Instructions for Class Presentations Oral 1
Instructions for the Ten Typed Outlines

409a, 409b

Fall 2006  Generation 25
Dr. Leon James, Instructor, University of Hawaii

The Web address of this document is:

The link to the Oral Presentation Schedule for assigned readings is on the class home page at:

You will be required to give 3 oral presentations, as scheduled on the Oral Presentation Schedule for assigned readings (designated as O1, O2, and O3).  The format of the presentations is varied for each of the three oral presentations you will be giving. This file contains the instructions for your Oral 1 and for the 10 Outlines to be uploaded one week following that week's assigned readings. Check the instructions separately for Oral 2 and Oral 3:

The instructions for Oral 2 will be found here:
The instructions for Oral 3 will be found here:

Each oral presentation is worth 10 points, plus 1 point for each of the 10 Outlines to the week's oral presentation -- three of yours and seven of any other students of your choice. This makes for a total of 40 points for the oral component, or 40 percent of your grade. Part of this total includes your participation in class discussions following each oral presentation. Hence you cannot get your participation points if you are absent (regardless of the reason).

At the end of each oral presentation you will receive written feedback on a Form from the instructor (see last section in this document). This will include your grade (out of 10 points), what you did acceptably, and suggestions of what you could improve on in terms of effectiveness of content, rapport with the audience, voice quality, and communication aids that you might use to get your points across. You will also receive explicit training exercises in class regarding oral communication concerns and how to give a good oral presentation. Training Methods, Learning Outcomes and Assessment Criteria are given below.

The instructions for FTP Uploading will tell you how to upload all your files to your own sub-folder, which you create yourself by logging in to the course's server using your Web browser.

You are required to upload 10 typed Outlines in all, each covering one of the weekly readings assigned for the oral presentations -- see Oral Presentation Schedule on the Class Home Page. Three of the 10 must be your own oral presentations, and seven from oral presentations of others. You must upload at least one Outline every two-week period. Your Outline 1 must be uploaded by the end of week 3, and at least one more Outline every second week after that. This is to insure that you do it regularly and not bunch them up. This is to insure that you are studying the weekly readings. The penalty for late submission (uploading) of a typed Outline is one point per week. The date of your uploading is marked in your folder directory and is recorded by your instructor. As well, you are to send email to the instructor when you have uploaded -- see instructions below.

Follow These 8 Required Steps

1) Read through the assigned material for your presentation and take notes. Then make an Outline of one to two pages (typed), and think about it for a few days. Then discuss the content informally with someone. Explain what the main concepts are. See if you can define them for the person in your own words. Note the person's reaction, and the comprehension or misunderstanding.

2) Practice giving the presentation out loud, with a timer. Make sure you rehearse enough so you don't have to read your notes. Reading the notes will cost you some points (out of the 10 available). Make sure your voice is strong and loud (difficult to hear will cost you some points). It's a good idea to practice with a tape recorder, placing the tape recorder far at the end of the room to see how it picks up your voice.

3) Create a new file in your word processor and name it yourlastanme-outline1.htm and save it as a Web Page. Do not save it as a .doc file, which is the usual default. Remember the name you have given the file. It has your last name in it followed by a hyphen, followed by outline1.htm There must be no spaces in the file name and all letters are lower case (do not use upper case for your last name).

4) At the end of the Outline you must add a section marked as Related Links. You must provide three helpful Web links that deal with the topic you're presenting. You find these links by using a Web search engine such as Each link address must be clickable, must have a title reflecting its content or focus, and must have an annotation of between 3 to 6 lines, in which you explain why you picked that site or article.

5) At the very bottom of the file you must show a link to your Home Page and a link to the Class Home Page:

My Home page:       (409a Monday)        (409b Tuesday)

Class Home Page:

6) Now upload the file (see instructions for FTP Uploading). Now go to its address with your Web browser and view the file. Click on every link on your Outline. If any do not work, make the corrections in your word processor, save it, and upload the latest version (it will automatically replace the old version). Now check the links again to see if they work this time. Points will be deducted for links that do not work.

