Instructions for Reports

Dr. Leon James
University of Hawaii

This document contains instructions for 11 different reports!  Which one are you looking for?

Definitions of Traffic Psychology--How I Stack Up

Tailgating Behavior: Fair or Unfair?

Driving Personality Make-overs--Is it for Me?

Portrayals of Driving Behavior on TV--Good or Bad?

Quality Driving Circles

Children's Self-Witnessing Reports as Road Users

Driving Cartoons

Being a Driving Buddy--What It's Like

The Speed Limit Debate--How do I Stand?

Gender and Driving (part 2)

Collecting Data on How Drivers Communicate with Each Other

. 1. Definitions of Traffic Psychology:

How I Stack Up

0. First, be sure there is a link to these instructions at the start of your report.

1. Find 5 definitions of traffic psychology from the Generational Curriculum.

2. Summarize the definitions and link to them.

3. Comment on each definition: what it made you think of and how you reacted (agreements, disagreements, anxieties, anger, relief, etc.).

4. Now give examples from your own experiences as a road user (driver, pedestrian, passenger, cyclist) that show why traffic psychology is needed. Be specific and elaborate on how traffic psychology would help in each case (you might need to read some more driving psychology stuff--see Dr. Driving's Site).

5. Hint: A major principle in traffic psychology is that driving behavior includes the affective domain (feelings, motives), the cognitive domain (thoughts, judgments), and the sensorimotor domain (sensory input and motor output). All three are present in any single traffic behavior. So be sure that your discussion addresses all three domains all the time.

6. How can future generations improve on this activity?

7. End your paper with a section called Epilogue. Speak to future generations and recapitulate for them your learning steps throughout this report writing, specifying changes in your feelings amd goals (affective domain), thoughts and knowledge (cognitive domain), and actions or activities (sensorimotor domain).

The rest of the instructions for this report can be found below here.   Be sure to go there now.

. 2. Tailgating Behavior:

Fair or Unfair?

0. First, be sure there is a link to these instructions at the start of your report.

1. One theory in traffic psychology is that tailgating is the attempt to force your will over another driver. Find 5 self-witnessing reports from the Generational Curriculum in which the witnesses report tailgating behavior in sufficient detail, and link to them.

2. Describe the behavior involved, including feelings, thoughts, and acts.

3. Does it make sense for you to interpret these tailgating behaviors as forcing one's will over other drivers?

4. Discuss the moral implications to tailgating: Is it ethical? Fair? Justifiable? Spiritually wrong? Or just convenient and no big deal?

5. Now describe your own behavior (feelings, thoughts, acts) both when tailgating and when being tailgated.

6. What is your conclusion in light of all that you wrote?

7. Hint: A major principle in traffic psychology is that driving behavior includes the affective domain (feelings, motives), the cognitive domain (thoughts, judgments), and the sensorimotor domain (sensory input and motor output). All three are present in any single traffic behavior. So be sure that your discussion addresses all three domains all the time.

8. How can future generations improve on this activity?

8a. Be sure to incorporate the improvements to this report as suggested by Holly Ishikawa, G8.  Additional reports on tailgating behavior  will be found here.

9. End your paper with a section called Epilogue. Speak to future generations and recapitulate for them your learning steps throughout this report writing, specifying changes in your feelings amd goals (affective domain), thoughts and knowledge (cognitive domain), and actions or activities (sensorimotor domain).

The rest of the instructions for this report can be found below here.   Be sure to go there now.

. 3. Driving Personality Make-overs

Is it for Me?

What is a driving personality make-over? Find 5 self-witnessing reports from the Generational Curriculum in which the witnesses report tailgating behavior in sufficient detail, and link to them.  Additional reports on tailgating behavior  will be found here.

0. First, be sure there is a link to these instructions at the start of your report.

1. Name 3 psychology concepts (from your other courses--give a reference in each case) that in your view relate directly to how a driving personality make-over operates to create changes (e.g., self-modification, self-assessment, driving norms and attitudes, selfishness, prosocial behaviors, etc. etc.). Explain in detail.

2. Now plan and carry out a mini-self-modification experiment on yourself using one specific item, e.g.,having fantasies of violence (feeling), following too close (act), feeling overly competitive (feeling), disregarding speed limits (thinking), breaking the speed limit by more than 15mph (act), criticizing other drivers all the time (thinking), etc. Choose one only, either an act, a thought, or a feeling

3. Describe your baseline observation, your intervention attempt, and the results.

4. Hint: Be sure to keep notes on your acts, thoughts, and feelings. Use a tape recorder or write in a notepad before you leave the car.

