Principles of Theistic Psychology: 
The Scientific Knowledge of God
Extracted from the
Correspondential Sense of Sacred Scripture


Version 64c

Subject Index, Section Headings,
Selections from the Writings, Reading List, Student Reports

Dr. Leon James
Professor of Psychology
University of Hawaii

Published on the Web in 2004. Continuously updated and expanded. Last update:  2008

Please click to see the Publication Note, Permissions to Use, and Copyright Notice at the End of this file.

About the Author


Volume 1      Introduction to Theistic Psychology

Volume 2      Q&A on Theistic Psychology

Volume 3      Levels of Thinking About Theistic Psychology

Volume 4      Derivation and Function of Scientific Revelations

Volume 5      Research Methods in Theistic Psychology

Volume 6      Personality and Character

Volume 7     Character Reformation

Volume 8      Learning and Cognition

Volume 9      Spiritual Development

Volume 10    Health Behaviors

Volume 11    The Marriage Relationship and the Doctrine of the Wife

Volume 12    The Heavenly and Hellish Traits

Volume 13    Religious Psychology

Volume 14    Prayer as Revelation from God

Volume 15    Universal Sacred Scripture

Volume 16.    Religious Mysticism

Volume 17    Religious Movements

Volume 18    Index to All Sections, Subject Index, Selections, Collateral Links, and Readings


Note: Student Reports on Theistic Psychology accessible here

See also Lectures Notes on Mental Anatomy in Theistic Psychology

Contents of Volume 18

Searching for something in theistic psychology?
Click to see the note at the end on how to do it efficiently

Online Books by Leon James

Principles of Theistic Psychology  ||  Lecture Notes on Mental Anatomy  ||  Moses, Paul, and Swedenborg  || The Unity Model of Marriage ||  Swedenborg Encyclopedia of Theistic Psychology  ||  The Levels of Human Consciousness in Relation to God and Eternity  ||  Scientific Neologisms Coined by Leon James in Psychology For the Period 1958-2008  ||  A Man of the Field: Forming the New Church Mind  ||  De Hemelsche Leer Commentary  ||  The Doctrine of the Wife  ||  Collection of Driving Psychology Articles  ||  Road Rage and Aggressive Driving  || 

See also:

 Directory of Full Text Articles and Books Online  ||  Leon James Home

See also:

Swedenborg Books Online ||  || || (mirror site)

This is Volume 18 The Index Volume to Principles of Theistic Psychology

Index to All Sections
Volumes 1 to 18

Click on the Volume you want, then you can get to any Section in that Volume.

Note: Quotations from the Writings of Swedenborg are given with parenthetical notes in italics that I insert in square brackets throughout the quoted text. These do not appear in the original. As well, longer paragraphs are arbitrarily sub-divided in smaller paragraphs.

For the original text of Swedenborg's Writings please consult the online copies available free in various places on the Web :

Volume 1.   Introduction to Theistic Psychology

1.0    The Psychology of God: Overview of Basic Topics

        1.0.1    Topic 1. The Negative Bias in Science vs. The Positive Bias in Science

          Dualism: Natural Science and Rational Science

          Theism in Theistic Science: Universe Created and Managed by God

                          Born Into Eternity

                          Male Mind, Female Mind, and Conjoint Mind 

                                          The Mental Origin of Semen

          Revelation: Divine Speech Exteriorizing as Sacred Scripture

                          What are Spiritual Temptations

        1.0.2    Topic 2: The Spiritual World of Eternity

        1.0.3    Topic 3: Divine Speech, Sacred Scripture, and Conjunction With God

          Part A: Some Propositions to Remember

          Part B: Degrees of Conjunction with God

          Part C: Why This Is a Perfect World Despite Evil

        1.0.4    Topic 4: Forms of Divine Speech in Our Conscious Natural Mind

        1.0.5    Topic 5: Sensuous vs. Rational Spirituality

                  Part A (i): Why Doesn't God Make an Appearance at the United Nations?

                                        Part A (ii): What About the Paranormal, Miracles, Telepathy, Magic?

                  Part B: Sensuous Consciousness of God Does Not Remain in the Afterlife

                  Part C: We are Dual Citizens in Discrete Layers

                  Part D: There is Only One Mental World in the Human Race

                  The Daily Discipline of Rational Spirituality 

                                  Recognizing Our Dual Existence

                                  The Mental World is the World of Eternity

                                  Our Life in Eternity

                                  Why We Need Sacred Scripture

                                  The Hidden correspondential sense of Sacred Scripture

                                  Why We Need Theistic Psychology The New Evolution in Rational Consciousness of God

        1.0.6     The Negative and Positive bias in Science 

        1.0.7    What is Substantive Dualism in Science

1.1    Three Levels of Thinking About God

                1.1.1    Level 1: Materialistic Science (Monism)

                1.1.2    Level 2: Mystical Religion

                1.1.3    Level 3: Theistic Psychology

                1.1.4    Ten Rational Conclusions Derived From the Proposition That God Exists

                        (A) First Conclusion: God is a Person, at once Divine and Human

                        (B) Second Conclusion: God’s Omnipotence Must Control Every Event

                        (C) Third Conclusion: God is Perfect in Love and Rationality

                        (D) Fourth Conclusion: There are Two Worlds, One in Time-Space, the Other in Eternity

                        (E) Fifth Conclusion: Humans are Born Dual Citizens, In Time and in Eternity

                        (F) Sixth Conclusion: The Eternity of the Afterlife is Our Mental World Now

                        (G) Seventh Conclusion: We Are Born With Heaven and Hell in Our Mind

                        (H) Eighth Conclusion: Heaven is a State of Marriage Between Soul Mates

                        (I) Ninth Conclusion: Divine Speech as Sacred Scripture Produces
                                                            Consciousness and Enlightenment

                        (J) Tenth Conclusion: Salvation, Liberation, Peace, and Wisdom Are
                                                            Attained By Spiritual Discipline

              How the Idea of God Makes Us Immortal

                              The Incarnation Event: God Enters the World of History and Science

                                              Completion of the Creation of the Human Race

                                              A Brief History of God and Humanity

              The Three Benefits of Rational Spirituality:
                                                            Enlightenment, Empowerment, Rational Ecstasy

                          Spiritual Enlightenment

                          Spiritual Empowerment

                          Rational Ecstasy

              How Divine Speech Descends In the Human Mind Through
                                                                Discrete Layers and Keeps It Functioning

                          Conceptual Charts of the Physiology of God and the Human Mind

                          Extracting the Content of Divine Speech Through Correspondences

                                          What are Correspondences in Sacred Scripture?

                                          Drinking Blood and Other Examples of Correspondences
                                                                                 in Sacred Scripture

                                          Metaphors, Symbolism, Simile, Figurative Speech -- Are Not

                          Three Levels of Thinking About God: Energy, Person, Truth From Good

1.2     Mystical vs. Rational Approaches to Theistic Psychology

                1.2.1    Who was Swedenborg?

                  Swedenborg's Autobiographical Letters

1.3    Rational Substantive Dualism

        1.3.1    Substantive Dualism and Theism in Science

                  The Psychology of Religion in Nontheistic Psychology

        1.3.2    Discrete Layers of Substances

        1.3.3    The Substances of the Mental Organs

        1.3.4    God's Mental Substances as the Framework of the Universe

        1.3.5     Benefits of Understanding Theistic Psychology

1.4     Partial List of Scientific Revelations in the Writings of Swedenborg

1.5     Some of the People Who Have Acknowledged Swedenborg

            1.5.1 Students Speak Out on Swedenborg

               The Swedenborg Reports

               The Negative Bias in Science Outline of Swedenborg's Spiritual Psychology

1.6     Spiritual Psychobiology

                1.6.1    Three Levels of Behavior

                1.6.2    Swedenborg's Laws of the Spiritual World

                1.6.3    Criteria for a Scientific Theory in Psychology

                1.6.4    The Organic Basis of All Phenomena

                1.6.5    The Method of Psycho-Biological Correspondence

                1.6.6    Applications of Swedenborg's System

                1.6.7    Behavioral Consequences of Swedenborg's System

                      The Anatomical Layers of the Mind

                1.6.8    Sacred Scripture as the Source of Scientific Revelations

                1.6.9    History of the Concept of Dualism in Science

                  Substantive Dualism

                  Prior Versions of Dualism in the Negative Bias

                   Dualism and Consciousness

                   Dualism in Descartes and Swedenborg

1.7    Swedenborg's Description of How We Are Resuscitated After Death

1.8    The Rationale For Theistic Psychology as Science

                1.8.1 The "Bible Code" vs. the Method of Correspondences With Enlightenment

                  Horizontal vs. Vertical Extraction

                1.8.2    Divine Speech and Its Functional Properties

                1.8.3    The Content of Divine Speech

                1.8.4    Three Types of Research in Theistic Psychology --
                                        Extractive, Predictive, and Applied

                  Levels of Extractive Research

                   What is God Talking to Us About?

                1.8.5    Why Study Theistic Psychology?

                1.8.6    About Swedenborg

                1.8.7    Should One Believe Swedenborg?

                1.8.8    Scientific Proof that Sacred Scripture is Divine

                 The Secret Presence of Correspondences in Sacred Scripture

                  Cause-Effect Control by God

                              The Correspondential Sense of CL 270

                              The Correspondential Sense of CL 42

                                          The Power of the Literal Sense that
                                                                        Contains the Correspondential Sense

                              The Correspondential Sense of Pharaoh's Dream

                              The Correspondential Sense of DP 30

                  Correspondences in Our Thinking and Language

                  Daily Life Correspondences of Body Parts, Activities, and Functions

                  Numbers in Sacred Scripture

                  Types of People in Sacred Scripture

                  Geographic Terms in Sacred Scripture

                  Animals in Sacred Scripture

                  The Divine Origin and Power of Correspondences

                  The Scientific Status of Correspondences

                  Perception of The correspondential sense of Scientific Revelations

                  Natural vs. Spiritual Understanding of Correspondences

                  True Science -- Divine Scientific Revelations of Absolute Truth

                1.8.9    Theistic Science: The Scientific Alternative to Creationism and Intelligent Design

                  Recent Court Decision in Pennsylvania on Teaching Religion
                                                in the Public School Curriculum