7) Send an email message to Dr. James at . The Subject Line must be: I uploaded Outline xx (replace xx with Outline number from 1 to 10). The body of the message must have the Web address of the Outline (make sure it is correct or else it doesn't count!).

8) At the top of each Outline you must type the following text (everything between the two horizontal lines below):

The Course and the Date (on this line)
A Brief Informative Title You Make Up  (on this line)
By your first and last name or your pseudonym (on this line)

(not centered) Instructions for this activity are found at: 
Instructor: Dr. Leon James

(not centered) Type the full citation for the assigned reading, as given in the Oral Presentation Schedule. Here are some examples (pick one only):

Leon James and Diane Nahl (2000). Road Rage and Aggressive Driving: Steering Clear of Highway Warfare. (Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books). Reviewing pages xx to xx.

Peter Rothe, Editor (2002). Driving Lessons: Exploring Systems That Make Traffic Safer. (Edmonton: University of Alberta Press). Reviewing Chapter 5: Family and Friends: How Intimate Social Life Contributes to Risky Driving, by J. E. Nash and G. D. Brinker. Pages 65 to 76.

Leon James (2006). Lecture Notes on Driving Psychology for G25. Tables xx and xx. Online at:

Deffenbacher, J.L., Deffenbacher, D.M., Lynch, R.S., & Richards, T.L. (2003). Anger, aggression and risky behavior: A comparison of high and low anger drivers. Behaviour Research and Therapy, Vol. 41(6), pp.701718.

The main body of the Outline then follows.

After that will be the Related Links section, and finally, the two required links at the bottom.

Details on How to Give Your Oral Presentation

Oral 1 consists of a 10-minute report to class regarding the assigned readings for that week (see Oral Presentation Schedule).

1) Before you start, switch seats to the designated side of the table so all students can see your face.  Do not wear a cap with a flap that covers your forehead and eyes.

2) Wait for the instructor to say, "OK, we are ready for you. Go ahead." First, look around the room and introduce yourself by saying, "Hi, my name is First name, Last name." Note: Do not say only your first name. Say your first name and last name. Practice this with a tape recorder so you can use a firm voice that everyone can hear clearly. Look at people while you are introducing yourself. It's a good idea to smile.

3) Next, using a strong voice, say: "My presentation today covers pages xx by author(s) found in the book called xx by xx." Be sure to look around the room to everyone while you do this.

4) It is expected that you actually look at people's faces. Pause one second on one face, then go on to another face. This will create rapport between you and the audience and you will feel less nervous and more comfortable. The audience also will feel more comfortable. So remember: look at people's faces around the room -- the front, to the left side of the room, to the right side of the room. Keep moving around the room throughout your presentation. This will make the other students feel more at ease and you will feel more connected. The result will be a better and clearer presentation.

5) Be sure to speak with a loud voice that carries to the last seat in the room. From time to time the instructor may say to you, "Excuse me. You need to speak louder." At that point, say, O.K. and raise your voice. Keep thinking that you must raise your voice as you continue talking. The entire success of your presentation depends on your voice being strong and loud enough to blanket the room. No matter how much you prepared and how intelligent your comments, if your voice is not strong, your effort is lost on the audience. Work hard to overcome a natural tendency most people have to drop their voice when they are adding an impromptu comment, and when they are less sure of themselves.

Note: For non-native speakers of English, it is normal to feel that people don't understand because you speak with a foreign accent. But that is almost never the case. The problem is almost always that you don't speak LOUD enough. If you speak loud enough, everyone will understand you, regardless of your accent. So practice, practice, practice -- speaking loud enough. Use a tape recorder to record your voice from different distances so you get feedback on how loud you have to speak to be loud enough. You might think it's very loud, but actually, it's almost impossible to be too loud. It's always the problem of not being loud enough. This is also true for the native speakers because shyness or nervousness makes you speak less loud, so you need to counteract it consciously. Tighten the stomach muscles as you speak. This will help project your voice to the wall and blanket everyone in the room.

