The address of this file is:
Dr. Leon James, Instructor: www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy/leon.html
Psychology 459, Fall 2006, Generation 25
G25 Class Home Page: www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy25/classhome-g25.htm
Instructions For Weekly Readings
459 Instructions for the Five Reports
(with Due Dates)
1. All text must be single spaced and arranged for the Web presentation medium.
2. Type your report in a word processor, saving the file as a Web page (this
is required). The name of the file must be:
lastname-week1.htm or lastname-week2.htm or lastname-week3.htm etc.
All weekly reports must be uploaded to your class web folder no later than the end of the following week. Late work penalty is 2 points per week late. After uploading, you must send email to the instructor at email@example.com with the Subject Line giving the Course and Week Number (e.g., Psy 459 Report 1), and in the body of the message giving the Web link address of your report. Make sure this link address works! Make sure also that there is a link to this report from your Home page -- this is required. Be sure that link works by testing it in your Web browser after you uploaded your file.
3. The report must have the following title-author information at the top of the document. Copy-paste the text between the two horizontal lines below, then edit it as needed. Delete comments in parentheses.
Course: Psychology 459, Fall 2006, Generation 25 ((must be left aligned))
Instructor: Dr. Leon James (left aligned)
Introduction to Theistic Psychology www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/theistic/ch1.htm
My Home Page: www.soc.hawaii.edu/leon/459f2006/lastname/lastname-home.htm ((make sure that this link works))
Class Home Page: www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy25/classhome-g25.htm
Instructions for this Report: www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy25/459-g25-weekly.htm
((two returns or blank lines))
Make Up a Suitable Title For This Report ((centered,
by Your Name or Pen Name ((centered))
Report 1 For Section 1.0 to 22.214.171.124.1 ((centered, bolded, with link))
Start Question 1 (paste it here) and your answer that follows. Each answer must be no less than one typed page, single spaced -- which comes to approximately 500 words that you composed yourself as answer. The maximum should be two pages (1000 words), or double the minimum required. Do not count extra things you put in your document like the questions or the title headers of the document. Be sure to separate paragraphs by a blank line for better visibility. You can use bolded-sub-headings to enhance the meaningfulness of your answer. Do not quote things. Use your own paraphrasings and interpretations of the assigned Sections for that Week. You may also supplement your content with additional Sections from the other Theistic Psychology Volumes.
4. You must paste each question at the beginning of each answer. Be sure the question number shows. Mark the question with the sub-heading Question 1: ((underlined)) followed by the question itself in italics, to set it off from the answer. Mark your answer with the sub-heading Answer 1: ((underlined)). Then go on to Question 2, etc.
5. No paragraph can be longer than about ten standard lines or about 150 words, and most paragraphs should be less than the maximum. Reread your report and if any paragraph is longer than this, just put a return somewhere that makes sense. Then type a second return in order to have a blank line between all paragraphs. This is required for better visibility. Every paragraph must be separated by a blank line. After uploading the file, view it online in your Web browser. Make sure the blank line shows (not two blank lines, just one). If anything is not just right, go back to your word processor, make the corrections, upload, view it with your Web browser, give the Refresh command. The Refresh command is necessary since without this you will not be able to see the corrections you made, given that your browser shows you the old copy it has cached away.
6. Every page should have at least two bolded sub-headings describing the content of that sub-section in your answer. Your page must have an effective Web appearance. You do not need to be an expert, but only be willing to inspect and correct as necessary -- this anyone can quickly learn to do who is already able to use a word processor and a Web browser. For example, use white space, font changes, and formatting judiciously and conservatively. Do not use a lot of color changes in the font as this makes it harder to read. The background of the page should be white, but some people with Web experience or talent may get away with their own scheme. Avoid black backgrounds as this is hard to read for a text report.
7. Write in a style that is suitable for both future generations and Web visitors who find your report through search engines. You are writing the report for them, not the instructor. Always define new or technical terms when first used (only once per report is this definition needed). You can also have links in one report to allow the reader to go to another report of yours, when you think the connection will help the reader's comprehension. You can also link to our textbook (must be to a specific Section), to the reports of other students in G25 or earlier, and to other Web pages that you think will make it easier to comprehend what you have written. You get credit in points for all the extra effort you put in that shows.
