University of Hawaii, Dr. Leon James, Instructor
|Lect.||Date||Readings||Teams for Readings||Teams for Exercises||Exer-cise||Writing Team Reports|
|1||J 14||first class|
|2||J 28||RR1, DL 3, AR1||1, 3||4, 5, 6||2|
|3||F 4||GC26, DL 5, RR2,||7, 8, 9||(10), 12||3|
|4||F 11||RR3, DL 7, AR2||13, 14||1, 15, 18||4||R1 lecture 2|
|5||F 25||AR3, DL 8, RR4,||3, 4, 11||8, 6, 7||5||R2 lecture 4|
|6||M 3||GC25, RR5, DL 10,||5, 9||11, 12, 13||6|
|7||M 10||DL 11, RR6, AR6||14, 15||5, 18||7||R3 lecture 5|
|8||M 17||RR7, DL 12, GC24||1, 8||3, 4||8|
|9||M 31||AR10, DL 13, RR8||6, 7||9, 13||9||R4 lecture 7|
|10||A 7||GC23, RR9, DL 14,||12, 15||11, 14||10|
|11||A 14||DL 15, RR10, AR18||1, 3, 18||4, 5, 6||11||R5 lecture 9|
|12||A 21||RR11, DL 19, GC22||7, 8||9, 11, 12||12|
|13||A 28||AR19, DL 20, RR12,||13, 14||15, 18||13||R6 lecture 11|
|14||M 5||GC20, AR23, AR24||14|
1:00 to 1:30 Question-Answer and Lecture
1:30 to 2:00 Team presentation on Readings
2:00 to 2:15 Teams for Uploading
2:15 to 2:30 Questions for Team on Readings
2:30 to 3:00 Team presentation of Exercises
3:00 to 3:15 Teams for Uploading and Questions for Team on Exercises
3:15 to 3:30 All Teams
RR Road Rage and
Aggressive Driving: Steering Clear of Highway Warfare. Leon James and Diane Nahl
(2000). (Amherst, N.Y.:
Prometheus Books) Selections available here:
Selections available here:
DL Driving Lessons: Exploring Systems That Make Traffic Safer. Peter Rothe, Editor (2002). (Edmonton: University of Alberta Press).
LN Lecture Notes on Driving
Psychology for G27. Leon James (2006). Online at:
AR ARticles. Click on Articles and read the specified numbered entry. Select from whatever is given in the entry to give your presentation.
GC Generational Curriculum. Generations 26 to 20.
This entry means that you are doing your own survey of one of the Generations specified. Read about 8 to 10 reports from the specified generation and take notes. Tell the class a summary of your journey across the reports of that semester. Then tell the class what your friend's reaction was when you explain to them the content of those reports.
(1) Go to DrDriving's Page of Facts at http://drdriving.org/facts/index.htm and spend some time taking in all the information given there.
(2) Select the statistics that you think would be the most important for people to know about. With each set of facts on an issue that you present, discuss what psychological factors might be involved (why those things are happening). Focus on the threefold self of the driver (affective, cognitive and sensorimotor).Try to reconstruct what happens in the threefold self of drivers that produces these statistics. The threefold self is explained in the Lecture Notes, at the beginning.
(3) Make up multiple choice quiz questions that you can present to the students in class orally. Since it is presented orally you can't use more than either two or three choices per question.
(4) Pre-test the quiz with a couple of your friends. After the class has taken the quiz discuss what are your conclusions from looking at the results (of your friends and the class)?
(1) Read, study, and discuss the article on Traffic waves from Bill Beatty's Web site at: http://www.amasci.com/amateur/traffic/traffic1.html
(2) Explain the meaning of the following:
(a) "You can drive like an "anti-rubbernecker" and erase slowdowns created by other drivers."
(b) "The accident is gone, but a "moving wave" of stopped cars remains behind. It's not a traffic jam, it's a shock wave which propagates through the "automotive material". It's a traffic-clot in the blood vessel. It's a traveling wave of traffic-condensation." "But if traffic remains heavy, then there's no reason for the traveling wave to ever dissipate at all. " "So, next time you are commuting and you approach a stoppage, don't think of it as a stupid f@#$% traffic jam. Think of it as a pressure wave which has approached your car and engulfed it. ... Take an aerial viewpoint, and visualize the wave which is moving backwards as you move forwards."
