the same exit and my friend and I thought it was funny that he was behind us"

 

 

9. Finally realizing this is trouble but still acting like they're in a duel, escalating the fight instead of backing down

"we slowed down in both of the lanes (stupid plan). He pulled upÖand began pointing a gun."

 

 

10. Engaging in reckless driving--weaving through traffic at high speeds getting away from a chase

"We got really scared and did everything we could to get away. He followed us really fast but never tried to pass us. This went on for miles. We were all swerving through traffic. I think I was driving about 90 miles an hour"

 

 

11. Engaging in further provocative behavior by ignoring its potential effect on the pursuer

"I started to flash my lights and honk at my friend so that he knew to take the exit"

 

 

12. Trying to diffuse their own responsibility in the sequence of events, as a sort of denial

"We think that this driver did something illegal and could have caused an accident"

 

 

13. Hiding behind inadmissible excuses, avoiding to admit what they did wrong, and refusing to think objectively about it

"We know that we were stupid and added to the problem but we think that he's an adult and he was the one who was making it into a battle"

 

 

 

The above is from our textbook:  Road Rage and Aggressive Driving (Chapter 9) by Leon James and Diane Nahl:

www.drdriving.org/articles/book_toc.htm

 


 

Reading List and References

 

Textbook:

Road Rage and Aggressive Driving (2000) by Leon James and Diane Nahl

 


Articles on Driving Psychology by Leon James
and Reports by Students

Traffic Psychology at the University of Hawaii (2003)
            www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy/traffic/tpintro.html

Driving Psychology Principles: Part 1
            www.drdriving.org/articles/driving_psy.htm   

Driving Psychology Principles: Part 2
            www.drdriving.org/articles/principles.htm         

Dealing With Stress and Pressure in the Vehicle: Taxonomy of Driving Behavior: Affective, Cognitive, Sensorimotor by Leon James and Diane Nahl (2002)
            www.drdriving.org/articles/taxonomy.htm

Loosening the Grip of Anger Behind the Wheel (1999)
            www.drdriving.org/articles/workshop.htm

Drivers Behaving Badly on TV, Movies, Cartoons, Music Videos, Car Commercials:  DBB Ratings from the Generational Curriculum (1997)
            www.drdriving.org/articles/dbb.htm

Aggressive Driving is Emotionally Impaired Driving (2000)
            www.drdriving.org/courses/conference_paper.htm

 

Driving Distracted: Theory and Facts (2002)
            www.drdriving.org/articles/distracted.htm

 

Gender Differences in Driving Norms
            www.drdriving.org/articles/gender.htm


Student Reports on Driving Personality Makeovers
            www.drdriving.org/articles/makeover.htm 

 

Student Reports on Being a Driving Buddy
            www.drdriving.org/articles/makeover.htm 


Musings of a Traffic Psychologist in Traffic (1985)
            www.drdriving.org/articles/musings.htm


Driver Personality Test and Results (1998)
            www.drdriving.org/surveys/driver_personality.htm


Christian Driving Psychology (1996)
            www.drdriving.org/articles/christ.htm


Form to Keep Track
of the Class's Driving Psychology Model

Anonymous (no name).

G20/409a Anonymous Survey on Driving

 

1. How serious is the problem of driving behavior in our society?. Circle the number on the scale that is closest to your view today.

 

1 = It is a minor problem in relation to unemployment or the war in Iraq.

 

5 = It is a serious problem equivalent to crime and poverty in society.

 

10 = It is a major problem endangering the survival of our society as we know it.

 

1          2          3          4          5          6          7          8          9          10

 

Please explain why you selected that number. Use back or additional sheet if needed.

 

 

 

2. To what extent should your driving philosophy and style be taken as a moral issue in your life? Circle the number on the scale that is closest to your view today.

 

1 = My driving philosophy and style should count as a safety and legal issue, not moral or religious.

 

5 = My driving philosophy and style should count as a moral or religious issue in my life.

 

10 = My driving philosophy and style should count as my inner spiritual character, whether I am a good or evil person.

 

 

1          2          3          4          5          6          7          8          9          10

 

Please explain why you selected that number. Use back or additional sheet if needed.

 

 

 


 

Instructions for Your Report 1

0. Title of the report: 

Driving Psychology:  Theory and Application
by (your name)

Give a link to these instructions at the top of your report under the title. The address of this document is:
            www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy20/g20lecturenotes409a.htm 

1. Preface

First you need to navigate or explore the Generational Curriculum. All prior generation reports of students can be accessed from the G20 Class Home Page at:  www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy20/g20classhome.html

Or you can access reports through the Generations Directory:
www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy/gc/generations.html
Start with Generation 1 in the Psychology "459" column, which was traffic psychology then. Click on the student home pages and then on each of their reports. Look for the reports on driving and the generational curriculum. Look at the work of several students. Then go back to the directory of generations and click on Generation 2. Continue exploring for a total of about 10 hours in several sessions. 