8. Keep track of where the information comes from when you are reading, making notes, and including something in your answers. This means giving the Section Number and a link to it specifically (make sure it works after you upload your file). This referencing procedure is important if you want a good grade. It is very helpful to readers and increases the value of your report.
9. You are required to upload all your reports to the
College of Social Sciences Server into a class folder provided for your access
through login and password using your Web browser. Explanations are given in the
FTP Uploading Instructions
Along with your report files you must also create a Home Page which contains links to all your reports. Also, all your Reports must have a link back to your Home Page and to the Class Home Page. Points will be deducted unless you have your Home Page and all links work properly. The Home page and all your reports, including all the links, can be created in your word processor and saved as a Web page before uploading to the server. Do not upload .doc files without first saving them as a Web Page. If you do so by mistake, delete it from your folder on the server.
Week 2: special readings -- see
459 Schedule of Oral Presentations
Week 3 Readings: Section 1.0 to 126.96.36.199.1
1. Describe your educational experience regarding the positive and negative bias in science. Describe your reaction to what this week's readings say about science education.
2. Describe your reaction to discovering that you are a dual citizen. Is this difficult for you to go along with as part of the positive bias?
3. Give a description of the anatomy of a human being viewed in the positive bias as a dual citizen. Describe your reaction to this new knowledge.
4. Explain the idea that there is only one mental world in the human race. How was it proven by Swedenborg? What are the potential consequences of this discovery for you and society once it becomes known?
5. What does it mean that we are "born into eternity"? How does this relate to God and the afterlife? How does it relate to the anatomy of our mental world?
6. Describe the relationship between the physical body and the mental body. How do they work together? How do you react to learning these facts about yourself?
7. Explain the relationship between Divine Speech and human minds. You'll need to include the concepts of "Spiritual Sun" and "spiritual substances."
8. Explain the answer to "Where are you?" as viewed from the perspective of "substantive dualism."
9. How would you prove that you are immortal? Think about it by reflecting on the new concepts in this week's readings. Make a list. Be sure you can define them to your own rational comprehension. Now present the proof to a friend or two. Describe their reactions and arguments. Were you surprised as to what happened?
Week 4 Readings: Section 188.8.131.52.2
1. Describe the mental physiology of men and women. How do you relate to this
anatomical difference? Will it make a difference to your life in any way? It
leads to different spiritual responsibilities in the marriage relationship. It
might be helpful to read Volume 11 Section 184.108.40.206 "The Wife is a Form of the
Highest Human Wisdom" at:
2. Describe the physiology involved in the two stages of marriage. Consult
Volume 11, Section 11.4.5 "Conjunction Dynamics in Marriage" at:
Write out your own explanations and draw your own diagrams. When you are ready, explain it to one or two friends. What difficulty did you run into? What is your conclusion?
3. Explain why the mental body of men and women have to be reciprocals of each other in order to achieve conjugial unity. How do you assimilate this piece of knowledge in the positive bias mode?
4. Summarize Harlow's famous article on love by monkeys, reprinted in our book Forty Studies That Changed Psychology, pages 126-133. How do you relate this approach to what's being said about marriage love in theistic psychology? Now compare what is said by Bem on masculine and feminine (pages 199-209) or Masters & Johnson's Human Sexual Response pages 158-175. How do these relate to theistic psychology?
5. Do a google search on marriage. What impressions do you get from this? Summarize the trends and ideas that seem to dominate this topic. How would theistic psychology fit into this?
6. Discuss the mental physiology of men and women with a friend or two. What difficulties do you encounter when explaining this to them? What is your conclusion?
7. Read at least five of the student reports on marriage listed at:
and discuss your overall impression of them.
Report 1: due September 21. Answer Questions for Weeks 3 and 4.
Week 5 Readings: Section 220.127.116.11 to 18.104.22.168
1. Describe the psychobiology of "conjunction" with God? You need to include the concept of how thoughts and feelings are substances. How do you see this concept as applying to you?
2. Describe the infrastructure of physical things from the perspective of substantive dualism. Show that the inmost of any object is the mental world of humanity. How does this change the way you look at objects around you?