1.9    Life in the Mental World of Eternity

Volume 2. Q&A on Theistic Psychology

2.0    Q&A on Theistic Psychology

2.1    What’s the difference between religion and theistic psychology?

2.2    What about evil, sin, hell, devil, and heaven in relation to theistic psychology?

2.3    Is theistic science really science?

        2.3.1    Criteria for non-theistic Psychology as Science

        2.3.2     Criteria for Theistic Psychology as Science

        2.3.3    Can an atheist be an expert in theistic science?

        2.3.4    Who is to tell us what are good traits and what evil?  

2.4    What about the spiritual world and the afterlife—how can that be researched?

2.5    Is it possible that Swedenborg made it all up or was delusional?

2.6    What's the relation between the body, the mind, and the spiritual world?

2.7    Theoretical Implications of God's Omnipotence, Omniscience, and Omnipresence

2.8    What is God's Role in the Evolution of the Human Race

2.9    What is Divine Truth in relation to scientific revelations in theistic psychology?

2.10   How is the mind or consciousness related to the spiritual world?

2.11   What do surveys show about beliefs in God, heaven, hell, miracles, afterlife?

2.12   What About Creationism and evolution?

2.13   What is "Substantive Dualism" in theistic psychology?

2.14   What is Applied Theistic Psychology?

2.15   How is Theistic Psychology different From Mysticism, Spiritism, Psychic Research?

2.16   How is Spiritual Psychology Related to Theistic Psychology?

2.17   How Can You Do Research on God in Psychology?

        2.17.1    The As-of Self Revealed to Humankind

2.18   Swedenborg's Rational Psychologychy

2.19   In What Style did Swedenborg Write the Writings?

2.20   Christian Psychology vs. Theistic Psychology

        2.20.1    The Inner Scientific Sense of Divine Speech

2.21   Where can I read Swedenborg’s Writings and collateral works?

2.22. Why doesn't God Give Proof of His Existence by Showing Himself Regularly at Conferences and on TV?

Volume 3. Developmental Levels of Thinking About Theistic Psychology

3.0    Developmental Levels of Thinking About Theistic Psychology

3.1    The First Level of Comprehension--Paraphrasing and Summarizing

3.2    The Second Level Comprehension--Critical Analysis

3.3    The Third Level Comprehension--Spiritual Enlightenment

3.4    The Spiritual Sun

3.5    Consciousness as Substance

3.6    Choosing the Heaven or the Hell in our Mind

3.7    The Nature and Character of God: A Scientific Perspective

        3.7.1    The Science of Correspondences

        3.7.2    Evolution of Correspondences in Sacred Scripture and Divine Speech

              The Most Ancient Sacred Scripture

              The Old Testament Sacred Scripture

              The New Testament Sacred Scripture

              Sacred Scripture and the Mental Development of the Divine Child

              Consciousness Raising Through Correspondences in Sacred Scripture

              The Incarnation Event and the Evolution of Human Consciousness

              The Stages of Theistic Psychology

              Levels of Descent of Divine Speech

              How Divine Speech Unifies the Human Race

             A Level 3 Description of Co-Presence With God     Extracting the Hidden Higher Correspondences

              Correspondences and Representatives (passages form the Writings Sacred Scripture)

              The Scientific Content of the Creation Story in Genesis

                              Phase 1: The Mental States Prior to Regeneration

                               Phase 2: The Mental States That Start Reformation

                               Phase 3: The Mental States of Reformation

                               Phase 4: The Mental States That Start Regeneration

         3.7.4     The Function and Power of Correspondences


3.8    Divine Speech or Sacred Scripture as the Source of Scientific Revelations

3.9    Three Experimental Proofs

3.10   Observational Facts About the Spiritual World

        3.10.1    God, the Divine-Human

        3.10.2    The Mind-Body Connection

3.11    The Purpose of Creation

        3.11.1    God, Heaven, Hell, Mind, Body

3.12     Divine Love and Divine Truth as Substances

3.13    The Infinite Within the Finite

3.14    The Spiritual Within the Natural

3.15     The Universal Laws of Correspondences

3.16     The Origin of Species

Volume 4. The Derivation and Function of Scientific Revelations

4.0    Why the Writings Sacred Scripture Are Written in Correspondences

            4.0.1    Methodological Issues About Enlightenment

            4.0.2    Why Spiritual Meanings Cannot be Conveyed by Natural Expressions

            4.0.3    The Method of Correspondences With Enlightenment

            4.0.4    Methods of Extraction

              The Method of Substitution

              The Method of Rational Series

              The Method of Mapping

            4.0.5    External and Internal Revelation

4.1    Divine Management Principles

            4.1.1    Divine Providence

            4.1.2    The Laws of Permissions

4.2    The Grand Human

4.3    The Perizonius Thesis

            4.3.1    Individual Thinking and Willing Affects the Entire Human Race

            4.3.2    The Special Role of Science in the Salvation of Humankind

            4.3.3    The Mechanism by Which the Race is Conjoined to God

            4.3.4    Rational Consciousness and Levels of Regeneration

            4.3.5    The Greatest of All Uses

4.4    The Method of Extracting Theistic Psychology From Sacred Scripture

             4.4.1    The Process of Enlightenment and Regeneration: The Scientific
                                    Meaning of Genesis 24 -- Rebekah and Isaac

             4.4.2    The Topics of Genesis 24 in Relation to Theistic Psychology  

             4.4.3    Setting the Natural Mind Into Correspondence

             4.4.4    The Spiritual-Rational Mind Is in Charge

             4.4.5    Table Illustrating the Extraction Process

                      The Divinity of Doctrine Extracted From Sacred Scripture

             4.4.6    Spiritual-Rational Mind Enlightens Our Conscious Natural Mind:
                                        The Case of the Divine Child or Incarnation Event

                      Why the Divine Child Was Male

                      The Divine Marriage in the Divine Child's Mind

            4.4.7 The Empowerment of the Conscious Natural Mind

                      The Basic Ennead Chart For Spiritual Geography and Mental Anatomy

                      Affective-Cognitive Integration Mechanisms: The Method of Trigrams

                      The Trinity as the Source for Being Human

                      The Operational Effect of Truth in the Thinking Process

                      The Process of Initiation in Truth Spiritual Food

4.5    Scientific Revelations in Sacred Scripture

4.6    Sacred Scripture or Divine Speech

 4.7    Dying and Resuscitation

4.8    The Second Death

4.9    Immortality or Life in Eternity

4.10   God, the Divine-Human

Volume 5. Research Methods in Theistic Psychology

5.0  Extractive, Predictive, and Applied Research

        5.0.1    The Unique Properties of Sacred Scripture

        5.0.2    Analyzing Divine Speech: The Scientific Sense of Genesis 22

        5.0.3    The Binding of Isaac on the Altar

        5.0.4    The Mental Struggles of the Divine-Human on Earth

        5.0.5    The Meaning of Sacrifices in Worship

        5.0.6    The Passion of Christ

        5.0.7    Evolutionary Footsteps for the Human Race

        5.0.8    The Scientific Meaning of Sin and Sacrifices

        5.0.9    Three Types of Spiritual Perception

        5.0.10   The Elevation of Consciousness

        5.0.11   Thy Seed Shall Inherit the Gate of Thine Enemies

        5.0.12   Invasion of the Hells

        5.0.13   Universal Salvation of Everyone

          Extracting Theistic Psychology From Sacred Scripture --
                                        an Illustration

          The Stage of Doctrinal Acquisition From the Writings Sacred Scripture

5.1    Anatomy of Mind and Levels of Consciousness:
                    illustration of Applied Research

        5.1.1    The Mind's Three Discrete Degrees -- Burnham's Charts

          The Mind's Two Organs--Will and Understanding

          Three Degrees of Mind--Celestial, Spiritual, Natural

          Internal and External Within Each Degree of Mind

          Corresponding Degrees--Natural and Spiritual Minds

          Anatomy of the Mind at Birth

                      The Incarnation Event and Regeneration

                      Thinking With Angels: Our Virtual Heavens

          Altruism or the Love of Uses

                  The Method of Self-witnessing

          The Genuine Human Shape and Form

          Life in the Embryo

          The Growth of the Mind

                      The Mind's Growth During Childhood

        The Role of the Unconscious Spiritual Mind

       Regeneration of the Adult Mind

       The Adult Unregenerate Hellish Mind

5.2    The Two Forces Acting on Every Object

5.3    Ethical Issues in Theistic Psychology

        5.3.1    Ethics of Science and Religion

        5.3.2    Theistic Psychologists and Morality

        5.3.3    Theistic Psychology and Media Content

        5.3.4    Censorship and Theistic Psychologists

        5.3.5    Theistic Psychologists View on War, Death Penalty, Abortion

5.4.0    The Mental Technology of Spiritual Self-Witnessing:
                    Predictive Research in Theistic Psychology

      Cataloguing the Components of the External and Interior Social Environment

      We Are Never Alone—The Vertical Community

                      The Universal Language in the Afterlife

      Self-Witnessing Of The Threefold Self: Affective, Cognitive, Sensorimotor

      Self-Witnessing As A Spiritual Discipline

      Without Self-Witnessing Our Own Evils, They Cannot Be Removed

      Metanoid Self-Witnessing Or Being An Audience To Yourself

      Macro-Behaviors Are Regenerated By Means Of Micro-Behaviors

      Examples From The Daily Round Archives

      Teaching Self-Witnessing: Protection of Privacy Issues

      Grading and Assessment Approaches

      The Daily Round Archives Classification Scheme (DRA)

      References on Self-witnessing Articles

        5.4.1    Self-Witnessing Literacy Skills

                  Discovering Our Social and Mental Environment

                  Mental Literacy Skills

                  We Are Never Alone—The Vertical Community

                  Self-Witnessing Of The Threefold Self

                  Self-Witnessing As A Spiritual Discipline

                  The Motive of Spiritual Charity

                  Metanoid Self-Witnessing and Sudden Memory

                  Macro-Behaviors Are Regenerated by Means of Micro-Behaviors

                  The Daily Round Archives

                  Some Passages Concerning Self-witnessing and Regeneration

        5.4.2    Cognitive Atlas: Keeping Track of Our Social Life

        5.4.3    Discovery of Sudden Memory

          Foreword One:  Awakening and Re-awakening

          Introduction One:  Oscillation of Awareness

          Experiment 1:  Merely Witnessing Doing Nothing

          Experiment 2:  Observing the Process of Experiential Contraction

          The Evidence: Navigational Performances

          Reflective Awareness: Distinction Between Consciousness and Experiencing

          Introduction Two:  Self-Actualizing

          Thinking as a Scanning Operation

          Modes of Captivity Through the Daily Schedule

          Memory and Social Identity

          The Register of Captivity

          The Consequences of the Daily Schedule:   Things We Forget

          Standardized Imaginings and the Reconstruction of Record

          Sudden Memory:  A New Discovery

          Epilogue One:  Rex's Wisdom

          Epilogue Two:  the Mode of Enactment in the Radicalist Register


        5.4.4     Origin and Analysis of Dreams

5.5    The Substitution Technique

        5.5.1    The Parallelism Technique

        5.5.2    The Alignment of Trines From Sacred Scripture

5.6    Constructing Dualist Concepts From Swedenborg's Writings: Illustration of
                    Applied Research in Theistic Psychology

        5 .6.1   Full Text Searching of the Writings Online

        5.6.2    Indexical Concordance Technique: The Writings vs. the Web

5.7    The Scientific Meaning of the Ten Commandments:
                     Illustration of Extractive Research

        5.7.1    First Commandment: God is the Source of Everything

        5.7.2    Second Commandment: Do Not Take the Name of God in Vain

        5.7.3    Third Commandment: Keep the Sabbath Day Holy

        5.7.4    Fourth Commandment: Honor Your Father and Mother

        5.7.5    Fifth Commandment: Do Not Murder

        5.7.6    Sixth Commandment: Do not Commit Adultery

        5.7.7    Seventh Commandment: Do Not Steal

        5.7.8    Eighth Commandment: Do Not Lie

        5.7.9    Ninth and Tenth Commandments: Do not Covet

        5.7.10   Summary Table For the Scientific Meaning of the Ten Commandments

        5.7.11   Rise Above It--The Ten Commandments in All Religions

5.8    What the Bible Says: Illustration of Applied Research

5.9    Color Wisdom--A Universal Method for Tracking Spiritual Development:
                            Illustration of Applied Research

5.10  Spiritual Linguistics

5.11  Spiritual Numerology

5.11  Spiritual Discourse Analysis

Volume 6. Personality Theory

6.0    Personality Theory

        6.0.1    The Conscious Self and the Development of the As-of Self

        6.0.2    Woman Built From the Man's Rib

        6.0.3    The Rebirth of the Fallen Proprium or Self

        6.0.4    Innocence and the Choice of Salvation

        6.0.5    Spiritual Growth: How the New Will is formed

          The Role of Divine Speech in Building Up the New Will

          Flow Chart of How the New Will is Created by Divine Speech

          Self-assessment Using the Ten Commandments Chart

          Spiritual Growth Method Based on Swedenborg and Gurdjieff

                  The Ugliness of the Proprium or What Is Our Own

        6.0.6    The Birth of the Self in Infants

        6.0.7    The Self in Childhood and Adolescence

        6.0.8    The Self or Proprium in Adulthood

        6.0.9    Death of Self and Rebirth of the New Proprium

        6.0.10  The State of Reformation Begins Regeneration

6.1    The Awesome Power of the Affective Organ

        6.1.1    The Affective--Cognitive Integration: The Circle of Love

6.2    What Determines Our Ultimate Fate in Eternity?

        6.2.1    Wanting to Know the Future Through Psychic Prophecies

6.3    The Vertical Community of Minds

        6.3.1    Human Consciousness and Mediated Divine Influx

          The Formation of Habits

              The Vertical Community and Mental Biology

                                     (I)    Mental Biology

                                    (II)    God's Omnipotence and the As-of-Self Free Will

                                    (III)    God's Omnipresence -- Not in Space, But Within It                               

                                    (IV)   Free Will, Heaven and Hell in the Levels of Our Mind

                                                Part B: Where Am I Evil?

