Instructions for Oral Presentations and Team Discussions
409a, 409b, 459
Spring 2008  Generation 27
Dr. Leon James, Instructor, University of Hawaii
 

The link to the Schedule of Oral Presentations and Team Discussions and the link to the Instructions for Writing the Team Reports are both on the g27 Class Home Page at:
           
www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy27/classhome-g27.htm

You are scheduled to give four oral presentations worth a total of 40 points out of 100. Following your oral presentation you will receive written feedback on a Form which the instructor will email you (see the Form in last section in this document). The feedback will include your grade (out of10 points), what you did acceptably, and suggestions of what you could improve on in terms of effectiveness of content, rapport with the audience, voice quality, and communication aids that you might use to get your points across. You will also receive explicit training exercises in class regarding oral communication issues, how to give a good oral presentation, and how to be a good audience member. Sub-sections on Training Methods, Learning Outcomes and Assessment Criteria are given below.

This document contains the following Sections:
INSTRUCTIONS FOR TEAM PRESENTATIONS ON READINGS
INSTRUCTIONS FOR TEAM PRESENTATIONS ON EXERCISES

HELP ON HOW TO MAKE EFFECTIVE ORAL PRESENTATIONS
ORAL COMMUNICATION ASSESSMENT CRITERIA -- GRADING FORM


INSTRUCTIONS FOR TEAM PRESENTATIONS ON READINGS

 

Step 1) Get together in class with your team members for a brief introductory first meeting and some planning.

Step 2) During the week read through the chapters for your team's presentation that is scheduled for that week. Type out notes as you go along. You will need these for your presentation and the team report that you write up together later. Then make an outline of your notes and think about it for a few days. Then discuss the content informally with someone. Explain what the main concepts are. See if you can define them for the person in your own words. Note the person's reaction, and the comprehension or misunderstanding. Be sure you complete this step before your next team meeting. All three students are expected to come prepared to the team meeting by completing this step. Keep in mind that it's not fair to the others if you're not prepared, or if you're out of step by being late, since the grade of the other team members can be affected, as well as your own. 

Step 3) At your second meeting discuss with your team members your outline and your experience while doing Step 2. Decide who will do which part of the presentation and in what order. Since each of you will be presenting a different chapter and book, it is important that you discuss a common perspective by relating all three chapters to the Lecture Notes and class lectures and discussions. You need to achieve a common team focus despite the variation in content of the chapters. This may be your biggest challenge.

Step 4) At your third and final meeting you can rehearse with each other and complete final plans. Make sure you share definitions and justifications so you can achieve a joint understanding of the topic and principles involved. After this third meeting you need to practice on your own -- see next step. Decide on the presentation style. The team presentation should take 30 minutes. The presentation can be in a simple order like 10/10/10, or 5/5/5/5/5/5, etc., as long as each student adds up to about 10 minutes (no less than 9 and no more than 12). At the end of the presentation the team members will answer questions from the audience.

Step 5) During the week, practice on your own giving the presentation out loud, with a timer. Make sure you rehearse enough so you don't read your notes (which gets a lower grade). Reading the notes will cost you some points (out of the 10 available). Make sure your voice is strong and loud (difficult to hear will cost you some points). It's a good idea to practice with a tape recorder, placing the tape recorder far at the end of the room to see how it picks up your voice.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR TEAM PRESENTATIONS ON EXERCISES

Step 1) Get together in class with your team members for a brief introductory first meeting and some planning.

Step 2) During the week read through the Readings for your team's presentation that is scheduled for that week. Type out notes as you go along. You will need these for your presentation and the team report that you write up together later. Then make an outline of your notes and think about it for a few days. Now go through the steps of the Exercise assigned for the week of your team presentation, typing out notes with sufficient details. Be sure you complete all steps specified, since there are several for each Exercise. Be sure you complete all steps of the Exercise before your next team meeting. All three students are expected to come prepared to the team meeting by completing all steps specified. Keep in mind that it's not fair to the others if you're not prepared, or if you're out of step by being late, since the grade of the other team members can be affected, as well as your own. Be sure you bring your notes to the second meeting.

Step 3) At your second meeting discuss with your team members your notes and your experience while doing Step 2. Go through each step of the Exercise and discuss what happened. Decide who will do which part of the presentation and in what order. It is important that you discuss a common perspective by relating the Exercise steps to the Readings for that week and the Lecture Notes. You need to achieve a common team focus despite the variation in content of the Exercise steps. This may be your biggest challenge.