3. Explain why God hides from people. What would happen if God showed Himself to your friends? Include the concept of of how Divine Speech descends through the layers of meaning through the human mind, reaching its lowest as the literal meaning of Sacred Scripture.
4. Describe how Divine Speech operates our mental life. How does this change your view of God and His relationship to people?
5. Where is heaven and hell? Describe its anatomy. Why do they both exist in everybody's mind?
6. Describe the two methods God uses to conjoin or communicate with people. In what way have you experienced these two avenues of relationship with God?
7. Explain why this is a perfect world despite the appearances of imperfection.
8. Why does spirituality, or relationship to God, have to be rational? What happens with "sensuous spirituality" -- discuss what happens in the afterlife.
9. Explain the formula "mental world = spiritual world = afterlife = eternity" and write it down. Read it and edit it until it makes sense. Now try to explain the proof to a friend or two. How well did you succeed? What is your conclusion or future plan?
Week 6 Readings: Section 1.0.6 to 1.0.7
1. Explain the Swedenborg reports in relation to the positive bias in science. What happened to him? What did he discover? Describe how you manage to take on the positive bias regarding the Swedenborg reports.
2. What is the purpose of Sacred Scripture? How is it meant to be used?
3. Explain the two senses we can find in Sacred Scripture. Give several illustrations from this Section.
4. Give two illustrations not found in this Section, so you will need to search for this in Volume 18. Make sure you indicate which Section(s) you took your two examples from. How do you react to being told that there is a hidden scientific sense in Sacred Scripture, that is unsuspected to most scholars?
5. What is rational spirituality in relation to God? Explain how we can comprehend higher spiritual ideas by means of the new mental organ called spiritual-natural or interior-natural organ. How did it come into existence? Describe its role in the evolution of human consciousness. How do you react to these ideas that apply to your own mind?
6. Explain why substantive dualism is called substantive.
7. What is the most exciting piece of news you have hears so far in theistic psychology?
8. List some objections you or your friends can come up with against the Swedenborg reports, against the positive bias in science, against the inclusion of God in science, and similar issues. Be sure you comment on each issue you list -- (a) what the doubt is and (b) what your current position is on it.
9. Make up a dialogue between you and a hypothetical friend in a situation where you are telling your friend about this course. No length is specified. It depends on how you write the dialog. You can add lines of explanations, like a stage play, if you want.
Report 2: due October 5. Answer Questions for Weeks 5 and 6.
Week 7 Readings: Section 1.1 to 22.214.171.124
1. Study the Table that begins Section 1.1 "Three Levels of Thinking About God." Explain the history of your own development regarding the idea of God. Use the Table to describe your own thinking at each level. Can you guess about where will your thinking take you in the future?
2. Make up a gain-loss sheet that lists and briefly explains what you could gain or lose by adopting the negative vs. positive bias regarding God's existence as a scientific reality.
3. Why does God allow people to be in the negative bias and survive as well as those who are in the positive bias?
4. Explain the difference between mystical religion and theistic psychology.
5. Prove rationally that if God exists, then He must be a Divine Human Person whose creation must be Perfect.
6. Describe what the two worlds are that God created and maintains in rational order.
7. Prove rationally that our mental world is the world of eternity. What will be the consequences for society when this knowledge becomes known?
8. How are humans different from animals? What makes us human? Justify the statement that we are human because we are rational. Explain why animals are not immortal. How do you react to this knowledge? Look up what Swedenborg said about animals (you can use google).
9. When people do something bad that they enjoy doing, it seems to them that it is good. Explain this phenomenon. You might want to check the word "hellish traits" in the Index Volume 18 to find other discussions on this.
Week 8 Readings: Section 126.96.36.199 to 188.8.131.52.1
1. Explain how we become spiritually enlightened by studying theistic psychology. What is the difference between natural and spiritual enlightenment? Who do you know that is enlightened, either personally or by reputation?
2. Explain how our spiritual development depends on our willingness to fight our temptations. What happens after we are victorious? What you have observed about your own temptations in the past?
3. When and how did Sacred Scripture reveal that heaven in eternity is the mental world? Why do you think that this knowledge remains unknown or disbelieved?
4. Explain the principle that "individual biography recapitulates human evolution and history." How does this influence the way you see yourself?