(3) Study some of the material and information presented in A TIMELINE OF CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH (with links to articles), and summarize it for the class.
(4) Read the guest book comments at: http://amasci.com/~billb/cgi-bin/traffic/guestbok.html Summarize what people are saying and arguing about.
(5) Read the FAQ about traffic waves at: http://amasci.com/amateur/traffic/tfaq.html Summarize what you can understand. Read also the article on A Cure for Waves and Jams at: http://amasci.com/amateur/traffic/trafexp.html Summarize what you can understand. Explain the following:
"Suppose we push constantly ahead, change lanes to grab a bit of headway, and always eliminate our forward space in order to prevent other drivers from "cutting us off". If tiny traffic waves appear, we will rush ahead and then brake hard, leaving larger waves behind us. Repeated action causes the waves to grow huge. Ironic that the angry people who push ahead as fast as possible might unwittingly participate in "amplifying" the very conditions that they hate so much. The solution seems obvious: drivers with a smooth "calm" style will tend to damp out the waves and produce a uniform flow... and the few drivers who intentionally drive at a single constant speed will wipe out the waves entirely."
"Just one single car, if it decelerates while approaching a jam, can change the behavior of everyone behind it. And soon these people behind that single car will take the place of everyone in the jam. Your single car can bite a huge chunk out of the region of stopped traffic. If one car refuses to pack together with everyone else to form a "parking lot," the jam can be made smaller. Or if one driver gradually builds up lots of empty space before encountering the slowdown, perhaps that driver can "eat" the whole slowdown just as the many traffic waves were "eaten" by my own car."
(1) Study and discuss the analysis of a driving situation described in the Lecture Notes at: Exercise: Scenario Analysis to Develop Critical Thinking.
(2) Check out DrDriving's collection of news stories on road rage at: http://drdriving.org/news/index.htm Select one that contains enough details to do a scenario analysis. If you need more stories go to google News for road rage. Discuss it with your team, then present your scenario analysis to the class. Ask students to comment on your analysis in case they have additional suggestions.
(3) Discuss how scenario analysis can be used in driver education.
(1) Read and discuss this article on the Late Merge
concept or issue at:
http://tti.tamu.edu/documents/4945-3.pdf Explain to the class what is involved in this controversy. Why do people oppose this idea?
(2) Search Google or other search engine for other views on this issue. Type out notes in your word processor as you go through the search process, so that you can summarize your findings to the class.
(3) What is your conclusion? Do you intend to adopt the late merge method for your own driving? Discuss it with your friends. Tell the class how they react to the concept. How do you explain their reactions?
(1) Read, type out notes, and discuss the spiritual meaning of songs about cars and driving, as explained in this article at: http://drdriving.org/travel/songs.htm Summarize how the analysis works and give specific examples. Find some other car songs on the Web and try to give their spiritual meaning. Summarize your attempt.
(2) Read, type out notes, and discuss the information given on Cars and Romance at: http://drdriving.org/rel/index.htm Explore some of the Google links given there on men and women drivers. Summarize what you found.
(3) Evaluate what you have found in (1) and (2) above. How reliable, valid, and objective are the data? What cultural attitudes and stereotypes are expressed in the opinions you summarized? Discuss these with your men and women friends. What are your conclusions from these discussions?
(1) Study DrDriving's TEE Cards at: http://drdriving.org/legislation/teecards.html Take notes so you can explain what are TEE Cards. What driving psychology principles motivate each component of the TEE Cards? In other words, use driving psychology principles to explain the components of the TEE card. Discuss how TEE Cards can be used for driver improvement and driver instruction.
(2) Select one TEE Card from those on the site. Print it out and use it to find out how your friends or strangers relate to it when you try to explain the card to them. You might select two or three cards to print out and see which one the person chooses as being most useful for them. Ride with them so that you can practice applying the principles to the driver's traffic emotions and to see how successful they are in applying the principles to themselves.
(3) Show the TEE cards to the class. Find out by a show of hands how many students would consider each card relevant to themselves or to a driver they know.