Step 4) At your third and final meeting you can rehearse with each other and complete final plans. Make sure you share definitions and justifications so you can achieve a joint understanding of the topic and principles involved. After this third meeting you need to practice on your own -- see next step. Decide on the presentation style. The team presentation should take 30 minutes. The presentation can be in a simple order like 10/10/10, or 5/5/5/5/5/5, etc., as long as each student adds up to about 10 minutes (no less than 9 and no more than 12). At the end of the presentation the team members will answer questions from the audience. You can also use different formats that might make your presentation more fun to listen to -- e.g., a podcast, a contest, a debate, an interview, or any other dramatic set up. However remember that you need to present the real content and the real results of the Exercises, not something you just make up.

Step 5) During the week, practice on your own giving your part of the presentation out loud, with a timer. Make sure you rehearse enough so you don't read your notes (which gets a lower grade). Reading the notes will cost you some points (out of the 10 available). Make sure your voice is strong and loud (difficult to hear will cost you some points). It's a good idea to practice with a tape recorder, placing the tape recorder far at the end of the room to see how it picks up your voice. At the start of the presentation make sure you introduce yourselves using first name and last name.


HELP ON HOW TO MAKE EFFECTIVE ORAL PRESENTATIONS

 

1) Do not wear a cap with a flap that covers your forehead and eyes.

2) Wait for the instructor to say, "OK, we are ready for you. Go ahead." First, look around the room and introduce yourself by saying, "Hi, my name is First name, Last name." Note: Do not say only your first name. Say your first name and last name. Practice this with a tape recorder so you can use a firm voice that everyone can hear clearly. Look at people while you are introducing yourself. It's a good idea to smile.

3) Next, using a strong voice, say: "Our presentation today covers pages nn to nn, by author(s) found in the book called nn by nn." Be sure to look around the room to everyone while you do this.

4) It is expected that you actually look at people's faces. Pause one second on one face, then go on to another face. This will create rapport between you and the audience and you will feel less nervous and more comfortable. The audience also will feel more comfortable. So remember: look at people's faces around the room -- the front, to the left side of the room, to the right side of the room. Keep moving around the room throughout your presentation. This will make the other students feel more at ease and you will feel more connected. The result will be a better and clearer presentation.

5) Be sure to speak with a loud voice that carries to the last seat in the room. From time to time the instructor may say to you, "Excuse me. You need to speak louder." At that point, say, O.K. and raise your voice. Keep thinking that you must raise your voice as you continue talking. The entire success of your presentation depends on your voice being strong and loud enough to blanket the room. No matter how much you prepared and how intelligent your comments, if your voice is not strong, your effort is lost on the audience. Work hard to overcome a natural tendency most people have to drop their voice when they are adding an impromptu comment, and when they are less sure of themselves.

Note: For non-native speakers of English, it is normal to feel that people don't understand because you speak with a foreign accent. But that is almost never the case. The problem is almost always that you don't speak LOUD enough. If you speak loud enough, everyone will understand you, regardless of your accent. So practice, practice, practice -- speaking loud enough. Use a tape recorder to record your voice from different distances so you get feedback on how loud you have to speak to be loud enough. You might think it's very loud, but actually, it's almost impossible to be too loud. It's always the problem of not being loud enough. This is also true for the native speakers because shyness or nervousness makes you speak less loud, so you need to counteract it consciously. Tighten the stomach muscles as you speak. This will help project your voice to the wall and blanket everyone in the room.

6) Do not read your notes. Therefore you must prepare and rehearse enough. If you read your notes, the evaluation will say that you are not sufficiently prepared. If you practice and prepare sufficiently, you won't have to read your notes at all. Reading your notes will cost you points. But you are allowed to look at your notes from time to time for brief moments.

7) Look up and around and act like you are speaking spontaneously. Not looking around the room while you talk, will cost you points.

8) Keep thinking about what your purpose is, namely, to give the other students the benefit of your thinking about the ideas you are presenting. It's your thinking on the original text that you are presenting rather than just the original. You have to do some thinking about the original, and that should be the content of your presentation -- your thinking about the assigned Readings chapters or the Exercise steps, processing those pages and steps through your understanding. This is why you need to talk about it with some people before your presentation. Discussing it will insure that you are doing some thinking about it, so  you can give your presentation appropriately.

9) Be sure to keep looking around to people's faces while you talk, not just to the instructor or to one or two faces. Do not act like you are speaking to the instructor, because he is just one audience member. It's good to maintain eye contact for one or two seconds, then move on to the next face. Be sure to speak with a strong or loud voice, addressing yourself to the person furthest in the room. If there is street noise coming through the window, you need to compensate by speaking louder above the noise (or just wait a few seconds).

10) You can consult your notes as often as you want to, but do not read. This means you have to prepare and rehearse enough to be able to do this. If you read it will cost you points.

11) When you finish, say: "And that's our presentation for today. Thank you." The audience will then applaud and the instructor will open up the question period.