Note 1: Email Dr. James at leon@hawaii.edu if you find links that don't work. In your message copy-paste (1) the address of the file and (2)  the link that doesn't work. Thanks.

Note 2: If you come across a dead link you can backspace over the file name in the Address Window of the Browser, so that you have the directory showing: e.g.
www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/409af96/morifuji/499/report5.html 
change to:
www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/409af96/morifuji/499/
This now works, It is a directory so you can click on the files shown.

Make sure you take notes, so have your word processor open at the same time. Copy and paste the addresses of the reports of interest to you. Include paragraphs or diagrams that will help you later write your own report better. Add notes and comments of your own to keep track of your original reactions and thoughts. You'll be very glad to have these notes later, when you are writing up your Report 1.

Now begin the Preface by telling the reader about the context of the this course and what it means to you to be Generation 20. What aspect of the course did students generally like and appreciate? How do you feel about continuing the generational reports with your own work? What is the range of topics students wrote about?

Then, refer to three specific student reports, each from a different generation, that are relevant to the topic of driving psychology. Make links to their reports. Summarize briefly and comment.
 

2. Introduction

What is the topic of this course? What is the purpose of this course as you understand it? Use the information in this document but do not quote--use your own words. Also, use the information you gathered in our class presentations and lecture-discussions. How are you involved in this topic? Is this a meaningful topic for you right now? What is the likely consequence of your having taken this course?
 

3. Definitions

Define the terms below by reading the prior generational curriculum reports.  Link to the reports you are referencing. Then find definitions given by Dr. James in the articles listed in the Reading List (above). Link to the appropriate references when you use them (do not quote--use your own sentences). You can also use your class discussion notes. Indicate who reported or discussed those definitions. So you end up defining these terms with references from all three sources, as you are able.

Make each definition sufficient to explain to readers who have not seen the reports or read the articles. You can also use diagrams of your own making, whenever that will help your definition. Include illustrations or specific examples for each definition.

(i) The driver's threefold Self
(ii) Self-witnessing methodology
(iii) Road rage
(iv) Aggressive driving legislation
(v) The driver's emotional intelligence
(vi) The driver's emotional spin cycle
(vii) Newsgroups for drivers
(viii) Lifelong driver education
(ix) Choose your own from anywhere (1)
(x) Choose your own from anywhere (2)
 

4. Autobiographical

Describe yourself as a driver. Include: (a) the role of your parents; (b) the role of the media; (c) the role of your friends; (d) your current driving style and philosophy.. Give examples or details whenever appropriate. Try to trace the influences on your style and behavior (e.g., parents, friends, TV, driver ed course, etc.).


6. Conclusion

How did this assignment help you identify your driving personality? How is this useful in your view? Can this approach have a significant impact on the future of driving in our society?


7. Future Generations

Give them advice and encouragement as they will try to go deeper with this topic by reading the G20 reports. Tell them what you are getting out of this course.
 

How to format of your report

(A) Use the Sub-titles given above for your Section Headings and number them as above.

(B) No paragraph must exceed 150 words (about 12 lines maximum).

(C) Use a blank line between paragraphs. That requires making two Returns at the end of each paragraph, as I have done in this document. Points will be deducted if you do not do this.

(C) Put links at the bottom of the report to your Home Page and to the G20 Class Home Page. These two links are required.

(D) Save your file as a Web Page (HTML) (File Menu "Save As..." command and dialogue box).

(E) View your file as a Web Page by opening it in your Web browser (File Menu "Open" command then Browse to find the folder and file on your computer).

Important Note:  Look at your report in your Web browser. Does it have a colored background? This is not allowed. The Page's background for all three reports must be white. Discrete designs are allowed if they don't interfere or overlap with the text.

(F) Upload your Web file and inspect it with your Web browser. For uploading see the instructions for uploading on the Class Home Page:
        www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy20/g20classhome.html

  Correct what you need to on your file on your computer, save it again (this is very important!), then upload the edited file. Since it has the same file name, it will replace what is there. Now check it on the Web again. Repeat until you are satisfied.     

The Web address of your class folder is     www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/459s2004/    but you need to complete the address by adding your folder and report, e.g., if your name is Jones:
www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/459s2004/jones/report2.htm   
or if you use a Pseudonym: e.g., Spiderman:
www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/459s2004/spiderman/report2.htm
 

(G) Email the instructor that your report is published on the Web;  leon@hawaii.edu (be sure to include the Web address of your report--this is required to get full credit for it).