5. In your own words explain chart 1 in Section 184.108.40.206.1. Do not just guess. You will need to do some research in Volume 18 to find the explanations and clarifications: www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/theistic/#Searching_for_something
6. In your own words explain chart 2 in Section 220.127.116.11.1. Do not just guess. You will need to do some research in Volume 18 to find the explanations and clarifications: www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/theistic/#Searching_for_something
7. In your own words explain chart 3 in Section 18.104.22.168.1. Do not just guess. You will need to do some research in Volume 18 to find the explanations and clarifications: www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/theistic/#Searching_for_something
8. In your own words explain chart 4 in Section 22.214.171.124.1. Do not just guess. You will need to do some research in Volume 18 to find the explanations and clarifications: www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/theistic/#Searching_for_something
9. In your own words explain chart 5 in Section 126.96.36.199.1. Do not just guess. You will need to do some research in Volume 18 to find the explanations and clarifications: www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/theistic/#Searching_for_something
Report 3: due October 19. Answer Questions for Weeks 7 and 8.
Week 9 Readings: Section 188.8.131.52.2 to 1.3.1
1. Explain how Divine Speech descends through the three discrete degrees of our mind. How do you react to this knowledge?
2. Explain the hidden spiritual sense of Commandments 1 through 5. Give examples from your daily life how this may apply to you.
3. Explain the hidden spiritual sense of Commandments 5 through 10. Give examples from your daily life how this may apply to you.
4. Many people uncritically repeat the idea that "God is energy." Give a rational proof that this belief is illogical. Then compare the logic of the opposite idea that "God is a Person." In your opinion, why is there so much opposition to this view?
5. The highest idea of God is also the most rational. What is this celestial view of God in relation to the substances of good and truth? Can you imagine having this view?
6. How does rational consciousness of God differ from sensuous consciousness of God? What is the role of Sacred Scripture? How would you describe your consciousness of God? Contrast your consciousness of God with that of a friend or two. How do they differ, or how are they similar?
7. Explain who is Swedenborg. Contrast the rational perspective on Swedenborg with the mystical perspective that some people have. How do you relate to both of these perspectives?
8. Google the concepts "substantive dualism" and the concept "theism and science." Summarize your assessment of this literature indicating how it relates to theistic psychology.
9. Read Chapter 2 of our book Forty Studies That Changed Psychology. Compare what it says about "consciousness" to what theistic psychology says about "rational consciousness" and about "substantive dualism."
Week 10 Readings: Section 1.3.2 to 1.5
1. Explain the concept of "discrete layers of substances" in the mental world. What is the role of correspondences?
2. Explain the meaning of "space" in the mental world of eternity. What is there in your own experience that gives you a sense of space in the mental world? What creates this appearance of space where there is none?
3. Define sensations, thoughts, and feelings in terms of spiritual substances. Explain this concept to a friend or two. What difficulty do they run into as they try to comprehend this new idea? What is your conclusion?
4. What is your idea of a vacuum as you learned it from science classes? Describe the encounter between Swedenborg and Newton where they discussed the meaning of a vacuum.
5. Explain the difference between the concept "God as He is in Himself" vs. the concept "God as He is outside of Himself." What's the importance of making this distinction?
6. Explain the concept "being consciously in the Presence of God." Select a
convenient day to practice being consciously in the presence of the Divine
Psychologist. You can do this in various ways, as you see fit, but it should
involve talking to God in your mind, expressing your appreciation for what you
have and enjoy as coming from Him, and expressing regret to Him when you think
or do something that is not heavenly -- see Volume 6 Section 184.108.40.206.1 "The
Ugliness of the Proprium or What Is Our Own" at:
You can do this exercise regardless of what your views are about God. Just enact the role of the positive bias. After you had a successful day doing the above exercise, write it up by describing what you did and what the results were.
7. Explain the benefits of studying theistic psychology. For each item you mention, explain also how you relate to that particular benefit. Are you planning to continue studying theistic psychology on your own? Explain your thinking.
8. Identify five revelations found in the literal meaning of the Writings of Swedenborg. Describe each and indicate your thoughts on it. How does it relate to anything else you know about these subjects?