6) After introducing yourself, state the two main concepts or ideas that you have prepared for the presentation. Be sure to (a) name each concept or title, and (b) give a one sentence definition of each. Do not forget to do both. Students sometimes state the two concepts, but forget to define them. You must define each concept so the audience knows what to expect. This helps their comprehension and focus.

7) After defining the two concepts, go back to concept 1 by saying "Now I will go back to concept 1." Explain again, but in different words, what is the concept, idea, principle, diagram, or chart. Enlarge upon the definition using your own words--do not quote the original.

8) Do not read your notes. Therefore you must prepare and rehearse enough. If you read your notes, the evaluation will say that you are not sufficiently prepared. If you practice and prepare sufficiently, you won't have to read your notes at all. Reading your notes will cost you points. But you are allowed to look at your notes from time to time for brief moments.

9) Look up and around and act like you are speaking spontaneously. Not looking around the room while you talk, will cost you points.

10) Keep thinking about what your purpose is, namely, to give the other students the benefit of your thinking about the concept you selected from the assigned pages. It's your thinking on the original text that you are presenting rather than just the original. You have to do some thinking about the original, and that should be the content of your presentation -- your thinking about the original pages, processing those pages through your understanding. This is why you need to talk about it with some people before your presentation. Discussing it will insure that you are doing some thinking about it, so  you can give your presentation appropriately. You cannot wait until the last moment when giving an oral presentation, or else it will show and won't come across well.

11) After explaining the concept, state what you think about it. For example:

12) You must conclude the presentation of concept 1 by relating it to the Lecture Notes. Do not skip this part. Make sure you explore the Lecture Notes while you are preparing your presentation of the assigned reading and your uploaded Outline. Explain how the concept you presented is relevant to the topics in the Lecture Notes. So you must read the Lecture Notes and find something in there that relates to your concept. Skipping this will const you points. So just make it part of your preparation.

13) Now move on to concept 2. Repeat the sub-steps above. Monitor your time carefully. You have 5 minutes per concept. You can go up to 7 minutes, but no more than that, or it will cost you a point. You cannot go less than 4.5 minutes per concept, or it will cost you a point.

14) Be sure to keep looking around to people's faces while you talk, not just to the instructor or to one or two faces. Do not act like you are speaking to the instructor, because he is just one audience member. It's good to maintain eye contact for one or two seconds, then move on to the next face. Be sure to speak with a strong or loud voice, addressing yourself to the person furthest in the room. If there is street noise coming through the window, you need to compensate by speaking louder above the noise (or just wait a few seconds).

15) You can consult your notes as often as you want to, but do not read. This means you have to prepare and rehearse enough to be able to do this. If you read it will cost you points.

16) When you finish, say: "And that's my presentation for today. Thank you." The audience will then applaud and the instructor will open up the discussion period.  You must answer at least 3 questions. Be sure you maintain a strong voice while you are answering. The other students should have their question ready. It's a good idea to write questions down in advance. Students who habitually avoid asking questions or making comments will not receive the full points.

17) At the end of your presentation, the instructor will hand you a written feedback form and a grade. You can also ask him for oral feedback at the end of class (this is optional).

18) Read carefully the Assessment Criteria and Grading Form given below. It lists the criteria by which you will be graded. Think about these criteria as you are preparing and rehearsing your presentation.

Summary of Tips for Oral Presentations

Practice is key to giving a good presentation.  Do not read your notes--learn them so you can talk while looking at the audience. Look around the class as you talk. Do not talk to the instructor alone--look at the students and make sure you maintain rapport with the audience. Looking directly at people's faces is very important for rapport. Do not wear a cap with a visor that hides your eyes. Make sure your voice is very loud, louder than normal. This is very important. Manage your time so you do five minutes for each of the two concepts. Remember to name and define the two concepts (both), as your introduction, then start again with the first concept. Your job is to present your own thinking about the original text and to relate it to the Lecture Notes. It really helps if you talk about with others as part of your preparation. Finally, act like you are enjoying the presentation and are happy to do it as a service to the other students. Reread the instructions again and again.