Note: Be sure you do not change the name of the required files and folders if you want full credit for your work! Do not use any spaces in file names that you upload optionally on your own.


 

Instructions for Your Report 2

0. Title of the report: 

My Driving Personality Makeover Project
by (your name)

 

Give a link to these instructions at the top of your report under the title. The address of this document is:
            www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy20/g20lecturenotes409a.htm 

1. Preface

Tell the reader about your (previous) Report 1 and give a link to it.

Briefly review the purpose of that report and briefly summarize the Conclusion Section you wrote there. Now tell the reader about the purpose of Report 2 (this report) (you may need to write this after you completed most of the report).
 

2. Introduction: Objective Self-assessment

Now take the various tests and questionnaires found in our textbook. You decide which ones and how many. Your objective is to cover the various aspects of your threefold self as a driver.

In your own words, briefly describe each test or questionnaire inventory, and its scoring system.

What does each test diagnose about your behavior and personality as a driver? In your own words, describe the styles of thinking and feeling that characterizes your driving personality.


3. My Driver Self-modification Attempt

(a) Design of my experiment
Review and link to prior generation reports that are relevant. Modify their approach to suit your own.  Use diagrams to make your design clear. You can also use our textbook for design suggestions. Data gathering with measurements or numbers are required. Discuss your design issues in class by raising questions or asking for recommendations.

(b) Data Tables
Each Table must have a heading or descriptive title and must involve numbers.

(c) Analysis and Discussion
Summarize the numbers and discuss any trends you can notice. Give an interpretation in which you are required to use one or more of the 10 concepts you defined in your report 1. Be sure you discuss it sufficiently so readers can understand it even if they did not read our textbook or your report 1.

(d) Conclusion and future plans
What are the implications of your findings? What do you need to do as a result? How serious are you in these future plans?
 

4. Conclusion

How did this assignment help you identify your driving style and philosophy? How is this useful in your view? How did your views change from beginning of the semester to now?


5. Future Generations

Give them advice and encouragement as they will try to go deeper with this topic by reading the G20 reports.

How to format of your report

(A) Use the Sub-Titles given above for your Section Headings and number them as above.

(B) No paragraph must exceed 150 words (about 12 lines maximum).

(C) Use a blank line between paragraphs. That requires making two Returns at the end of each paragraph, as I have done in this document. Points will be deducted if you do not do this.

(C) Put links at the bottom of the report to your Home Page and to the Class Home Page. These two links are required.

(D) Save your file as a Web Page (HTML) (See: File Menu "Save As..." command dialogue box).

(E) View your file as a Web Page by opening it in your Web browser (File Menu "Open" command then Browse to find the folder and file on your computer).

Important Note:  Look at your report in your Web browser. Does it have a colored background? This is not allowed. The Page's background for all three reports must be white. Discrete designs are allowed if they don't interfere or overlap with the text.

(F) Upload your Web file and inspect it with your Web browser. For uploading see the instructions for uploading on the Class Home Page:
        www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy20/g20classhome.html

  Correct what you need to on your file on your computer, save it again (this is very important!), then upload the edited file. Since it has the same file name, it will replace what is there. Now check it on the Web again. Repeat until you are satisfied.     

The Web address of your class directory folder is     www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/459s2004/  and you will see the folders of the other students alongside with your own folder that you created.  So you need to complete the address by adding your own folder name. E.g., if your name is Jones:
www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/409as2004/jones/report2.htm    
or if you use a Pseudonym: e.g., Spiderman:
www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/409as2004/spiderman/report2.htm
 

(G) Email the instructor that your report is published on the Web;  leon@hawaii.edu (be sure to include the Web address of your report--this is required to get full credit for it).

Note: Be sure you do not change the name of the required files and folders if you want full credit for your work! Do not use any spaces in file names that you upload optionally on your own.


 

Instructions for Your Report 3

0. Title of the report: 

My Proposal for Lifelong Driver Education
by (your name)

 

Give a link to these instructions at the top of your report under the title. The address of this document is:
            www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy20/g20lecturenotes409a.htm 

1. Preface

Tell the reader about your (previous) Report 2, and give a link to it.

Briefly review the purpose of that and briefly summarize the Conclusion Section you wrote there. Now tell the reader about the purpose of Report 3 (this report)  (you may need to write this after you completed most of the report).

2. Introduction

In your own words, give a brief review of the Chapter on Lifelong Driver Education in our textbook (Road Rage and Aggressive Driving)

Select a few brief passages that are giving you pause to think and possibly lead you to explore further in that direction. With each brief quote, explain the significance you see. Try not to quote more than 1 to 5 sentences at a time so as to make your point very specifically rather generally. Be sure to indicate the book title, author, and page number where the quotation appears in the book.