                                                Part C: Born into Eternity  

                                    (V) The Divine Psychologist and Our Character Reformation

                                    (VI)    Societal Consequences of Individual Effort

                                    (VII)    The Spiritual Economics of Immortality

                                    (VIII)    Divine Speech Descends Through Discrete Degrees of Mind, and Forms Them

                                    (IX)    Correspondences to Divine Speech in Sacred Scripture

                                    (X)    Character reformation and the Psychology of Cooperation

                                            Part A:     The Process of Reformation

                                            Part B:     The Role of Temptations

                                            Part C:     In What Way Do We Need God?

                                            Part D:     The Role of the As-of-Self

                                    (XI)    Creating Our Own Hell and Heaven

                                    (XII) Psychology -- Theistic or non-theistic

                                    (XIII) Spiritual Consequences Within Our Natural Actions

                                    (XIV) The Grand Human and the Grand Monster

                                     (XV) Theistic Psychology Expressed in One Formulaic Idea

                                  Passages from the Writings on the Vertical Community and Mental Biology

     The Establishment of Habits and Personality Disorders

              Anxiety and Depression

              Taxonomy of Behavioral Disfunctions

              Psychotherapy as Spiritual Geography:: The Grand Human [Grand Man]

6.4    Love of Self and the World for the Sake of Self

6.5    Love of Self and the World for the Sake of Others

6.6    Love of Ruling Over Others for the Sake of Self

6.7    Love of Ruling Over Others for the Sake of Others

6.8    Sexuality: Non-exclusive Love of the Sex vs. Exclusive Love of One of the Sex

6.9    Feelings Operate in the Spiritual Fibers of the Affective Organ

6.10   Will Power and the Affective-Cognitive Connection

6.11   Relationship, Biography, and Psychohistory

6.12   Theistic Astrology or Astronomica by David Chambers

6.13    The Limbus

Volume 7.  Character Reformation

7.0   Character Reformation

        7.0.1    The Method of Affective Realignment for Character Self-modification

        7.0.2     The Affective--Cognitive Interaction

              What is "Charity"?

              Double State: Inwardly a Devil and Outwardly an Angel

        7.0.3     The Role of the Sensorimotor Mind

        7.0.4     The Source of Anxiety, Worry, and Depression

              Psychobiology of Conscience

        7.0.5     Struggle Between the Natural and the Spiritual Mind

                  The Law of Karma of Good and Evil

        7.0.6     As-of Self Principles of Living: The Power of Self-Regulation              

        7.0.7     The Power of Affective Positivity: The Positive Bias Glow

        7.8     Anger and the Spiritual Function of Mood

        7.0.9     Sacred Scripture in Relation to the Mental World

        7.0.10     Independent Empirical Confirmation of the Dual Meaning in Sacred Scripture

                  Extracting the Inner Sense of Deuteronomy Chapter 1

        7.0.11     Moral Intelligence and Evolution

        7.0.12    Self-Witnessing Exercises

7.1    Focusing or Attending to Corporeal Wisdom

7.2     Swedenborg's Character Reformation

            7.2.1 Swedenborg's Journal of Dreams

7.3     Collective Behavior

            7.3.1     The Vertical Community

            7.3.2     Emotional Contagion

           The Media -- Information, Entertainment, Advertising

                    7.3.2..2 Inherited Tradition -- Ritual, Song, Dance, Food

                    7.3.2..3 God Substitutes -- Idols, Gurus, Saints

7.3.3     The Grand Human

7.3.4     Leadership Qualities

7.3.5     The Hexagram of Consciousness and Reality

      Level 1 Consciousness (Infancy) – Sensuous Incorporation

      Level 2 Consciousness (Childhood) – Sensuous Absorption

      Level 3 Consciousness (Adolescence) – Sensuous Belonging

      The Inversion

      Level 4 Consciousness (Young Adulthood) – Rational Acknowledgment of God

      Level 5 Consciousness (Adulthood) – Rational Conjunction with God

      Level 6 Consciousness (Old Age) – Rational Love of God

7.3.6     The Heavenly Law of Diversity and Unity

7.3.7     Subject Spirits

7.3.8     The Spirits of Mercury

7.3.9     Earths in the Universe

7.3.10    The Perizonius Thesis

7.3.1 1    The Perfection of the Created Universe


Volume 8. Learning and Cognition

8.0    Learning and Cognition

8.1    Thinking From Natural Ideas vs. Thinking From Spiritual Ideas

8.2    Thinking About God From Spiritual Ideas Rather Than Natural

8.3    How We Learn and Develop Rationality

        8.3.1    Degrees of Truth and Levels of Mind

        8.3.2    Test Your Logical Thinking

        8.3.3    Literacy: The Universal Hierarchy of Basic Skills

        8.3.4    Religious Curriculum

        8.3.5    Individual Growth Recapitulates History and Evolution

        8.3.6    Thinking From a Knowledge of the Three Degrees

        8.3.7    The Trigrammatic Construction of the Universe

8.4    External and Interior Memory

8.5    Sudden Memory

8.6    Perception: Natural, Rational, Spiritual

        8.6.1    Spiritual-Rational Perception

        8.6.2    Wisdom and Perception  

8.7    Inherited Spiritual Traits

        8.7.1    Remains and the Levels of Good in Human Development

8.8    Universal Spirit Language and Thought

8.9    Anatomy of Mind and Levels of Consciousness

8.10   Principles of Theistic Psychology Education

        8.10.1    Education With Dualist Concepts

        8.10.2    Constructing Integrated Dualist Concepts

          External and Interior Portions


          Discrete Degrees


          Top Down Integration Through Intermediaries

Volume 9. The Genes of Consciousness in Spiritual Development

9.0 Geography of the Spiritual World = Anatomy of the Mind

        9.0.1    Discovering The Genes of Consciousness in Sacred Scripture

                  Duality Gene Structures

                                  Trigrammatic Gene Structures

                                                  Graphic Concepts for Trigrammatic Genes

                                                  Rational Sets of Trigrammatic Concepts

                                  Enneadic Gene Structures

                                  Hexagrammatic Gene Structures

                                                      Mapping the Divine Child's Mental States

                                                   Using the Ennead Chart to Map the Mental Steps
                                                                                         to Unity in Marriage

9.1 Models of Spiritual Development Based on Sacred Scripture

        9.1.1    Correspondences Hidden Within the Writings Sacred Scripture

        9.1.2    The Scientific Meaning of Heaven

                  Heavenly Robotics -- In the Image and Likeness of God

        9.1.3    The Divine History of Theistic Psychology

                  Individual Spiritual Development Recapitulates New Church History

                  New Church History and Degrees of the Mind

        9.1.4    The Double Ennead Matrix -- Plotting Spiritual History and Individual Development

9.1.5 The Law of Recursiveness in the Growth of Consciousness

9.1.6 The As-of-self or Proprium

9.1.7 The Phases of Consciousness in Theistic Psychology

9.1.8 The Birth of the Rational--The Beginning of Being Human

9.1.9 The Doctrine of the Church and Theistic Psychology

9.1.10 Stages of Development in Theistic Psychology

9.1.11 Levels of Extraction from Sacred Scripture

   List of Additional Diagrams in Theistic Psychology

9.1.12 The Two Heresies Possible in Relation to De Hemelsche Leer

9.1.13 What About the Dangers of Literalism

9.1.14 What is Theistic Psychology

9.1.15 Spiritual Styles of Writing

9.1.16 Intellectual Content in Relation to Degrees of Consciousness

9.1.17 Religious Phases of Behavior in Relation to Consciousness

9.1.18 Rational Consciousness is within Sensual Consciousness

9.1.19 Embedded Progression of the Six Degrees

9.1.20 The Four Ages of Ancient History

9.1.21 Summary Statements of the Style of Writing of Sacred Scripture

9.1.22 Spiritual Stumbling Blocks in Theistic Psychology

9.1.23 How to Use Spiritual Geography Maps

9.1.24 The Harmonizing Matrix

9.1.25 Jacob's Ladder

   Descending and Ascending Paths

9.1.26 The Affective Mind, Cognitive Mind, and Sensorimotor Mind

9.1.27 Successive and Simultaneous Relations

   First Step: Infancy Period of Regeneration

   Second Step: Childhood Period of Regeneration

   Third Step: Adolescence Period of Regeneration

   The Inversion

   Fourth Step: Young Adulthood Period of Regeneration

   Fifth Step: Adulthood Period of Regeneration

   Sixth Step: Old Age Period of Regeneration

9.1.28 Psycho-Dynamic Movements in Regeneration

Volume 10. Health Behaviors

10.0    Physiological Correspondences

10.1    The Daily Emotional Spin Cycle

        10.1.1    Negative Emotions and the Vertical Community

          The Sting and Torment of Conscience

                   How We are Regenerated

          The Vertical Community: Laws of Social Interaction Among Spirits

        10.1.2    The Threefold Self

        10.1.3    Our Four Options

        10.1.4    Getting to Know What the Options Are

        10.1.5    The Negative Spin Cycle

        10.1.6    The Positive Spin Cycle

        10.1.7    The Others-Self Negative Spin Cycle

        10.1.8    The Others-Self Positive Spin Cycle

        10.1.9    The Two Bridges

        10.1.10   Self-Regulatory Prompts for the Red Bridge

        10.1.11   Self-Regulatory Prompts for the Blue Bridge

        10.1.12   Option 1: Negative towards others and the world

        10.1.13   Option 2: Positive towards others and the world

        10.1.14   Option 3: Negative towards self

        10.1.15   Option 4: Positive towards self

        10.1.16   Design of Your Experiment

10.2    Supportive Driving -- Facing the Culture of Disrespect

10.3    Getting a Grip on Anger

10.4    Resistance to Flossing

10.5    Resistance to Medical Compliance

10.6    Medical Daily Round

10.7    Resistance to Exercising

10.8    Intolerance of Feeling Hungry

10.9    Resistance to a Healthy Diet

10.10.1 The Wisdom of Yoga Sayings

       The Correspondential Meaning of Asanas (Postures)

       The Correspondential Meaning of Mudras

       The Correspondential Meaning of Breath and Breathing

       Breathing Explained in the Writings Sacred Scripture

10.10.2    The Wisdom of Hindi Sacred Scripture Contained in Its Correspondential Sense

    Quotes from the Bhagavad Gita and Their Spiritual Meaning

     The Correspondential Meaning of the Upanishads


Volume 11. The Marriage Relationship and The Doctrine of the Wife

11.0  The Marriage Relationship

        11.1 Marriages in Heaven or Conjugial Love

        11.2 Marriages in Hell or Infernal Concubinage

        11.3 The Conjoint Self and The Unity Model of Marriage

                11.3.1     Three Levels of Unity in Gender Relationship

                          Mental Anatomy of Women and Men

                11.3.2     Unity Through Reciprocity and Differentiation

                11.3.3     Sensorimotor, Cognitive, and Affective Conjunction

                11.3.4     Unity Model in Marriage: Ennead Chart of Growth Steps

                11.3.5     Male Dominance Model of Marriage

                            How does the husband develop mental intimacy with his wife?