9. Google Swedenborg. What is your impression of the activity around his name. Give examples.
Report 4: due November 2. Answer Questions for Weeks 9 and 10.
Week 11 Readings: Section 1.5.1 to 1.6.2
1. Summarize Section 1.5.1 "Students Speak Out on Swedenborg." Give your impressions and conclusions. You can
2. Section 220.127.116.11 "The Negative Bias in Science" presents an extensive quote by a negative bias mode psychologist (Bering). Analyze what he says. Make a conclusion in the light of what you already know from the positive bias.
3. Select a few concepts from Section 18.104.22.168 "Outline of Swedenborg's Spiritual Psychology" and discuss them with a friend or two. What observations did you make from this exchange. which concepts are most interesting to you?
4. Section 22.214.171.124 also contains a "narrative account" in which there is a discussion with angels about what people on earth know about heaven and hell. What is your impression of this? Give an interpretation as best you can at this point in your study of theistic psychology.
5. Summarize what is said in Section 1.6 "Spiritual Psychobiology." How does this relate to what you already know about the field of psychology?
6. Study Section 1.6.1 "Three Levels of Behavior." Based on that discussion, and your own limited knowledge of the field, explain the major differences between non-theistic psychology and theistic psychology. You can also consult other Sections, e.g., Section 2.3 "Is theistic psychology really science?" at www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/theistic/ch2.htm#Q2
7. Discuss your answer of question 6 with a friend or two. What is your conclusion?
8. Discuss the "transmissive model" (or "transmission theory") of the mind by William James in Section 2.3. He was familiar with Swedenborg's Writings from his father, who wrote a book about him. Do you see a connection between substantive dualism and the model of William James?
9. Discuss your perceptions of how other students in this class (G25) are adjusting intellectually to the positive bias perspective. Read some of their reports and include that with what you observe in class.
Week 12 Readings: Section 1.6.3 to 126.96.36.199
1. List between 3 and 5 criteria that theistic psychology should have if it is going to make it as a science in the future. Briefly explain each and then give your assessment as to how theistic psychology as you know it, stacks up.
2. What is the method of psychobiological correspondence and how can it be applied in theistic psychology.
3. What is the organic basis of human thoughts, emotions, and feelings?
4. Study Section 1.6.7, which describes some features of what life is like in the afterlife of eternity. Discuss them. How do you react? How do your friends react? Is this something to look forward to?
5. How do you react to the idea in Section 1.6.8 that "Sacred Scripture Is the Source of Scientific Revelations"? Be sure to make a distinction between the literal sense of Sacred Scripture (religion) and its spiritual sense (theistic psychology).
6. Section 1.6.8 discusses how Divine Speech inflows into the mental world by levels, and each level is lower in rationality than the level above it, until it reaches the natural level of Sacred Scripture in a natural language. Describe this process in your own words, as if you were giving a speech about it to people interested in spirituality.
7. Discuss the 6 "Levels of Rational Mentality" in Section 1.6.8. Can you comprehend these levels of thinking about God?
8. Section 1.8.9 discusses theistic science as an alternative to Bible-based accounts of God and creation, which look only at the literal meaning. What is your assessment of where this topic is going in the future?
9. Now that you are nearing completion of the course, what has been the effect of studying theistic psychology this semester? What is your prognosis for continuing the study and its mode of thinking?
Week 13 Readings: Section 1.8.1 to 1.8.7, and 2.3
1. What are people talking about on the Web or in the media when they say the "Bible Code"? Explain it, then show how it differs in method and purpose from theistic psychology. Why is the Bible code called blind in relation to theistic psychology?
2. Explain the relationship between layers of meaning hidden within Sacred Scripture and the levels of human mentality or mind.
3. Explain the difference between material and spiritual ideas or concepts. Explain this difference to a friend. What is your conclusion?
4. Explain the assertions that "there is only one mental world and we are all in it". How do you understand this? What difficulties did you encounter when trying to explain this assertion to another person? What is your conclusion? What are the consequences in your mind of this assertion?
5. What is regeneration? How do you relate to the idea of character reformation in your own life? How do you imagine yourself as a "reborn self"? Would your friends like you better? Would you be a better citizen or student?