How to be a Good Audience -- What is Expected of You in Class

The other students should be prepared to ask questions. It's a good idea to write down your question during the presentation, while you are thinking about it. Students who do not ask questions or do not speak up in class discussions, cannot earn the grade of A. Participating in class discussions is a requirement of the course for the grade of A. It's not difficult to do, if you write down the question while the person is still speaking, while you are still thinking about it. It's all right to take notes while the person is speaking. It shows that you are listening seriously. The instructor makes a note of students who haven't spoken up in class for three weeks in a row. Remember this rule!

Do not read while the person is presenting. It shows off very vividly and obviously when you are working on something else while everybody else is listening. This is obvious to the instructor as well. Do not talk to the person next to you. This is extremely disturbing and disrupts the class atmosphere, which is to be together and not to break off on your own. You cannot earn a good grade in this course if you ignore these expectations of appropriate behaviors while in class. You are allowed to leave the class for brief periods, if you need to.

Look at the speaker during the presentation and act like an audience. Avoid looking down for long periods. This makes a big difference to the speaker. Do not read or write unrelated tasks while the presentation is going on! But you should write down questions to ask at the end, while you're thinking of it. Do not talk to your neighbor (this will cost you penalty points deducted from your overall grade). Do not be late for class.

Give others a chance to speak if you have already spoken twice in one class.

Make comments that address the specific topic. Do not tell stories. We have just a few minutes for the discussions, and brief statements by several people would be the best interaction style. Be ready with your comment and jump in when there is an opportunity. This is excellent practice for everyone!

Remember: the speaker must answer at least two questions as part of the grade, so we can't go on to the next speaker until those questions are asked!!

Oral Communication Training Method:

(1) The instructor will model oral communication presentations and point out the various concerns while performing them.

(2) Students will read out loud to the class and receive feedback on voice quality, loudness, and eye contact.

(3) Students will orally summarize the main points of a paragraph that is read out loud.

(4) Students will participate in panel discussions on assigned topics and specified roles (e.g., a reporter doing an interview with two panelists played by other students in the roles specified).

(5) Students will make an oral presentation on assigned readings and will follow topic and time requirements, as specified in written instructions. They will answer audience questions at the end of the presentation.

(6) Students will make an oral presentation as a report of field experiment done prior to class and according to written instructions.

(7) Students will participate as audience and ask questions at the end of each oral presentation.

(8) Students will receive written feedback from the instructor following each of their three presentations, focusing on the assessment criteria shown above. This will allow them to work on improvements after each presentation.

Oral Communication Learning Outcomes

Overall Goals

Students should acquire a clear understanding of the basic concepts and practices associated with public speaking and should appreciate the role of public speaking in academic and work settings. Students should be able to deliver speeches in accordance with the principles of effective oral presentation.

Specific Learning Outcomes

Students will be able to practice and achieve at least seven of the following:

  1. Compose and deliver public presentations on assigned topics in a classroom setting

  2. Effectively create, organize, and support ideas in oral presentations

  3. Delivering an oral presentation on an assigned reading task and adding argument support elements (illustrations, related Web links, examples)

  4. Creating a Web Page for each oral presentation, including related links found by searching

  5. Maintain effective rapport with the classroom audience (eye contact, voice modulation)

  6. Listen to and answer adequately, questions from the audience

  7. Utilize effective delivery techniques when giving an oral presentation

  8. Use visual aids and techniques (handouts, Power Point slides, overhead projector)

  9. Make use of interactive techniques (making audience participation requests)

  10. Remain within the assigned time limits

  11. Demonstrate a variety of skills such as presentation, debate, interview, panel discussion.

Oral Communication Assessment Criteria
Grading Form

  1. Did student follow all the steps specified in the instructions?

  2. Did student give an introduction, defining the two terms?

  3. Did student relate each concept to the Lecture Notes?

  4. Did student show evidence of being well prepared and organized?

  5. Did student establish and maintain rapport with the audience from the beginning?

  6. Did student look around the room to all the audience members?

  7. Did student speak spontaneously and avoided reading?

  8. Did student stay within the stated time limits of not less than 10 and not more than 12 mins.?

  9. Did student listen to questions and respond appropriately?

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