                            Political Semantics of the Male Dominance Model


                                            "Give him sex"

                                             "Don't try to change him"

                                             "Keep yourself attractive for him"

                                             "That's how men are"

                                             "Show that you appreciate him"

                                             "Wives, submit to your husbands"

                             Does the Male Dominance Model Have a Biblical Grounding?

                             Hellish Marriages and the Female Dominance Model

                 11.3.6     The Spiritual Dimension to the Unity Model

                                Making Field Observations

                                The Ennead Charts of Marriage

                                Behavioral Indicators of One's Relationship Model  

                                           Gender Discourse Within the Three Models

                                                            Part 1: Sexy vs. Unsexy Conversational Style of Husbands

                                                            Part 2: Spiritual Dynamics Between Husband and Wife

                                                            Part 3: Conversational Rules for Husbands in Conjugial Interactions

                                                            Part 4: Characteristics of Husband's Threefold Self During Discourse --

                                                                    Table 7aa

                                                            Part 5: Field Exercise: Monitoring Disjunctive vs. Conjunctive Discourse

                                                            Examples of Unity Values

                  11.3.7     Six Phases of Temptations for Husbands

                               Overcoming White Temptations

                               Overcoming Yellow Temptations

                               Overcoming Green Temptations

                               Overcoming Blue Temptations

                               Overcoming Brown Temptations

                               Overcoming Black Temptations     

    11.4     The Doctrine of the Wife For Husbands

                    11.4.1     The Surrendered Wife vs. the Surrendered Husband

                    11.4.2     The Surrendered Husband is The Ideal Elevated Man

                    11.4.3     The Self-Entrapment of Male Intelligence

                    11.4.4     Who Is Going To Do The Bills?

                    11.4.5     The Spiritual Physiology of Marriage

                                    11.4.5.x    Conjunction Dynamics in Marriage

                    11.4.6      Her Heaven, Not His

                    11.4.7     Divine Truth Within Which Is Divine Love

                    11.4.8      Is The Surrendered Husband Feminized?

                    11.4.9     The Conjoint Mind Is Both Masculine And Feminine

                    11.4.10     The Wife's Role in Heavenly Marriages

                    11.4.11     Spiritual Psychobiology of Marriage

                           The Source of Conjugial Love With Husbands:
                                                        The Inner Sense of CL 88

                              The Circle of Life In Marriage

                              Two Phases of Achieving Unity in Marriage

        11.5     Preparation for Marriage

        11.6     Conjugial Love and Children

        11.7     The Marriage Relationship Based on Sacred Scripture Described in Modern Islam

                    11.7.1    The Definition of God

Volume 12. The Heavenly and Hellish Traits

12.0    The Heavenly and Hellish Traits

        12.0.1    The Writings of Swedenborg (1688-1772)

        12.0.2    The Fundamental Formula of the New Scientific Revelation

        12.0.3    The Mind Is Not in Physical Space

        12.0.4    Spiritual Substances Out of Which the Mind is Formed

        12.0.5    The Three Anatomical Levels of the Mind

        12.0.6    Love and Truth as Substances

        12.0.7    The Geography of the Spiritual World

          First Heaven--Spiritual-Natural Correspondences

          Second Heaven--Spiritual-Rational Correspondences

          Third Heaven--Celestial-Rational Correspondences

        12.0.8    Three Degrees of Regeneration by Temptations

        12.0.9    The Rational is the Beginning of Being Human

        12.0.10   We All Meet in the Mind

12.1    Altruism or the Love of Being Useful

12.2    Character Virtues

12.3    Chastity and Conjugial Love

12.4    Wisdom of Innocence

12.5    Wisdom of Old Age

12.6    Selfishness or the Love of Domineering

        12.6.1    Human Freedom--Heavenly and Hellish

                 Merit or Meritoriousness for Doing Good


                  Falsification of Truth or Profanation



        12.6.2    The Necessity of Putting up the Effort As-of Self

        12.6.3    Compelling Oneself to Do Good

        12.6.4    The Role of Our Vertical Community

        12.6.5     Spiritual Spheres Within the Mind

12.7    Character Flaws

12.8    Resentment, Envy, Avarice

12.9    The Love of Profanation

12.10    Arrogance, Cynicism, Relativism

12.11    Corporeality

        12.11.1    Overcoming the Life of Corporeality

        12.11.2    Spiritual Dangers of Sex Outside Marriage

12.12    The Love of Promiscuity and Adultery

        12.12.1    Taxonomy of Adulteries

12.13    The Love of Corrupting Innocence

12.14    The Hatred of God and Heaven

12.15    The Love of Abusing Women

12.16    Taxonomy of Behavioral Dysfunctions

12.17    Psychotherapy as Biological Theology

Volume 13 Religious Psychology

13.0    Spiritual Geography = Mental Anatomy
            13.0.1      Religious Behaviorism vs. the Psychology of Religion
                  Salvation For Those Who Do Not Know Sacred Scripture
            13.0.2      The Writings of Swedenborg as Sacred Scripture
            13.0.3      Swedenborg's Mission in His Own Words
            13.0.4      Levels of Correspondences in Sacred Scripture
            13.0.5      Objections to Swedenborg as a Divine Revelator
            13.0.6      What Heaven is Like as Told by Eye Witnesses
            13.0.7      The Divine-Human is Universal, Beyond Christian
            13.0.8      Every Religion has the Same God
            13.0.9      The Church       
            13.0.10    God's Incarnation Viewed Scientifically
            13.0.11    Theistic Psychology and the New Church Religion

                     The Beliefs of the New Church

                              History and Evolution Leading Up to the Incarnation Event
                              Neuro-Biology of God Man's Incarnation
                              Neuro-Physiology of Heaven and Hell
                              Contemporary Religious Expressions of the New Church

                      The Nine Zones of the Ennead Matrix of Rational
                                                                Spirituality in the New Church Mind

            13.0.12    Theistic Psychology and the Islam Religion

13.1   Inherited Sin
            13.1.1  Inherited Traits From Parents
            13.1.2  Salvation and Sacrifice
            13.1.3  Correspondential Meaning of Animal Sacrifices
            13.1.4  Salvation and Glorification 
            13.1.5  Salvation and Resurrection 

13.2  Universal Salvation of the Human Race
13.3   Divine Revelation and Sacred Scripture
13.4   Heaven and Hell
13.5   Baptism, Rebirth, Reformation
13.6   Regeneration or Character Reformation
13.7   Doctrine of Life
13.8   The Benefits of Theistic Psychology
13.9    The Central Theme of Theistic Psychology
13.10  Theistic Psychology for the New Church Mind

                13.10.1    Self-Witnessing One’s Thinking and Willing
                13.10.2    Eating Practices
                13.10.3    Physical Exercising
                13.10.4    Sexuality
                13.10.5    Politics and War
                13.10.6    Entertainment
                13.10.7    Chart of Mental Characteristics of Angels and Spirits
                13.10.8    Diagram Showing the Four Windows of the Mind

13.11    Anatomical Diagrams of the Mind in Relation to God and Universe
                13.11.1    The Inmost Region:  God, Infinite, Uncreate
                13.11.2    The Middle Region: Mind and the Spiritual World
                13.11.3    The Outermost Region: The Natural Mind and Hell

13.12    Theistic Psychohistory and Religious Psychology
                13.12.1    The External and Internal Church
                13.12.2    Developmental Phases of the Church Within Us
                13.12.2    History of the Churches on Earth
                          The First Phase
                          The Second Phase
                          The Third Phase
                13.12.3    The Positive Bias
                13.12.4     The Subject Matter of Sacred Scripture
                13.12.5    Seeing Through Sacred Scripture
                13.12.6    The Secret Code of Correspondences in the Bible
                13.12.7    Revelation About the Affective and the Cognitive
                13.12.8    Studying the Psychology of Inner Life
                13.12.9    Content and Dynamics of Inner Life
                13.12.10    Twenty Propositions of Religious Psychology
                13.12.11    Religious Affections Are Inherited
                13.12.12    The Practice of Religious Self-Inspection th
                13.12.13    Repentance as the Gateway to the Interior Sense
                                        of Sacred Scripture

                13.12.14    Discovering the Steps of Regeneration Through
                                         Microdescriptions of Our Inner Life

                13.12.15    The Threefold Order of the World and of Heaven
                13.12.16    The Ninefold Self and the Ninefold Sacred
                                        Scripture (Ennead Matrix)

                13.12.17    The Simple But Basic States of Our Religion in Childhood
                13.12.18    The Psychology of Temptations
                13.12.19    Overview and Summary
                13.12.20    Applied Religious Psychology

Volume 14.  Prayer as Revelation From God

14.0    Prayer as Revelation From God

14.1    Talking to God

14.2    Asking for Things

14.3    Ritual Prayers

Volume 15. Universal Sacred Scripture

15.0    Sacred Scripture -- The Sole Source of Scientific Knowledge About God

        15.0.1    Scientific Revelations in the Old Testament Sacred Scripture

               The Scientific Meaning of Genesis

               The Scientific Meaning of Psalms

        15.0.2    Scientific Revelations in the New Testament Sacred Scripture

           The Scientific Meaning of the Parables of Jesus

           The Scientific Meaning of the Book of Revelation (Apocalypse)

           The Scientific Meaning of the Lord's Prayer

        15.0.3    Scientific Revelations in the Writings Sacred Scripture

         15.0.4    Ancient Forms of Sacred Scripture and Their Derivatives

           The Most Ancient Word and the Celestial Race Before the Fall

           Correspondences From The Ancient Word and the Spiritual Race

           Egyptian Hieroglyphics As Correspondences

           Hindu Sacred Scriptures on the Nature of God 

                              The Trinity of God

           Buddhism as a Religion -- the Buddha and the Dharma

           The I Ching System of Discrete Degrees

           Greek Mythology As Symbolism For Mental States

           The Hierarchical Order of Creation in the Kabala

           The Correspondences in Yoga

          Zoroastrian Sacred Scripture

          The Correspondential Sense of Bahai or Baha'i Sacred Scripture

15.1    Faith and Charity

15.2    Charity or the Love of Being Useful

15.3    Consciousness Raising and Enlightenment

15.4    Miracles and Prophesies

        15.4.1    Visions of Heaven

15.5     Persuasive and Blind Faith

15.6     Rational Faith and Rational Love

15.7    Fundamentalism and External Worship

15.8    Rational Spirituality and Internal Worship

15.9    Resurrection and Resuscitation of the Dead

15.10   Children in Heaven

15.11   Marriage in Heaven

15.12     The Clergy, Sacraments, and the Priesthood

Volume 16. Religious Mysticism

16.0    Religious Mysticism

16.1    Literalism and Dogmatism

16.2    Creationism

16.3    Anti-Semitism

16.4    The Millennial Doctrine

16.5    The Trinity of Three Divine Persons

16.6    Spiritual Warfare

16.7    The Second Coming

16.8    Sexless Angels?

16.9    The Dogma of Faith Alone

16.10   The Mystery of the Holy Spirit

16.11   The Laying on of Hands

16.12   Community and Fellowship

16.13   Christian Gentilism

16.14   Carnal Christians

Volume 17. Religious Movements

17.0    Religious Movements

17.1    Evangelism

17.2    Witnessing for Christ

17.3    TV Miracle Workers

17.4    Ecumenicalism

17.5    Pacifism

17.6    Universalism and Transcendentalism

17. 7    Nonduality, Mysticism, Shamanism, Spiritism

17.8    Theosophy and Astrology

17.9    Cults, Voodoo, Superstition

17.10    Popular Idols

In Volume 18




Swedenborg Compendium
Selections to the Writings Sacred Scripture

Keyed to Theistic Psychology Subjects

(version 3b)

Note: Underlined words and sentences are not in the original. Bolded words in [ALL CAPS] in square brackets are topics, concepts, and subjects in theistic psychology. This compilation is by no means complete or representative!