(1) Study the Great Speeding Controversy in Society as discussed in the following articles. Type notes in your word processor as you process them. Use the notes to give your presentation to the class. Discuss them with your team. What is the speeding controversy? Who are the people involved? What are the various issues?
http://www.abd.org.uk/speed_limits_85th.htm The Association of British Drivers (ABD) Speed Limits: their correct use, setting, and enforcement
http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/statistics/ Transport Statistics
http://www.motorists.com/info/speed_bumps.html NMA against traffic calming
http://www.motorists.org/issues/speed/index.html NMA speeding articles
Survey of the States Speeding Laws
US Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Report of Speed Management
In the above article (9) you will find answers to these questions:
a) Some people have proposed that we should increase speed limits by 5, 10. or 15 mi/h to conform to the rate at which most drivers travel on that road (85th percentile principle). Others say that this would just allow people to drive still faster since they add 5 to 10 mi/h to speed limits. Decide which interpretation is correct, citing specific evidence from this article. Be sure to distinguish between roads on which cars travel at higher speeds vs. roads with lower speeds.
b) Consider the phenomenon of speed adaptation discussed in the article. Explain what it is and report what happened when you tried to test the theory in your own driving.
(2) What are you left with as you review what you have read? How has your idea of speeding changed? What are your own problems with speeding, or that of people you know? Are there categories of speeding or is it all the same? What can you propose in terms of teaching drivers how not to speed?
(3) Discuss the issue with your friends. Report to the class what are your conclusions from this discussion. Ask students in class what their attitude is toward speeding. How many consider it a problem?
(1) Inspect and discuss with your team the following selection of You Tube Videos on Driving in Traffic in Different Countries. First view the videos to get a sense of them, then view them again while you type out notes for your discussions and presentation. Select some of the videos and describe to the class what the videos show or what they are trying to portray. In each case give your reactions and the reactions of friends who also viewed the videos. Discuss how the principles of driving psychology can be applied to understand what is going on in the videos
(2) Find YouTube videos on Street Bike Cruising and Racing, Bad Driving Stunts, Staged and Real Car Crashes, and the like. Describe the ones you selected to present. What do they show about people's relationship to speed and risk taking? Why do people like to watch these videos? Are they popular? What comments are given by YouTube viewers?
(1) Explain the various aspects and components of aggressive driving as presented in the article 1 below. Discuss them with your friends and team members. Find out what the students are thinking about this by asking them some questions.
(2) Explain the relationship between personality and crash involvement as presented in articles 2, 3 and 4. Discuss it with your friends and team members. Find out what the students are thinking about this by asking them some questions.
- The Aggressive Driving Syndrome
- Tillmann and Hobbs on Personality of Driver and Accident Proneness
- Driver Characteristics in Crash Involvement
- See also: QDC type course for anger:
(3) Explain the theory of risk homeostasis as it applies to drivers, as explained in this article: http://psyc.queensu.ca/target/chapter04.html Discuss it with your friends and team members. Find out what the students are thinking about this by asking them some questions.
(1) Read, discuss and study the following articles on Drinking by College Students.
Binge Drinking Leads To Neurocognitive Deficits Among College Students
Researchers know that alcoholics tend to have poorer neurocognitive functioning, including decision making, than non-alcoholics do. Less is known, however, about alcohol's effects on decision-making capabilities among people who drink heavily but are not considered alcoholics. A new study has found that binge drinking can lead to poor decision making among college students, independent of impulsivity.
Alcoholics tend to have poorer neurocognitive functioning, including decision-making capabilities. A new study has found that binge drinking, common among college students, is associated with impaired decision making. The long-term neurocognitive effects of binge drinking during young adulthood are unclear.
The above continues at: http://www.dentalplans.com/articles/18227/
College Binge Drinking Related to Diminished Decision-Making Abilities
College students who binge drink can suffer neurocognitive problems including reduced decision-making ability, says a study in the June issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research.
Researchers looked at 200 participants enrolled in an ongoing student health study at the University of Missouri-Columbia. The 200 students were divided into four groups: low-binge drinkers; stable moderate-binge drinkers; increasing binge drinkers; and stable high-binge drinkers.
The researchers also collected data on the students' decision-making, impulsivity, gambling tendencies and heavy alcohol use.