6. Describe the three methodologies used in theistic psychology. Explain the levels of extractive research. How are these levels related to our mental anatomy or organs? How do you understand all this? What is the potential significance of this method for generating new scientific knowledge?
7. How do you understand the expression "style of Divine Speech"? How do you understand the assertion that "Divine Speech exteriorizes to the next layer of the mental world"? How does this affect you as a unique individual today? Give the "specific content of Divine Speech". How do you react to the fact that this is what God wants to talk to us about or teach us? Why are these things called spiritual? How important are these things to society and the human race?
8. How does theistic psychology stack up as a science, according to its own criteria and definition?
9. Who was Swedenborg? Give a brief description of what you know so far. Should one believe Swedenborg? Does it depend on belief or rational understanding and proof? What benefits are there in studying Swedenborg's theistic psychology, which is hidden within the literal sentences of the Writings Sacred Scripture that he authored. Do you think he knew that his sentences were Divine Speech and contained infinite knowledge that the human race could never exhaust?
For Report 5, you need to add a Section at the very end of the document that is titled in bold: Advice to Future Generations. Explain to them what it was like for you to take this course. They will be looking at your descriptions and reports, and starting where you did at the beginning of the semester. Help them adjust and cope with the course's unusual instructional and intellectual atmosphere.
Report 5: due November 30. Answer Questions for Weeks 11, 12, and 13.
Week 15 Readings: Section 1.8.9, 2.11 , 2.12, 2.17
1. Search the Web for Creationism and read some of what is presented. Now in your own words explain what is Creationism. What is the explanation in theistic psychology as to why Creationism is inappropriate?
2. Read the court case quoted regarding intelligent design. Then read some of what is said on the Web about it. Now in your own words explain what is "intelligent design." How is its approach different or similar to theistic psychology?
3. What do Americans say in polls when they are asked about their belief in God, heaven, hell, and miracles? Are you surprised at these results? Does it fit with the people you know?
4. Search the Web for comparative statistics for different religions or countries. How do Americans compare in religiosity? Are you surprised? Does it fit with what you know of culture?
5. Search the Web or other sources for comparative statistics on belief in God for scientists in various disciplines vs. non-scientists. How do you interpret these results? What happens to the scientists who believe in God, pray, read Sacred Scripture, but exclude God from cause-effect explanations in their scientific reports?
6. Read Part I of the book Flatland at this location:
How does this help you understand the spiritual world of eternity?
7. Now apply to theistic psychology the same standards you applied to Forty Experiments. What is your conclusion?
8. How does theistic psychology, the science of immortality, avoid becoming like mysticism or paranormal phenomena?
9. Is it possible to do scientific research on God, according to theistic psychology?
Week 16 Readings: Section 6.4 to 6.8
1. Explain what is meant by the "love of self and the world for the sake of self." How is this definition different from what people usually mean when you ask them what is the love of self? How does this definition help you understand yourself better? Does it help you understand other people better?
2. Explain the "economics of immortality." How does this compare to religious ideas? How is it related to morality and ethics -- look up these words on google to see what is said about them.
3. Explain how the economics of immortality applies to television shows with which you are familiar. What is this indicative of regarding society?
4. Explain the concept of "love of ruling over others for the sake of others." How is this related to leadership in this world? How is this related to heaven in the afterlife? What implications do you draw for yourself?
5. Explain how theistic psychology defines sexuality across the layers of the human mind, especially the contrast between natural sexuality and spiritual sexuality. How do you react to these new facts and principles?
6. Explain the meaning of "spiritual love of one's spouse." How is this related to the afterlife? What contrasts with this, so that it's the opposite? How does this apply to you now or in the future?
7. Explain the assertion that "whether a man and a woman stay together to eternity is a matter of spiritual physiology." How is this idea contrast with what other people think -- look it up on the Web.
8. Explain what is the first death and the second death. How do we know about this mental physiology in eternity? Can you imagine yourself going through these two states of mind?
9. Ask a few people about what they know or think about death and dying. Explain to them that we are immortal, born into eternity as dual citizens. What is their reaction? What is your conclusion about how theistic psychology can be taught to people.
Optional: For extra credit points (up to 6)
Report 6: due December 7. Answer Questions for Weeks 15 and 16.
Back to G25 Class Home Page: www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy25/classhome-g25.htm