See also these two sources arranged by topics with brief selections:
Warren, Samuel M. (1853). A Compendium of Swedenborg's Theological Writings. Available at: 
Smyth, Julian K. and Wunsch, William F. (1920). The Gist of Swedenborg. Available at:


For acknowledgement of the Church's truths and of the Lord leads to contact with the heavens, and consequently to an opening of a person's interiors towards heaven; and a subsequent rejection of them leads to a joining of the same truths to falsities arising from evil [((see Profanation))]. For everything a person acknowledges remains implanted in him; nothing present with a person which has entered through acknowledgement is destroyed. (AC 10287)

[ADDITIONAL ENTRIES] (see the end of the entries below)


the love of the will makes the man, and this love draws the understanding into consent (CL 498)


SE 1625. CONCERNING THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE ANGELS. In regard to the knowledge of the angels of the interior heaven, a single example may suffice, taken from their knowledge of the structures and forms of the [human] body; for while any one, no matter what, of the viscera of the body is under consideration, they are enabled to know not only its whole structure and operation, but also all the experience which anatomy is able to detect in the smallest particulars, as whether it be true or genuine. Not only so, but they know in an instant whether what is stated respecting each of the viscera be correct, besides many interior things which no one of the human race can know, as I have sometimes found by experience. They are acquainted, too, with the correspondence which these things bear to things spiritual. Indeed, their knowledge is such that if men were aware of it they would be astounded, although matters of this kind had never been their study in the life of the body. It flows, as it were, spontaneously from the fact that by reason of an intelligence bestowed by the Lord, they know how everything is with the Grand Man in general and in particular, and the knowledge seems to be innate in them. But such knowledge they could never possess were it not that the whole heaven represents the whole man, with all his several parts, and unless the Lord were the life of that man, and thus life itself and unless also the universal heaven were organic. - 1748, March 22. They are thus in first principles, and from first principles, or things interior, and more interior, could comprehend the things which are without or below. (SE 1625)




the Church is from the Word, and its quality is according to its understanding of the Word (n. 76-79). (DP 256)


AC 5053. There are heavenly and celestial communities to which the organs and parts dedicated to generation correspond - every single one in both sexes. Those communities are distinct and separate from others, even as that province in a man or woman is rightly distinct and separate from all the rest. The reason those communities are heavenly and celestial ones is that conjugial love is the fundamental love of all loves, 686, 2733, 2737, 2738. It also serves an incomparable purpose and as a consequence affords a delight that surpasses all other delights, for marriages are the seed-beds of the entire human race, also the seed-beds of the Lord's heavenly kingdom since heaven consists of members of the human race. (AC 5053)

AC 5054. People who have had a very tender love of young children, such as mothers with that love, are in the province of the womb and organs round about it; that is, they are in the province of the cervix and ovaries. The life of those in that province is absolutely sweet and delightful, and their heavenly joy is greater than that of all others. (AC 5054)

AC 5055. But I have not been allowed to know the identity and essential nature of the communities that belong to specific organs of generation because those communities are far too internal for anyone in a lower sphere to discern. Those communities also correlate with hidden functions served by these organs, hidden and also unknown to science for the providential reason that things such as these, which in essence are utterly heavenly, must not suffer any damage from filthy thoughts. They must not be damaged by thoughts that accompany wantonness, whoredom, or adultery and that are aroused in most people by the mere mention of those organs. This being so, let me describe some things witnessed by me which took place further away. (AC 5055)

AC 5056. A certain spirit from another planet was once present with me. (Spirits from other planets will in the Lord's Divine mercy be spoken about elsewhere.) He asked me earnestly to intercede on his behalf to enable him to enter heaven. He said he was not aware of having done what was evil, only of having reprimanded inhabitants of that planet; for on his planet there are people who reprimand and chastise others when they do not lead correct lives. (Reference will be made to these people too when the inhabitants of other planets are dealt with.) That spirit added that after he reprimanded people he instructed them; and as he said this his voice seemed to crack. He also had the ability to arouse feelings of pity. The only answer I could give him however was that I was unable to help him in any way. Entrance into heaven, I told him, rested with the Lord alone; but if he was worthy he could entertain the hope of gaining it. At that point however he was sent back to be among upright spirits who belonged to his own planet; but those spirits said that he could not remain in their company because he was not like them. Nevertheless because his intense desire made him demand that he should be let into heaven, he was sent to a community of upright spirits belonging to our own planet. But these too told him that he could not remain with them. In addition to this his colour seen in the light of heaven was black, though he himself said it was not black but a ruddy brown.

[2] I was told that this is what people of this sort are like initially, before they are received among those who constitute the province of the seminal vesicles, for in these vesicles sperm (semen)* is gathered together along with the suitable fluid with which the sperm is combined. That combination places the sperm in the right condition, so that once it has been sent forth it is released from the fluid at the cervix and thus serves to bring about conception. This kind of substance also holds within it the endeavour and so to speak desire to fulfill the same purpose and so to cast aside the fluid that clothes it. Something similar to this was seen to happen to that spirit. He returned to me, but now he was dressed in humble clothing. He said he had a burning desire to enter heaven and recognized that now he was in a fit state to remain there. I was led to say to him that this was perhaps a sign that he would be received there shortly. At this point angels told him to cast aside his clothing, which in his desire to do so he cast aside so quickly that hardly anything could have been done more quickly. This represented the nature of the desires of those in the province to which the seminal vesicles correspond.
* In Latin semen is the sperm or seed within the seminal fluid, not - as in English - both the sperm and the fluid. (AC 5056)


NJHD 258. In the Word there is a correspondential sense, which is called the internal sense. No one can know what the internal sense of the Word is, unless he knows what correspondence is. The whole and every part, even to the most minute, of the natural world, corresponds to spiritual things, and thence is significative of them. The spiritual things to which natural things correspond assume another appearance in the natural, so that they are not distinguished. Scarcely any one knows at this day, where, or in what part is the Divine of the Word, when nevertheless it is in its internal or correspondential sense, which at this day is not known. (NJHD 258)

WH 7. They are enlightened from the Word, who read it from the love of truth and good, but not they who read it from the love of fame, of gain, or of honor, thus from the love of self. They are enlightened who are in the good of life, and thereby in the affection of truth. They are enlightened whose internal is open, thus who as to their internal man are capable of elevation into the light of heaven. Enlightenment is an actual opening of the interiors of the mind, and also an elevation into the light of heaven. (WH 7)

AC 1. From the mere letter of the Word of the Old Testament no one would ever discern the fact that this part of the Word contains deep secrets of heaven, and that everything within it both in general and in particular bears reference to the Lord, to His heaven, to the church, to religious belief, and to all things connected therewith; for from the letter or sense of the letter all that any one can see is that - to speak generally -everything therein has reference merely to the external rites and ordinances of the Jewish Church. Yet the truth is that everywhere in that Word there are internal things which never appear at all in the external things except a very few which the Lord revealed and explained to the Apostles. (AC 1)

SS 4. Therefore in order to remove all doubt as to such being the character of the Word, the Lord has revealed to me the Word's internal sense. In its essence this sense is spiritual, and in relation to the external sense, which is natural, is as soul is to body. This sense is the spirit which gives life to the letter; it can therefore bear witness to the divinity and holiness of the Word, and convince even the natural man, if he is willing to be convinced. (SS 4)

NJHD 252. What is from the Divine descends through the heavens even to man; wherefore in the heavens it is accommodated to the wisdom of the angels who are there, and on earth it is accommodated to the apprehension of the men who are there. Wherefore in the Word there is an internal sense, which is spiritual, for the angels, and an external sense, which is natural, for men. Hence it is that the conjunction of heaven with man is effected through the Word. (NJHD 252)

AC 2987. Few know what representations and correspondences are nor can any one know this unless he knows that there is a spiritual world, and this distinct from the natural world; for there exists a correspondence between spiritual things and natural things, and the things that come forth from spiritual things in natural ones are representations. They are called correspondences because they correspond, and representations because they represent. (AC 2987)

In all and each of the things in nature and her three kingdoms there is an inward active force from the spiritual world; and unless this were so, nothing whatever in the natural world could act as cause and effect, and consequently nothing could be produced. That which is within natural things from the spiritual world is called a force implanted from the first creation; whereas it is an endeavor [conatus], on the cessation of which, action or motion ceases. Hence it is that the universal visible world is a theater representative of the spiritual world. (AC 5173).

NJHD 186. With a regenerate person truths from good form as it were a constellation by successive derivations, and continually multiply themselves round about (n. 5912). With a regenerate person, truths from good are disposed into such order, that the genuine truths of good, from which, as their parents, the rest proceed, are in the middle, whilst the rest succeed in order according to their relationship and affinities, even to the ultimates, where there is obscurity (n. 4129, 4551, 4552, 5134, 5270). With a regenerate person truths from good are arranged in the form of heaven (n. 3316, 3470, 3584, 4302, 5704, 5709, 6028, 6690, 9931, 10303); (NJHD 186)

NJHD 51. The chief science with the ancients was the science of correspondences, but this science at the present day has perished, nos. 3021, 3419, 4280, 4844, 4964, 4966, 6004, 7729, 10252. The science of correspondences existed among the eastern nations, and in Egypt, no. 5702, 6692, 7097, 7779, 9391, 10407. Their hieroglyphics were derived from that source, nos. 6692, 7097. Through the science of correspondences the ancients introduced themselves into the knowledges of spiritual things, nos. 4749, 4844, 4966. The Word was written by mere correspondences, and its internal or correspondential sense is from that source; and without the science of correspondences it is impossible to know that this sense exists, or yet what the quality of the Word is, nos. 3131, 3472-3485, 8615, 10687. How much the science of correspondences excels the other sciences, no. 4280.  (NJHD 51)

AC 10240. The meaning of these words is revealed if correspondences are used to explain them; for they contain the arcana of heaven. By virtue of its correspondence 'water' means the truth of faith, which is clearly perceptible within the natural. 'The Spirit' means Divine Truth which flows in from the Lord by way of a person's internal into his external or natural, and from that Truth springs the life of faith which the person who is being regenerated possesses. 'Flesh' is the person's proprium or selfhood, which is nothing but evil. 'The Spirit breathes where it wishes' means that in His mercy the Lord imparts new life by means of Divine Truth. 'You hear its voice' means that this life is perceptible in the external or natural man, 'voice' meaning what is declared by the Word. 'You do not know where it comes from or where it goes away to' means that a person does not know how his regeneration is accomplished, for the Lord accomplishes it in hidden ways that are countless and beyond description. 