"We found that stable high-binge drinking, starting at a pre-college age, is related to diminished decision-making abilities, as exemplified by preferring short-term rewards over long-term losses,"
The above is from: http://www.forbes.com/forbeslife/health/feeds/hscout/2007/05/24/hscout604862.html
Heavy-drinking college kids
To determine whether a person's drinking habits might be related to strategies for decision-making, the researchers had 200 male and female college students complete a test called the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a computer card game that involves trying to devise a winning approach by choosing cards from advantageous, rather than disadvantageous, decks.
Students had completed a questionnaire on their binge drinking frequency once a year for four years, beginning with the summer before their freshman year. Binge drinking was defined as consuming five or more drinks in a single sitting.
They were divided into four groups based on drinking histories: one group had a low level of binge drinking, meaning they reported binge drinking once or not at all over the past 30 days; the second group binge drank moderately; the third showed an increase in their tendency to binge drink over the course of the study; and the fourth group binge drank heavily throughout the study.
The young men and women in the chronic high binge drinking group performed worse on the gambling task, on average, than those who drank less, and the earlier they had begun binge drinking, the worse they fared.
The above is from: http://maconareaonline.com/news.asp?id=17315
A 1999 Harvard University study revealed that 44 percent of college students surveyed reported engaging in binge drinking in the previous two weeks, with binge drinking defined as consumption of five drinks within two hours for men and four drinks for women. Among U.S. college students, fatal alcohol-related injuries increased from 1,500 in 1998 to more than 1,700 in 2001, according to the National Institutes of Health.
In the new study, Timberlake and his colleagues followed nearly 9,000 students, including 855 sibling pairs, from seventh grade through college, ranging from 12 to 24 years old. The students answered questions about the amount of alcohol they consumed and the regularity of binge drinking at three intervals-the start of the study, one year later and six years later.
Students who didn't go to college downed more beer than their college-bound peers during high school, but the reverse occurred during college years. About 18 percent of college-goers reported binge drinking in their pre-college years, compared with 32 percent of their peers who didn't attend college. But by the end of the study, 66 percent of college students reported binge drinking compared with 53 percent of their non-college peers.
The above is from: http://www.livescience.com/health/070524_college_alcoholics.html
(2) Summarize each article for the students in class and give your conclusions about what they indicate about the mindset of college students. Why is binging so attractive? What are they getting out of it? What consequences could it have on their future career and married life? What about attaining their full potential as a human being?
(3) Discuss the issue with friends. How do they react to the facts and conclusions you present to them? Do they become defensive about the issue? Can they see the issue objectively or are they too involved themselves? Has this exercise have any effect on you and what you think about drinking alcohol?
(4) How does drinking and driving affect college students? How does it affect other adults in our society? What customs in our society encourage drinking and driving? Why are people not being more alert to or conscious of the dangers of drinking and driving? Find out what the students in class think about it by asking them some questions.
In order to show you the most relevant results, we have omitted some entries very similar to the 9 already displayed.
If you like, you can repeat the search with the omitted results included.
Click on the "repeat the search" link. Now you can view all the links to the generational student reports on this topic. Read several of the reports using the entire span from the early to current generations. Type out some notes and copy-paste the links to some of the reports that you want to summarize for your discussion with teams and presentation to class.
(2) Discuss a plan with your team. Each team member will use a similar approach to a personality makeover trial, but each person will choose a different driver behavior to work on. Examples include:
(i) modifying your emotional reactions to being tailgated when you try to drive the speed limit in the right lane
(ii) modifying your negative thoughts about other drivers while you are in traffic
(iii) leaving home earlier than you normally do and observing the difference it makes
(iv) allowing your passenger to comment on your driving and observing how you react to that
(v) acting like a polite and friendly driver, maintaining speed limits
(vi) driving with or without music or the radio and comparing the difference in thoughts and feelings
(vii) etc. etc.
(3) Report to class what happened. State your conclusions from this experiment. Discuss why it is difficult to modify one's driver personality. As the students what aspect of their driver personality they would want to modify.
(1) Go to google books search at : http://books.google.com/books?um=1&q= Search for the book "Choosing Civility." The author is Dr. Forni. Read the various pages that google books show you about this book. Type out notes as you go along. Present Dr. Forni's ideas on civility and show how it can apply to people using public spaces -- drivers, pedestrians, cyclists, suffers, etc.