5. Add a conclusion in which you evaluate the value of this activity to you.

6. Give your recommendations to future students of traffic psychology who will be doing this activity.

7. End your paper with a section called Epilogue. Speak to future generations and recapitulate for them your learning steps throughout this report writing, specifying changes in your feelings amd goals (affective domain), thoughts and knowledge (cognitive domain), and actions or activities (sensorimotor domain).

The rest of the instructions for this report can be found below here.   Be sure to go there now.

. 4. Portrayals of Driving Behavior on TV

Good or Bad?

0. First, be sure there is a link to these instructions at the start of your report.

1. What is a driving personality make-over? Find 5 self-witnessing reports from the Generational Curriculum in which the witnesses report tailgating behavior in sufficient detail, and link to them.  Additional reports on tailgating behavior  will be found here..  Review them and link to them.  Be sure to discuss their rating system:  is it objective and workable?  What problems might come up?  How would you solve these?

2. Now use a tape recorder and/or a note pad to keep track of how driving is portrayed on TV.  You need to identify the observation by the

* day

* date

* time

* channel/network

* name of program

* type (e.g., car commercial, other commercial, cartoon for young kids, scene in a movie or serial, etc.).

3. Then give a brief description of the characters and the situation (how long it is and what's happening)

4. Now give a specific description of the bad driving behavior--enough detail so the reader knows exactly what's the bad behavior you identified in the scene.

5. You need a total of 10 observations invovling at least 3 types of programs, including commercials and movies and shows.

6. Analyze each observation in terms of how it might influence children and drivers in terms of driving attitudes, style, and morality.

7. How do you think they've influenced your driving?  Disucuss separately the affective influence on your motives and values, the cognitive influence on your thinking, and the sensorimotor influence on your driving style or behavior.  See DrDriving's  explanations of these influences.

8. How can future generations promote this activity for the benefit of the online public?  Should there be a national movement?  A Web page?  What?   Find places on the Web relevant to this movement (e.g., PTA)

9. End your paper with a section called Epilogue. Speak to future generations and recapitulate for them your learning steps throughout this report writing, specifying changes in your feelings amd goals (affective domain), thoughts and knowledge (cognitive domain), and actions or activities (sensorimotor domain).

The rest of the instructions for this report can be found below here.   Be sure to go there now.

. 5. Quality Driving Circles

0. First, be sure there is a link to these instructions at the start of your report.

1. Summarize the experience of 3 students in prior generations who have conducted a QDC (link to them).  Hintstart your explorations here.

2. For each, evaluate their method and success.

3. Now run your own QDC and describe your method and success.

4. What future do you see for QDCs?

5. How would one promote this activity?

6. What other activity like it is now going on among citizen groups?

7. What are the implications for driver's ed, for licensing, and for insurance discounts?  Be sure to discuss each.  Consult the Rothe book for this, if you have one.

8. How can future generations promote this activity?  Be speicfic.  It's important to be able to go further and further with each generation.  Think carefully.  What have you got to offer?  Be imaginative and innovative.

9. End your paper with a section called Epilogue. Speak to future generations and recapitulate for them your learning steps throughout this report writing, specifying changes in your feelings amd goals (affective domain), thoughts and knowledge (cognitive domain), and actions or activities (sensorimotor domain).

The rest of the instructions for this report can be found below here.   Be sure to go there now.

. 6. Children's

Self-Witnessing Reports as Road Users

0. First, be sure there is a link to these instructions at the start of your report.

1. Describe the self-witnessing method for drivers, linking to student reports and materials on  DrDriving's Topics

2. Give examples.

3. Now do some brief self-witnessing behind the wheel, keeping track of your feelings, thoughts, and actions. Be sure you have data on all three!! Use a tape recorder or a note pad before you leave the car.

4. What did you discover about your driving personality?  describe episodes in detail.

5. Now train a child or teenager to do self-witnessing while being a passenger, pedestrian, or cyclist.

6. What problems did you run into?  How do they think?  How did you approach the problem?  What else did you observe about the child?  Were you surprised?

7. What results did you obtain?  Were you surprised?  What would you next if you wanted to pursue this?  Is it worthwhile?  Why?

8. What are your recommendations for further developing this method?  Be imaginative and innovative!!

9. In what way is it important to pursue this?

10. How can it be made available to more kids?

11. What should future generations do about pursuing this activity?

12. End your paper with a section called Epilogue. Speak to future generations and recapitulate for them your learning steps throughout this report writing, specifying changes in your feelings amd goals (affective domain), thoughts and knowledge (cognitive domain), and actions or activities (sensorimotor domain).

The rest of the instructions for this report can be found below here.   Be sure to go there now.