[3] By virtue of its correspondence 'water' means the truths of faith, see 28, 739, 2702, 3058, 3424, 4976, 5668, 8568, 9323, 10238. 

'The Spirit' means Divine Truth, from which the life of faith springs, 9229, 9818. 

'Flesh' means a person's proprium, which is nothing but evil, 8409. 

'Breathing' means the state of the life of faith, 9281.  

'Voice' means what is declared by the Word, consequently truth derived from it, 9926. 

'Hearing' means perception, 9311, 9926. 

'Coming' and 'going away' or entering and departing mean the state of affairs from start to finish, 9927. 

The hidden ways of regeneration are countless and beyond description, 3179, 3573, 5398, 9334(end), 9336. 

What goes on in the internal man is not perceived while the person is in the world, only what goes on in the external or natural, above in 10236.  (AC 10240)

AC 4280. And (what is incredible) the internal man itself thinks in no other way; for when the external man apprehends the Word according to the letter, the internal man apprehends it at the same time according to the internal sense, although the man while living in the body is not aware of this. Especially may this be seen from the fact that when a man comes into the other life and becomes an angel, he knows the internal sense as of himself without instruction.  (AC 4280)

AC 4280. The Ancient Church, which was in representatives and significatives, knew these things very well. The knowledge of such things was their intelligence and wisdom, and this not only of those who were of the church, but also of those who were out of the church, as is evident from the oldest books of the Gentiles, and from the things which at this day are called fables; for significatives and representatives were derived to them from the Ancient Church. (AC 4280)

AC 10360. That a "bed" denotes doctrine is evident from the passages in the Word where a "bed" is mentioned, and also from the representatives in the other life, where when a bed appears and one lying on it, there is signified the doctrine in which he is; consequently beds appear there most highly adorned for those who are in truths from good. But no one can know that such things are signified by the above words of the Lord except by the internal sense, for the Lord spoke by correspondences, thus by significatives, because from the Divine. (AC 10360)

NJHD 261. The Word is written by correspondences, and thus by representatives.

      The Word, as to its literal sense, is written by mere correspondences, thus by such things as represent and signify spiritual things which relate to heaven and the church (n. 1404, 1408, 1409, 1540, 1619, 1659, 1709, 1783, 2179, 2763, 2899). This was done for the sake of the internal sense, which is contained in every part (n. 2899). For the sake of heaven, since those who are in heaven do not understand the Word according to the sense of the letter, which is natural, but according to its internal sense, which is spiritual (n. 2899). The Lord spoke by correspondences, representatives, and significatives, because He spoke from the Divine (n. 9048, 9063, 9086, 10126, 10728).

Thus the Lord spoke at the same time before the world and before heaven (n. 2533, 4807, 9048, 9063, 9086). The things which the Lord spoke filled the entire heaven (n. 4637). The historicals of the Word are representative, and the words significative (n. 1540, 1659, 1709, 1783, 2686). The Word could not be written in any other style, that by it there might be a communication and conjunction with the heavens (n. 2899, 6943, 9481).

They who despise the Word on account of the apparent simplicity and rudeness of its style, and who fancy that they would receive the Word, if it were written in a different style, are in a great error (n. 8783). The mode and style of writing, which prevailed amongst the most ancient people, was by representatives and significatives (n. 605, 1756, 9942). The ancient wise men were delighted with the Word, because of the representatives and significatives therein, from experience (n. 2592, 2593). If a man of the Most Ancient Church had read the Word, he would have seen the things which are in the internal sense clearly, and those which are in the external sense obscurely (n. 4493).

The sons of Jacob were brought into the land of Canaan, because all the places in that land, from the most ancient times, were made representative (n. 1585, 3686, 4447, 5136, 6516). And thus that the Word might there be written, in which Word those places were to be mentioned for the sake of the internal sense (n. 3686, 4447, 5136, 6516). But nevertheless the Word was changed, for the sake of that nation, as to the external sense, but not as to the internal sense (n. 10453, 10461, 10603, 10604). In order that it may be known what the correspondences and representatives in the Word are, and what is their quality, something shall also be said concerning them.

     All things which correspond are likewise representative, and thereby significative, thus that correspondences and representatives are one (n. 2896, 2897, 2973, 2987, 2989, 2990, 3002, 3225). What correspondences and representations are, from experience and examples (n. 2763, 2987-3002, 3213-3226, 3337-3352, 3472-3485, 4218-4228, 9280). The knowledge of correspondences and representations was the chief science amongst the ancients (n. 3021, 3419, 4280, 4748, 4844, 4964, 4966, 6004, 7729, 10252). Especially with the Orientals (n. 5702, 6692, 7097, 7779, 9391, 10252, 10407); and in Egypt more than in other countries (n. 5702, 6692, 7097, 7779, 9391, 10407). Also among the Gentiles, as in Greece and other places (n. 2762, 7729). But at this day it is among the sciences which are lost, particularly in Europe (n. 2894, 2895, 2994, 3630, 3632, 3747-3749, 4581, 4966, 10252).

Nevertheless this science is more excellent than all other sciences, since without it the Word is not understood, nor the signification of the rites of the Jewish church, which are recorded in the Word; neither is it known what heaven is, nor what the spiritual is, nor in what manner spiritual influx takes place into what is natural, with many other things (n. 4280, and in the places above cited). All the things which appear before angels and spirits, are representatives, according to correspondences of such things as relate to love and faith (n. 1971, 3213-3226, 3449, 3475, 3485, 9481, 9574, 9576, 9577).

The heavens are full of representatives (n. 1521, 1532, 1619). Representatives are more beautiful, and more perfect, in proportion as they are more interiorly in the heavens (n. 3475). Representatives there are real appearances, being derived from the light of heaven, which is Divine truth, and which is the very essential of the existence of all things (n. 3485).

     The reason why each and all things in the spiritual world are represented in the natural world, is because what is internal assumes a suitable clothing in what is external, whereby it makes itself visible and apparent (n. 6275, 6284, 6299). Thus the end assumes a suitable clothing, that it may exist as the cause in a lower sphere, and afterwards that it may exist as the effect in a sphere lower still; and when the end, by means of the cause, becomes the effect, it then becomes visible, or appears before the eyes (n. 5711).

This may be illustrated by the influx of the soul into the body, whereby the soul assumes a clothing of such things in the body, as enable all the things which it thinks and wills, to appear and become visible; wherefore the thought, when it flows down into the body, is represented by gestures and actions which correspond thereto (n. 2988). The affections, which are of the mind, are manifestly represented in the face, by the variations of the countenance, so that they may be seen therein (n. 4791-4805, 5695).

Hence it is evident, that each and all things in nature have in them a latent cause and end from the spiritual world (n. 3562, 5711). Since the things in nature are ultimate effects, which contain prior things (n. 4240, 4939, 5051, 6275, 6284, 6299, 9216). Internal things are represented, and external things represent (n. 4292).

     Since all things in nature are representative of spiritual and celestial things, therefore, in ancient times, there were churches, wherein all the externals, which are rituals, were representative; wherefore those churches were called representative churches (n. 519, 521, 2896). The church founded with the sons of Israel was a representative church (n. 1003, 2179, 10149). All its rituals were external things, which represented the internal things of heaven and the church (n. 4288, 4874).

Representatives of the church and of worship ceased when the Lord came into the world, because the Lord opened the internal things of the church, and because all the externals of the church in the highest sense regarded Him (n. 4832). (NJHD 261)

AC 6653. For a concentration of the mind on any people in particular, or on any person in particular, narrows and restricts their ideas, and deprives them of a perception of the full range of the subject from one edge of it to the other. What applies to 'people' applies in a similar way to other terms, in that in the internal sense they mean entities unlimited by anything else, as is the case with nation (meaning good), king (meaning truth), prince (meaning a leading truth), priest (meaning good), son, daughter, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, brother, sister, father, mother, and very many others. (AC 6653).

AC 5095. When the historical sense mentions a number of persons - as when Joseph, Pharaoh, the chief of the attendants, the cupbearer, and the baker are mentioned here - various things are indeed meant by them in the internal sense, yet only as all these exist in one person. (AC 5095)

AC 5225. the idea of a person is converted in the internal sense into that of some reality. For example, the idea of a man, husband, woman, wife, son, daughter, boy, or girl is converted into the idea of some truth or form of good. (AC 5225)

AC 878. That the "hand" signifies and represents power, is evident from the representatives in the world of spirits, where a naked arm sometimes comes into view, in which there is strength enough to crush one's bones and squeeze their inmost marrow to nothing, causing such terror as to melt the heart; and in fact this strength is actually in it. (AC 878)

AC 5717. There are some who not only relate to the most viscid substances of the brain, which are its excremental things, but also know how to infect them as if with poisons. When such spirits arrive they rush within the skull, and thence by continuity even into the spinal marrow. This cannot be felt by those whose interiors are not open. It has been given me plainly to feel the inroad, and also the effort to destroy me; but this was vain, because I was protected by the Lord. They strove to take away from me all the capacity of the intellect. I plainly felt their operation, and felt also pain from it, which however soon ceased. I afterward spoke to them, and they were compelled to confess whence they were. They said that they lived in dark forests, where they durst not injure their companions, because in that case their companions were allowed to treat them cruelly. Thus they are kept in bonds.

They are ugly, having the face of a wild beast, and hairy. I was told that they are such as had formerly slain whole armies, as we read in the Word; for they rushed into the chambers of everyone's brain, and inspired terror, together with such madness that they killed each other. At the present day such spirits are kept shut up within their own hell, and are not let out. These too bear relation to deadly tumors of the head within the skull. It was said above that they rush within the skull and by continuity therefrom even into the spinal marrow; but be it known that it is only an appearance that the spirits themselves rush in, they being borne along outside by a way which corresponds to the spaces in question within the body, which is felt within as if there were an inroad. This sensation is caused by correspondence, from which their operation is easily brought to bear upon the man to whom it is directed. (AC 5717)

SE 3515. But the sphere of those who have not yet received faith is to those who acknowledge and meditate upon interior things, continually repugnant, more so than that of all other spirits; whence for more than an entire day it was apparent to me with how much difficulty they are brought to the acknowledgement of the interior things of the Word [the Writings]; for they are not delighted or affected like others, by the exhibition of these interior things, but continually resist and fight against them, but in silence, without any open contradiction. They merely offer a general [internal] resistance; wherefore in the world they seem to be brought with more difficulty than others to the belief of those things which are of true faith. It was shown to me that their sphere conflicts with the sphere of those who are in faith, and who are yet so obstinate that they will not suffer themselves to be overcome. ... 1748, October 10.(SE 3515)

SE 1139. CONCERNING SPIRITS WHO ARE NOT WILLING TO HEAR AND ADMIT THE INTERIOR AND MORE INTERIOR THINGS OF THE WORD There are spirits who, although they are good, cannot as yet be admitted into heaven because they are not willing to hear and to admit the interior and more interior things of the Word; on this account they have thought evilly against me, and have interpreted everything as evil. For they who do not assent to interior things cannot learn the things which are of the interior and more interior man, since they do not know that there are interior, still less more interior things, such as those that concern the works of faith done from obedience to the Word. They call those things good which are done by the good, and are done from a good heart. But if it be said that good works ought to be works of charity, and that charity is of mercy and thus of the Lord the Savior, they grant it, but they have not thought so profoundly. Therefore, those who are of such a nature that they do not admit these things cannot as yet be introduced into the interior heaven by the way of cognitions. (SE 1139)

HH 175. Since all things that correspond to interiors also represent them, they are therefore called REPRESENTATIVES, and because they are varied in accordance with the state of the interiors of the angels, they are also called APPEARANCES. Nevertheless, the things that appear before the eyes of angels in the heavens and are perceived by their senses, appear and are perceived just as true to life as do things on earth to men, nay rather, much more clearly, distinctly and perceptibly. Appearances of this kind in heaven are called real appearances, because they have real existence. Appearances that are not real also occur, which are such as do appear but do not correspond to interiors.# These will be treated of in the following pages.