Find previous reviews of this book in the generational curriculum. What do they mention about Lifelong Driver Education and what do they leave out? Do you have any explanation or hypothesis for this pattern?

3. Class Discussions and Lecture Notes

Select between 3 to 5 class presentations of your choice to discuss. Be sure you indicate the date and the topic. For each, list two or three ideas you found worthwhile to think about and were in agreement with, as well as two or three ideas you disagreed with or were not clear in your mind. Explain.

Select between 3 to 5 ideas of your choice mentioned in the Chapter on Lifelong Driver Education. Briefly quote the original text if it's helpful to make your point better, but it's better to try to use your own words.  Explain why these ideas are noteworthy for you, regardless of whether you agree with them or not.

4. My Proposal for Lifelong Driver Education

Present your proposal. Be sure to cover the entire lifespan that people are involved with cars, that is,  from infancy (as passengers and from media exposure) to old age. Try to be very specific about the content of the instruction during each period of life or blocks of periods by age groups. Be sure you address the entire range of the driver's threefold self and what each needs in terms of instruction and practice. Try to be specific about methods (e.g., driving simulation computers, self-witnessing approach, self-modification techniques, lectures by teacher and/or guest lecturers and participants, exercises, assignments, goals and objectives).

Be sure to consult the articles by Dr. James on the Reading List, especially these:

(1) Lifelong Driver Education. Chapter 9 in our Textbook.

(2) Go to www.DrDriving.org and use the site search engine there to look for "lifelong." Explore the various files to enlarge your perspective on the issue.

(3) Dealing With Stress and Pressure in the Vehicle: Taxonomy of Driving Behavior: Affective, Cognitive, Sensorimotor by Leon James and Diane Nahl (2002)
            www.drdriving.org/articles/taxonomy.htm

(4) Loosening the Grip of Anger Behind the Wheel (1999)
            www.drdriving.org/articles/workshop.htm

(5) Drivers Behaving Badly on TV, Movies, Cartoons, Music Videos, Car Commercials:  DBB Ratings from the Generational Curriculum (1997)
            www.drdriving.org/articles/dbb.htm

(6) Aggressive Driving is Emotionally Impaired Driving (2000)
            www.drdriving.org/courses/conference_paper.htm

Finally, discuss what it would take to implement your proposal (e.g., legislation, public involvement, parental involvement, law enforcement, highway engineers, car manufacturers, insurance agents, etc.).

5. Conclusion

How does this assignment help you identify social and cultural attitudes in our society regarding driving? In what way is this new awareness you acquired useful? How did your views on this issue (i.e., social and cultural attitudes in our society) change from beginning of the semester to now? What do you predict about how driving behavior will change in our society over the next few years?

5. Future Generations

Give them advice and encouragement as they will try to go deeper with this topic by reading the G20 reports.

How to format of your report

(A) Use the Sub-Titles given above for your Section Headings and number them as above.

(B) No paragraph must exceed 150 words (about 12 lines maximum).

(C) Use a blank line between paragraphs. That requires making two Returns at the end of each paragraph, as I have done in this document. Points will be deducted if you do not do this.

(C) Put links at the bottom of the report to your Home Page and to the Class Home Page. These two links are required.

(D) Save your file as a Web Page (HTML) (See: File Menu "Save As..." command dialogue box).

(E) View your file as a Web Page by opening it in your Web browser (File Menu "Open" command then Browse to find the folder and file on your computer).

Important Note:  Look at your report in your Web browser. Does it have a colored background? This is not allowed. The Page's background for all three reports must be white. Discrete designs are allowed if they don't interfere or overlap with the text.

(F) Upload your Web file and inspect it with your Web browser. For uploading see the instructions for uploading on the Class Home Page:
        www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy20/g20classhome.html

  Correct what you need to on your file on your computer, save it again (this is very important!), then upload the edited file. Since it has the same file name, it will replace what is there. Now check it on the Web again. Repeat until you are satisfied.     

(G) Email the instructor that your report is published on the Web;  leon@hawaii.edu (be sure to include the Web address of your report--this is required to get full credit for it). The Web address of your class folder is     www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/409as2004/     but you need to complete the address by adding your folder and report, e.g., if your name is Jones:
www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/409as2004/jones/report3.htm    
or if you use a Pseudonym: e.g., Spiderman:
www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/409as2004/spiderman/report3.htm

Note: Be sure you do not change the name of the required files and folders if you want full credit for your work! Do not use any spaces in file names that you upload optionally on your own.


Instructions for your Oral Presentations and Schedule of presentations:
see Class Home Page:
        www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy20/g20classhome.html

Schedule of all Tasks and Due Dates:
        www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy20/g20ctasks409a.html

Back to Leon James Home:  www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy/leon.html