. 7. Driving Cartoons

0. First, be sure there is a link to these instructions at the start of your report.

1. Find prior student reports on this topic.  Describe what they did and link to them.  Now esamine the cartoons and drawings on DrDriving's site and describe them (see the Daily Rage Page as well.).  Discuss the CARRtoon Vignettes as well.  Do you think this approach would be useful for instruction?

2. Select 5 incidents described in self-witnessing reports from the Generational Curriculum (link to them).

2. For each, create a cartoon, and scan it in as cartoon1.gif files (etc.), for uploading into your "icons" sub-directory.

3. In your report, make a link to each cartoon and describe its significance: what it's trying to teach through humor.

4. Discuss whether using cartoons is an effective way of communicating driving skills.

5. Make recommendations about how this activity should be pursued by future generations.

6. How can we estalish a Web database of driving cartoons where people can go to leave their drawings.

7. What kind of software and procedures would be needed?

8. What about kids and driver's ed manuals?

9. Other ideas?

10. End your paper with a section called Epilogue. Speak to future generations and recapitulate for them your learning steps throughout this report writing, specifying changes in your feelings amd goals (affective domain), thoughts and knowledge (cognitive domain), and actions or activities (sensorimotor domain).

The rest of the instructions for this report can be found below here.   Be sure to go there now.

. 8. Being a Driving Buddy

What It's Like

0. First, be sure there is a link to these instructions at the start of your report.

1. Find discussions of two concepts ("driving buddy" and "driving personality make-over") among the traffic psychology students by using

2. Describe what you found, and link to them.

3. Now coach a person to do a mini-driving personality make-over.

4. Day 1: your client drives the usual way and you make comments as a passenger on whatever you observe.

5. Keep encouraging the driver to think aloud.  Ask questions:  What are you thinking?  Waht are you feeling?  Why are you doing that?

5. Take notes during the trip as well as after the trip when you discuss the experience with your client.

6. Day 2: for the duration of this trip, your client agrees to drive the way you want.

7. Keep encouraging the driver to think aloud.

8. Take notes during the trip and after, following the de-briefing session.  Be sure you have notes on all three:  affective (attitudes, values, emotions), cognitive (thoughts, beliefs, justifications), sensorimotor (motor performances, including verbalizations and facial expressions)

9. Write up a description of the two days and discuss the differences.  You must discuss all three domains:  affective, cognitive, sensorimotor

10. What principles of traffic psychology can you draw from this attempt?

11. Focus especially on resistance:

12. how did your client show resistance?

13. Hostility?

14. Lack of cooperation?

15. What's the origin of this resistance?

16. How did you react?

17. How did you try to handle it?

18. How did you feel about it?

19. Now give recommendations about how this activity should be continued by future generations.

20. End your paper with a section called Epilogue. Speak to future generations and recapitulate for them your learning steps throughout this report writing, specifying changes in your feelings amd goals (affective domain), thoughts and knowledge (cognitive domain), and actions or activities (sensorimotor domain).

The rest of the instructions for this report can be found below here.   Be sure to go there now.

. 9. The Speed Limit Debate

How do I Stand?

0. First, be sure there is a link to these instructions at the start of your report.

1. Find discussions of this topic among the traffic psychology students by using

Describe what you found, and link to them.

2. How do you feel about this issue? Analyze what your position is and summarize it.

3. Do you see any implications for your attitude toward the law?

4. Is your behavior as a driver consistent with your attitude or philosophy?

5. Now use any Web search engines to locate Web sites that discuss speeding or speed limits, and link to them.

6. Who are the participants?

7. What is their motive?

8. Summarize the arguments pro and con.

9. How do you stand on this issue now that you're more informed?

10. What should traffic psychology do about it?

11. Now, use DejaNews search engine to find what drivers say about speeding, and summarize the topics and the arguments.

12. What sort of attitude or focus do you see?

13. What are the implications for traffic psychology theory and approach?

14. How should this activity be continued by furure generations?

15. End your paper with a section called Epilogue. Speak to future generations and recapitulate for them your learning steps throughout this report writing, specifying changes in your feelings amd goals (affective domain), thoughts and knowledge (cognitive domain), and actions or activities (sensorimotor domain).

The rest of the instructions for this report can be found below here.   Be sure to go there now.

. 10. Gender and Driving (part 2)

0. First, be sure there is a link to these instructions at the start of your report.

1. Find discussions of this topic among the traffic psychology students by using

2. Describe what you found, and link to them.

Now select 3 tests and/or checklists from Dr. Driving's Test Bank

Describe them and link to them.  Now make up your own test based on similar items.