# With the angels all things that are visible are representatives (n. 1971, 3213-3226, 3342, 3475, 3485, 9457, 9481, 9576, 9577).

The heavens are full of representatives (n. 1521, 1532, 1619).

The representatives are more beautiful as they are more interior in the heavens (n. 3475).

As the representatives there are from the light of heaven they are real appearances (n. 3485).
The Divine influx is turned into representatives in the higher heavens, and therefrom in the lower heavens also (n. 2179, 3213, 9457, 9481, 9576, 9577).

Those things are called representative that appear before the eyes of the angels in such forms as are in nature, that is, such as are in the world (n. 9457).

Internal things are thus turned into external (n. 1632, 2987-3002).
What representatives in the heavens are; this made clear by various examples (n. 1521, 1532, 1619-1628, 1807, 1973, 1974, 1977, 1980, 1981, 2299, 2601, 2761, 2762, 3217, 3219, 3220, 3348, 3350, 5198, 9090, 10276).

All things seen in the heavens are in accordance with the correspondences and are called representatives (n. 3213-3226, 3342, 3475, 3485, 9457, 9481, 9576, 9577).
All things that correspond also represent and likewise signify what they correspond to (n. 2896, 2987, 2989-2991, 3002, 3225).    (HH175)

NJHD 261. Representatives there are real appearances, being derived from the light of heaven, which is Divine truth, and which is the very essential of the existence of all things (n. 3485).

Real appearances in the other life are circumstanced, comparatively, (1) like life, which appears to be in man, when nevertheless it inflows; (2) like wisdom, intelligence, faith, love being from man, when nevertheless they inflow; (3) like man existing without a connection with the Lord through spirits and angels; (4) like the eye of the body seeing; in general, the body living, when yet it is the spirit in the body; so in very many other cases.

AC 3485. The representations that come forth in the other life are appearances, but living ones, because they are from the light of life. The light of life is the Divine wisdom, which is from the Lord alone. Hence all things that come forth from this light are real; and are not like those things that come forth from the light of the world. Wherefore they who are in the other life have sometimes said that the things they see there are real things, and the things which man sees are in comparison not real; because the former things live, and thus immediately affect their life, while the latter things do not live, thus do not immediately affect the life, except insofar and in such a manner as the things in their minds which are of this world's light conjoin themselves fitly and correspondently with the things of the light of heaven. From all this it is now evident what representations are, and what correspondences.

AC 1116. For the angels have most magnificent dwellings, such as cannot be described, as I have often seen. To their eyes so real is their appearance that nothing can be more real. But whence such real appearances come will be shown of the Lord's Divine mercy hereafter. (AC 1116)

AC 9917. This signification of "going in and going out" is from the representatives in the other life; for there they go, walk, advance, go in and out, just as in the world; but all these acts are done according to the state of the life of their thoughts and affections (as may be seen in the places above cited). That these acts also originate from their thoughts and affections, and are correspondences, and thus real appearances, they do not notice. (AC 9917)

EU 86. Distances in the other life are real appearances, which are presented by the Lord to be seen, according to the state of the interiors of angels and spirits (n. 5604, 9104, 9440, 10,146). (EU 86)

AC 3485. The representations that come forth in the other life are appearances, but living ones, because they are from the light of life. The light of life is the Divine wisdom, which is from the Lord alone. Hence all things that come forth from this light are real; and are not like those things that come forth from the light of the world. Wherefore they who are in the other life have sometimes said that the things they see there are real things, and the things which man sees are in comparison not real; because the former things live, and thus immediately affect their life, while the latter things do not live, thus do not immediately affect the life, except insofar and in such a manner as the things in their minds which are of this world's light conjoin themselves fitly and correspondently with the things of the light of heaven. From all this it is now evident what representations are, and what correspondences. (AC 3485).

AC 2588. They who are in the affirmative that the Word has been so written as to possess an internal sense which does not appear in the letter, can confirm themselves therein by many rational considerations; as that by the Word man has connection with heaven; that there are correspondences of natural things with spiritual, in which the spiritual are not seen; that the ideas of interior thought are altogether different from the material ideas which fall into the words of language; that man, being born for both lives, can, while in the world, be also in heaven, by means of the Word which is for both worlds; that with some persons a certain Divine light flows into the things of the understanding, and also into the affections, when the Word is read; that it is of necessity that there should be something written that has come down from heaven, and that therefore the Word cannot be such in its origin as it is in the letter; and that it can be holy only from a certain holiness that it has within it.

He can also confirm himself by means of memory-knowledges; as that men were formerly in representatives, and that the writings of the Ancient Church were of this nature; also that the writings of many among the Gentiles had this origin; and that it is on this account that in the churches such a style has been revered as holy, and among the Gentiles as learned, as examples of which the books of many authors might be mentioned. But they who are in the negative, if they do not deny all these things, still do not believe them, and persuade themselves that the Word is such as it is in the letter, appearing indeed worldly, while yet being spiritual (as to where the spiritual is hidden within it they care little, but for manifold reasons are willing to let it be so), and this they can confirm by many things. (AC 2588)

AC 2588. Things of the body cannot enter into those of the spirit, but only the reverse (AC 2588)

AC 2588. Every word, even to the smallest iota of all, in the Word, involves spiritual and heavenly things; and that the Word is in this manner inspired, so that when it is read by man, spirits and angels immediately perceive it spiritually according to the representations and correspondences. (AC 2588)

AC 10627. The external sense, which is the sense of the letter, must consist of pure correspondences; and it consists of pure correspondences when all the words, and all the connections of the words, signify in the internal sense things spiritual and celestial. (AC 10627)

AC 1080. Our Word, as to the sense of the letter, which is natural, makes one by influx and correspondences with the Words in the heavens, the senses of which are spiritual. (AC 1080)

AC 10400. [3] Let such observe as will, whether at the present day anyone knows otherwise than that the Divine itself of the Word is the sense of its letter. But let them consider also whether anyone can know the Divine truths of the Word in this sense except by means of doctrine therefrom, and that if he has not doctrine for a lamp he is carried away into errors, wherever the obscurity of his understanding and the delight of his will lead and draw him. The doctrine which must be for a lamp is what the internal sense teaches, thus it is the internal sense itself, which in some measure lies open to everyone (even if he does not know what the internal sense is) who is in what is external from what is internal, that is, whose internal man is open. For heaven (which is in the internal sense of the Word) flows in with such a man when he reads the Word, enlightens him, and gives him perception, and thus teaches him. Nay, if you will believe it, with man the internal man is of itself in the internal sense of the Word, because it is a heaven in the least form, and consequently when it is open it is with the angels in heaven, and is therefore also in like perception with them. This can also be seen from the fact that the interior intellectual ideas of man are not such as are his natural ideas, to which nevertheless they correspond.

[4] But of the nature of these ideas man is not aware so long as he lives in the body; but he comes into them spontaneously when he comes into the other life, because they are implanted in him, and by means of them he is forthwith in fellowship with the angels. From this it is evident that the man whose internal is open, is in the internal sense of the Word, although he is not aware of it. From this he has enlightenment when he reads the Word, but according to the light that he can have by means of the knowledges which he has. (But who these are, see n. 9025, 9382, 9409, 9410, 9424, 9430, 10105, 10324.) (AC 10400)

DE VERBO 26. The Word
I have examined the way spiritual angels frame the words of their speech, and I discovered that they frame them and utter them according to and in consequence of ideas having to do with the things they symbolize. For example, when they say or pronounce "horse and carriage," they then use an expression that carries the symbolic meanings of these things, such as using a word for horse that comes from ideas having to do with the intellect, and a word for carriage that comes from ideas having to do with doctrine from the Word. And so on with the rest of their expressions. Thus they speak according to the correspondence about the things they see, even as people do. In short, they give names to things in accordance with their correspondence. 

[2] It has consequently now been revealed to these angels that they use correspondences in the words of their speech. This they did not know before, but they discovered it when they were in a natural state with me, by examining in that state the ideas they had of things in a spiritual state. In a word, the expressions of their speech or language are all formed in accordance with correspondences. 

[3] I asked the angels how they would write "horses harnessed to a carriage." They said they would write simply l, and that this letter would express it. I then asked how they would write "understanding of doctrine." They said they would do so likewise by writing l, only then they would have a higher thought of it. This, too, made it apparent that the expressions of their language involve correspondences. But few of them had paid any attention to this, just as few in this world give any thought to spiritual light when the light of the intellect is referred to, or when enlightenment and seeing the light are mentioned, or as few give any thought to spiritual fire and heat when heavenly fire is alluded to as the fire that burns in the heart, not knowing that fire and its heat correspond to love in the heart, that is, in the will, and that light corresponds to truth in the intellect.  (De Verbo 26)

 HH 306. When the knowledge of correspondences and representations had been blotted out of remembrance then the Word was written, in which all the words and their meanings are correspondences, and thus contain a spiritual or internal sense, in which are the angels. (HH 306)

AC 1882. There are two kinds of visions that are not of the ordinary kind, into which I have been let solely that I might know their nature, and what is meant by its being said in the Word that men were "withdrawn from the body," and that they were "carried by the spirit into another place." (AC 1882)

AC 1883. As regards the first, namely, being withdrawn from the body, the case is this. The man is brought into a certain state that is midway between sleep and wakefulness, and when he is in this state he cannot know but that he is wholly awake. All his senses are as fully awake as in the highest wakefulness of the body; the sight, the hearing, and, wonderful to say, the touch, which is then more exquisite than it can ever be in the wakefulness of the body. In this state also spirits and angels have been seen to the very life, and also heard, and, wonderful to say, have been touched, and almost nothing of the body then intervened. This is the state of which it is said that they are "withdrawn from the body," and that they "do not know whether they are in the body or out of it."* I have been let into this state only three or four times, merely that I might know how the case is with it, and that spirits and angels are in the enjoyment of every sense, even touch in a form more delicate and more exquisite than that of the body.
* See 2 Cor. 12:3.  (AC 1883)

AC 1884. As regards the other kind of vision-being carried away by the spirit into another place-it has been shown me by living experience what it is, and how it is done, but only two or three times. One single experience I may mention. Walking through the streets of a city and through the country, and being at the same time also in conversation with spirits, I did not know but that I was wide awake and saw as at other times, so that I walked on without mistake, and all the time being in vision, seeing groves, rivers, palaces, houses, men, and many other things. But after I had thus walked for hours, suddenly I was in the sight of the body, and became aware that I was in another place. Greatly amazed at this, I perceived that I had been in such a state as they were in of whom it is said that they were "led away by the spirit into another place;"* for while this state lasts there is no reflection concerning the way, even if it be many miles; nor is there reflection concerning the time, even if it be many hours or days; nor is there any feeling of fatigue. Moreover the person is led through ways of which he has no knowledge, even to the appointed place. This took place that I might know that a man can be led by the Lord without his knowing whence and whither.
* See 1 Kings 18:12; 19:8; Ezek. 3:12, 14; Acts 8:39. (AC 1884)

AC 1885. These two kinds of visions, however, are extraordinary, and were shown me merely to the end that I might know their nature. But the things I have habitually "seen" [as mentioned in the title to this work] are all those which of the Lord's Divine mercy you may see related in this First Part, and which are placed at the beginning and end of the several chapters. These are not visions, but things seen in the highest wakefulness of the body, and this for several years.*  (AC 1885)

SE 825. There are spirits who depict the kidneys and the bladder in the human being

Spirits who depict the kidneys, ureters and bladder in man are at the left side of the face, but toward the front, at the opening between the side of the temples and the forehead, closer to the forehead. They are of the kind who are not concerned with inward matters, much less very inward ones, nor do they understand them. Therefore when I spoke of and questioned them about such subjects, they said they did not understand them, although other spirits had understood them well.