12) The instructor will email you the written feedback form and a grade. You can also ask him for oral feedback at the end of class (this is optional).

13) Read carefully the Assessment Criteria and Grading Form given below. It lists the criteria by which you will be graded. Think about these criteria as you are preparing and rehearsing your presentation.

 

Summary of Tips for Oral Presentations

Practice is key to giving a good presentation.  Do not read your notes--learn them so you can talk while looking at the audience. Look around the class as you talk. Do not talk to the instructor alone--look at the students and make sure you maintain rapport with the audience. Looking directly at people's faces is very important for rapport. Do not wear a cap with a visor that hides your eyes. Make sure your voice is very loud, louder than normal. This is very important. Manage your time so you stay within the required limits. Your job is to present your own thinking about the original text and to relate it to the Lecture Notes. Finally, act like you are enjoying the presentation and are happy to do it as a service to the other students. Reread the instructions again and again.

 

How to be a Good Audience -- What is Expected of You in Class

1) The other students should be prepared to ask questions at the end of each presentation. It's a good idea to write down your question during the presentation, while you are thinking about it.  Take notes during the presentation. You will need these notes for your team report that is due at specified dates.

2) Do not read while the person is presenting. It shows off very vividly and obviously when you are working on something else while everybody else is listening. This is obvious to the instructor as well. Do not talk to the person next to you. This is extremely disturbing and disrupts the class atmosphere, which is to be together as a group and not to sub-group on your own. You are allowed to use your laptop for note taking, but do not work on other tasks while you are an audience member. You are allowed to leave the class for brief periods, if you need to.

3) Look at the speaker during the presentation and act like an audience. Avoid looking down for long periods. This makes a big difference to the speaker. Do not read or write unrelated tasks while the presentation is going on! Do not be late for class.

4) When you ask a question or make a comment be sure to address the specific topic. Do not tell stories. We have just a few minutes for the question period, and brief statements by several people would be the best interaction style. Be ready with your question or comment and jump in when there is an opportunity. This is excellent practice for everyone!

 

Oral Communication Training Method

(1) The instructor will model oral communication presentations and point out the various concerns while performing them.

(2) Students will read out loud to the class and receive feedback on voice quality, loudness, and eye contact.

(3) Students will orally summarize the main points of a paragraph that is read out loud.

(4) Students will participate in panel discussions on assigned topics and specified roles (e.g., a reporter doing an interview with two panelists played by other students in the roles specified).

(5) Students will make an oral presentation on assigned readings and will follow topic and time requirements, as specified in written instructions. They will answer audience questions at the end of the presentation.

(6) Students will make an oral presentation as a report of field experiment done prior to class and according to written instructions.

(7) Students will participate as audience and ask questions at the end of each oral presentation.

(8) Students will receive written feedback from the instructor following each of their three presentations, focusing on the assessment criteria shown above. This will allow them to work on improvements after each presentation.

 

Oral Communication Learning Outcomes

Overall Goals

Students should acquire a clear understanding of the basic concepts and practices associated with public speaking and should appreciate the role of public speaking in academic and work settings. Students should be able to deliver speeches in accordance with the principles of effective oral presentation.

Specific Learning Outcomes

Students will be able to practice and achieve at least seven of the following:

  1. Compose and deliver public presentations on assigned topics in a classroom setting

  2. Effectively create, organize, and support ideas in oral presentations

  3. Delivering an oral presentation on an assigned reading task and adding argument support elements (illustrations, related Web links, examples)

  4. Creating a Web Page for each oral presentation, including related links found by searching

  5. Maintain effective rapport with the classroom audience (eye contact, voice modulation)

  6. Listen to and answer adequately, questions from the audience

  7. Utilize effective delivery techniques when giving an oral presentation

  8. Use visual aids and techniques (handouts, Power Point slides, overhead projector)

  9. Make use of interactive techniques (making audience participation requests)

  10. Remain within the assigned time limits

  11. Demonstrate a variety of skills such as presentation, debate, interview, panel discussion.


ORAL COMMUNICATION ASSESSMENT CRITERIA -- GRADING FORM

 

  1. Did student follow all the preparation steps specified in the instructions?

  2. Did student effectively relate the presentation to the Lecture Notes?

  3. Did student show evidence of being well prepared and organized?

  4. Did student establish and maintain rapport with the audience from the beginning?

  5. Did student look around the room to all the audience members?

  6. Did student speak spontaneously and avoided reading?

  7. Did student relate effectively to other team members achieving a joint focus?

  8. Did student stay within the stated time limits of not less than 9 and not more than 12 mins.?

  9. Did student listen to questions and respond appropriately?

 


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