2. Prepare 16 test instruction booklets containing your test.

3. Administer them, individually or in groups, to 8 male and 8 female drivers.

4. After the test discuss the answers with the volunteers and take notes about what they say.

5. Now summarize the data in a Raw Data Table (showing responses to each item by each individual).

6. Now discuss the data overall: totals, averages, ranges (more if you can).

7. Which items have the most agreement?

8. The least agreement?

9. Theorize why these items split that way.

10. Now discuss the gender effect: What are the differences in totals, averages, ranges?  Use psychology concepts.  Hintlook in this file for ideas.

11. Now discuss the implications for traffic psychology. If there is a gender difference, what is the explanation you have? If you expected one but didn't get one, why, do you think?

12. Discuss these:

* sampling issue

* relevance of items to gender differences

* power of test items to show differences if they are there

* reliability of answers.

* Other?

13. In your opinion, what should be the next step for future students?

14. End your paper with a section called Epilogue. Speak to future generations and recapitulate for them your learning steps throughout this report writing, specifying changes in your feelings amd goals (affective domain), thoughts and knowledge (cognitive domain), and actions or activities (sensorimotor domain).

The rest of the instructions for this report can be found below here.   Be sure to go there now.

. 11. Collecting Data on How

Drivers Communicate with Each Other

0. First, be sure there is a link to these instructions at the start of your report.

1. Keep track of your observations using a tape recorder and/or a note pad. Identify when and how drivers communicate with each other.

2. Describe each type of situation and what methods are used for interaction. Examples of situations are: changing lanes, merging lanes at entrances, making turns, yielding the way, making room in one's lane for someone, overtaking, racing with, etc.

3. Examples of methods of interaction are: waving hand, nodding head, flipping the bird, staring, revving the engine at someone, tailgating to indicate "go faster," braking suddenly as a sign of protest, honking, yelling, approaching fast to threaten, etc.

4. Note that all methods have to do with communicating a message to the other driver. Evaluate each type of interaction and method you discover: How widespread is it?

5. Who uses it?

6. How effective is it?

7. What is its function for the doer?

8. For the receiver?

9. What recommendations do you have for developing official methods of interaction and communication among drivers (e.g., specific signs or gestures, flip cards with messages, CB radio, telephone, etc.)?

10. How should they be taught?

11. What would be their usefulness?

12. How would you research their effectiveness (be specific).

13. Now search the Generational Curriculum and DrDriving's Topics for anything relevant on this.  Review them and link to them.

14. What are your recommendations for the continuation of this activity by future students?

15. End your paper with a section called Epilogue. Speak to future generations and recapitulate for them your learning steps throughout this report writing, specifying changes in your feelings amd goals (affective domain), thoughts and knowledge (cognitive domain), and actions or activities (sensorimotor domain).

The rest of the instructions for these reports:

_____ I) Add a centered h1 or h2  heading, calling the document:

Title of the Report:
xxx

Note:  the XXX means you have to make up your own sub-title--something that reflects your approach, style, and theme.  Do this after you finish your report and you know how it turned out!  But don't forget to do it--don't leave the XXX there!!

_____ II) Put this in your HTML [title] field (or use Page Properties command): Gender Differences in Driving by FN/ LN, Gxx/ Year, University of Hawaii

_____ III) Place a Table of Contents at the top of the document with links to all the sub-sections.

_____ Note: Students often forget this item--but it is required: The first item in the Table of Contents MUST be called Instructions for this Report and it must be a live link to this document.  Points will be deducted if you forget this requrement!  Do it now.

_____ IV) Be sure you add a Navigation Table and e-mail button at the bottom of the document.  This is a requirment for all your documents.  Check now now to see if you have on in all your documents.  Do it now!

_____ V) Using your web browser, check your document screen by screen: no screen should be made of just one paragraph (i.e., no paragraph should exceed one screen full--it's too hard to read that way!)  Just look at every screen:  it should not be made up of all text--separate using paragraph breaks.

_____ VI) Spell check your document before uploading!!

_____ VII) Check the visibility of your text: patterned backgrounds are not allowed. Darker colors are not allowed. White bgcolor is always excellent, especially if you vary the font face, color, and size to enhance visibility and emphasis (no blinking text allowed). Remember: your text looks different in different browsers and computers, so you need to experiment and ask others. You may also use graphic enhancers such as color bars, color dots, icons. However, animated icons are a problem if they distract attention from the text. Using the Table tag in html allows easy control over the color of each column and the placement of text on the screen. See this example for how to change the color of fonts. See this student's effective use of varied font faces, colors, and sizes.

_____ VIII) Check the way your document loads after it contains everything. How long does it take? Does text appear on the screen while one waits, or is it blank? Slow loads and blank screens are not allowed, so you must choose graphics that are low in memory size!

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