(2) Each team member should make observations on themselves in public places. One person can pick driving, another being a pedestrian in a mall or airport, and the third some other use of public spaces -- parking, surfing, bicycling, riding on scooter, skateboard, ice skates, skiing, swimming, etc. Observe your threefold self -- emotions or feelings (A), thoughts (C), and overt actions (S). Organize your observations for class presentation. State your conclusions about why it is difficult to maintain civility, and what it would take to train people to share public spaces instead of compete.
(1) Read the following article on how people relate to cars as if they were alive: http://www.drdriving.org/misc/anthropomorph.html Type out notes for summarizing the article when you make your presentation.
(2) Using the information in the article create a brief survey that asks about people's feelings and ideas they have about their current or past cars. Give the survey to several friends or strangers. Discuss the results with your team members. Present the results to class. Give interpretations in terms of the article.
(3) Orally give the survey to the class and ask for a show of hands for the items (or just a selection of them).
Drivers Behaving Badly on TV, Movies, Cartoons, Music
Videos, Car Commercials: DBB Ratings from the Generational Curriculum
(a) www.drdriving.org/articles/dbb.htm (movies only)
(b) www.drdriving.org/articles/dbb.htm (cartoons only)
(c) www.drdriving.org/articles/dbb.htm (commercials only)
Student Reports on Driving Personality Makeovers
(a) Is it for me?
(b) Should I let them cut in? and Tailgating
(c) Traffic Psychology and Speed Limit Debate
(d) What works in changing road user behavior?
Psychological Aspects of Traffic Flow: Suggestions for
Continuing Driver Education
Hawaii's courteous driving jamming traffic?
(a) Deffenbacher, J.L., Deffenbacher, D.M., Lynch, R.S., & Richards, T.L. (2003). Anger, aggression and risky behavior: A comparison of high and low anger drivers. Behaviour Research and Therapy, Vol. 41(6), pp.701–718.
(b) Deffenbacher, J.L., Filetti, L.B., Richards, T.L., Lynch, R.S., & Oetting, E.R. (2003). Characteristics of two groups of angry drivers. Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol. 50(2), pp.123–132.
(c) Galovski, T.E.; Blanchard, E.B. (2002). The effectiveness of a brief psychological intervention on court-referred and self-referred aggressive drivers. Behaviour Research & Therapy, Vol. 40(12), p.1385, 18p.
(d) Galovski, T.E.; Blanchard, E.B.; Malta, L.S.; Freidenberg, B.M. (2003). The
psychophysiology of aggressive drivers: comparison to non-aggressive drivers
and pre- to post-treatment change following a cognitive-behavioral treatment.
Behaviour Research & Therapy, Vol. 41(9), p.1055.
(b) Galovski, T. E. & Blanchard, E. B. (in press). Psychological treatments of angry and aggressive drivers. In D. A. Hennessy and D. L. Wiesenthal (Eds.), Contemporary Issues in Traffic Research and Road User Safety. Hauppauge, N.Y.: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
(c) Galovski, T. E., Malta, L. S., & Blanchard, E. B. (in press). Road Rage: Assessment and Treatment of the Angry, Aggressive Driver. Washington, DC: APA Books.
(d) Lajunen, T. & Parker, D. (2001). Are aggressive people aggressive drivers? A study of the relationship between self-reported general aggressiveness, driver anger and aggressive driving. Accident Analysis & Prevention, Vol. 33, pp. 243-255.
(e) Novaco, R.W. (1991). Aggression on roadways. In R. Baenninger (Ed.),
Targets of violence and aggression. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publications.
Traffic Psychology at the University of Hawaii (2003)
Driving Psychology Principles: Part 1
Driving Psychology Principles: Part 2
Dealing With Stress and Pressure in the Vehicle: Taxonomy
of Driving Behavior: Affective, Cognitive, Sensorimotor by Leon James and Diane
Loosening the Grip of Anger Behind the Wheel (1999)
Aggressive Driving is Emotionally
Impaired Driving (2000)
Driving Distracted: Theory and Facts
Musings of a Traffic Psychologist in Traffic (1985)
Driver Personality Test and Results (1998)
Back to Leon James Home: www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy/leon.html
Back to G27 Class Home Page: www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy27/classhome-g27.htm