These same ones also easily become indignant, as if from a kind of envy. They were indignant, for example, that good spirits were standing by and present with me, and they wanted to irritate them in various ways, so as to drive them away. Thus they do many things out of indignation, they are restless in spirit, and are not content with their lot - so that some property of the urine can be traced to them.

They are present, and I am speaking with them - they grow angry, go away, come back - there are many of them, and in lines. They are not deceitful, because they do this from a kind of irritable jealousy but not from deceit, and are like those in the life of the body who are called simply bad-tempered. (SE 825)

SE 826. Moreover, at the left side appeared large swine joined together, by which are portrayed the earthy matters present in the urine, and being separated from the liquid. Thus depictions of earthy matters in urine are made by means of pigs so joined together, large ones, at the left side, not far off, on almost the same horizontal plane, if not somewhat higher. (SE 826)

SE 829. * # # These same spirits sometimes ruminate over things said previously, which they retain in their memory and then become angry, wanting to find out the reasons why they were said in that way. Thus there is a kind of stickiness in them, also [cf. 810, 812].
* This paragraph is inserted in accordance with the indications of the author. (SE 829)

SE 827. The same ones who are like Kidneys, ureters and bladders, do not understand man's thoughts well, either. They do not penetrate to any but those that are superficial. Sometimes they ask whether something was said about them, when it concerned others, or whether something is true, when it is quite otherwise. 1748, 18 February. (SE 827)

Se 828. There are also those who relate to the skin
There are spirits who relate to the outward human coverings also, but with these I have not spoken, only perceiving from them that they brought on warmth caused by exhalations through invisible pores. Now they are indeed speaking, saying it is they who cover all; but what they are like in other respects has not yet been revealed to me. 1748, 18 February. (SE 828)

SE 830. There are spirits relating to the large ventricles of the brain
The large ventricles of the brain are the chambers into which liquids flow from the spaces between the tissues, and from elsewhere, as is known. Thus they are, so to speak, the urinary bladders of the brain, where fluid, or lymph, is mingled with [animate] spirit and whence in turn, [animate] spirit and better elements are secreted, one after the other. (SE 830)

SE 831. Those spirits are above the head, quite high up - not directly overhead, but a little toward the front, very little. They are good spirits, and they, too, spoke with me, quite pleasantly; for they operate, even speak, with a very pleasant flowing motion. They said that they constantly aspire to come to heaven, for they are not aware that they had been in heaven, and then been removed so as to be better perfected, thus returning once again into heaven when the heterogeneous parts have been cast out from them.

The case is just as it is with that fluid in the ventricles, part of which is absorbed by the choroid plexus: part is expelled from them, part seeps elsewhere; part passes over into the third ventricle under the pineal gland and thus through the infundibulum toward the pituitary gland, where it is separated into three quantities, which are borne through various paths, canals and cavities, towards the jugular vein, going to meet the chyle coming up through the thoracic duct. Mingled together there, they are carried toward the heart, thence into the lungs, then back into the left ventricle [of the heart] and thus onward, part toward the head through the carotid arteries, part downward toward all the internal organs of the body.

All these events conspire to the purpose of forming the purer blood, or animate spirit, and thus the red blood, so that by a uniting of material and spiritual elements, they may bring about a harmonious life. 1748, the 18th day of February. (SE 831)


Theistic Psychology is drawn (extracted) from the Writings. The Writings are the Word. Hence, doctrine = Theistic Psychology . Everything the Writings say about doctrine must be applied also to Theistic Psychology.

the doctrine which is delivered in the following pages” (NJHD 7)

Doctrine is worship (NJHD 6)

Doctrine “is from the correspondential sense of the Word” (NJHD 6)

i. The Writings cannot be understood without doctrine.

ii. Doctrine must be drawn from the sense of the letter of the Writings.

iii. But the Divine truth which must be of doctrine appears to none but those who are in enlightenment from the Lord. (SS 50)

the doctrine of the Church is to be drawn from the sense of the Letter of the Word and confirmed by it (n. 50-61 of the same work)(SS) (DP 256)

It is only by the Doctrine of the Church which is in enlightenment from the Lord, and by which the literal sense is read from within and therefore in true order, that a perception of the essential things of life is possible. (H. D. G. Groeneveld in DHL F.3, p.4)

The second danger arises when the Church has attention only for the letter of the Third Testament- and therefore closes out enlightenment from the Lord by which the letter is read from within, seeing such a reading does not seem to be in agreement with a reading of the Third Testament from without. (ditto, p.7)


That man has enlightenment who shuns evils because they are sins (DeVerbo 12)

Enlightenment is by the Word (DeVerbo 12)


Be it known that the sun of this world does not at all appear to any spirit, nor anything of its light; for to spirits the light of our sun is like thick darkness. This sun remains in perception with spirits solely from having been seen while they were in the world, and it is presented to them in idea as something that is intensely dark, and this behind them, at a considerable distance, in altitude a little above the plane of the head. The planets within our solar system appear in a fixed position relative to the sun: Mercury behind and a little toward the right; the planet Venus to the left, a little behind; the planet Mars to the left in front; the planet Jupiter in like manner to the left in front, but at a greater distance; the planet Saturn wholly in front at a considerable distance; the Moon to the left rather high up; the satellites also to the left, each relatively to its own planet. Such is the situation of these planets in the ideas of spirits and angels; and the spirits also appear near their own planet, but outside of it. (AC 7171)


HH 448. How this resuscitation is effected has both been told to me and shown to me in living experience. The actual experience was granted to me that I might have a complete knowledge of the process. (HH 448)

HH 449. As to the senses of the body I was brought into a state of insensibility, thus nearly into the state of the dying; but with the interior life and thought remaining unimpaired, in order that I might perceive and retain in the memory the things that happened to me, and that happen to those that are resuscitated from the dead.

I perceived that the respiration of the body was almost wholly taken away; but the interior respiration of the spirit went on in connection with a slight and tacit respiration of the body. Then at first a communication of the pulse of the heart with the celestial kingdom was established, because that kingdom corresponds to the heart in man.# Angels from that kingdom were seen, some at a distance, and two sitting near my head. Thus all my own affection was taken away although thought and perception continued.

# The heart corresponds to the Lord's celestial kingdom, the lungs to His spiritual kingdom (n. 3635, 3886, 3887).

[2] I was in this state for some hours. Then the spirits that were around me withdrew, thinking that I was dead; and an aromatic odor like that of an embalmed body was perceived, for when the celestial angels are present everything pertaining to the corpse is perceived as aromatic, and when spirits perceive this they cannot approach; and in this way evil spirits are kept away from man's spirit when he is being introduced into eternal life. The angels seated at my head were silent, merely sharing their thoughts with mine; and when their thoughts are received the angels know that the spirit of man is in a state in which it can be drawn forth from the body. This sharing of their thoughts was effected by looking into my face, for in this way in heaven thoughts are shared.

[3] As my thought and perception continued, that I might know and remember how resuscitation is effected, I perceived the angels first tried to ascertain what my thought was, whether it was like the thought of those who are dying, which is usually about eternal life; also that they wished to keep my mind in that thought. Afterwards I was told that the spirit of man is held in its last thought when the body expires, until it returns to the thoughts that are from its general or ruling affection in the world. Especially was I permitted to see and feel that there was a pulling and drawing forth, as it were, of the interiors of my mind, thus of my spirit, from the body; and I was told that this is from the Lord, and that the resurrection is thus effected. (HH 449)

TCR 771. In the chapter on the Sacred Scripture I showed that the literal sense of the Word is written by appearances and correspondences. Each of its details therefore contains a spiritual sense in which truth is illuminated by its own light, and the literal sense is in shadow. So to prevent the people of the new church, like those of the old church, going astray in the shadows obscuring the literal sense of the Word, especially as regards heaven and hell, how they will live after death, and on the present occasion about the Lord's coming, the Lord has been pleased to open the sight of my spirit, thus admitting me to the spiritual world. I have been allowed not only to talk with spirits and angels, with relations and friends, even with kings and princes, who have met their end in the natural world, but also to see the astonishing sights of heaven, and the pitiful sights of hell. So I have seen how people do not pass their time in some pu deep in the earth, nor flit around blind and dumb in the air or in empty space, but live as human beings in a substantial body, in a much more perfect state, if they come among the blessed, than they experienced previously when living in material bodies.

[2] So to prevent people from plunging yet deeper into erroneous ideas about the destruction of the sky we see and the earth we live on, and consequently about the spiritual world, as the result of ignorance, which leads to worshipping nature and this automatically to atheism - something which at the present time has begun to take root in the inner rational minds of the learned - to prevent then atheism from spreading more widely, like necrosis in the flesh, so as to affect as well the outer mind which controls speech, I have been commanded by the Lord to make known various things which I have seen and heard. These include heaven and hell, the Last Judgment, and the explanation of Revelation, which deals with the Lord's coming, the former heaven and the new heaven, and the holy Jerusalem. If my books on these subjects are read and understood, anyone can see what is meant there by the Lord's coming, a new heaven and the New Jerusalem. (TCR 771)

CL 39. (v) These facts have been fully confirmed by eye-witness.
I have so far considered it enough to confirm these propositions by intellectual, what are called rational, arguments: that a person lives on as a person after death, that a male is then a male and a female a female, that each person retains his own love after death, and his chief loves are sexual and conjugial. But people have from childhood been given by parents and teachers, and later by learned men and clergy, a firm belief that they will not live on as people after death, except on the day of the Last Judgment, and some have now spent six thousand years waiting for it. Moreover, many have placed this belief in the category of things which must be taken on trust and not understood. For these reasons it has been necessary to confirm the same propositions also by eye-witness accounts. If this is not done, the person who trusts only his senses will be led by the belief forced on him to say, 'If people lived on as people after death, I could see and hear them' and 'Who has come down from heaven, or up from hell, to tell us?'

But it has not been and still is not possible for an angel of heaven to come down, or for a spirit of hell to come up, and talk with a person, unless the inner levels of his mind, that is, of his spirit, have been opened by the Lord. This can only happen fully with those whom the Lord has prepared to receive the truths of spiritual wisdom. It has therefore pleased the Lord to do this with me, in order to ensure that conditions in heaven and hell, and how people live after death, should not remain unknown, be sunk in ignorance and finally buried in denial. The eye-witness proofs of the propositions mentioned above are too numerous to relate here; but they can be seen in my book HEAVEN AND HELL, also in the CONTINUATION ABOUT THE SPIRITUAL WORLD*; and later in my Apocalypse Revealed. But in so far as particularly concerns marriage, they will be found in the account of experiences subjoined to sections or chapters of this book. (CL 39)

SE 1706. CONCERNING AN INDETERMINATE STATE OF SPIRITS. I, together with the spirits around me, was in an indeterminate state, which state was such that they could not reflect at all upon themselves, but became, as it were, reduced to nothing in the universe, which accords with the popular idea of spirits. As relates to myself, I could scarcely tell whether I was in the body or out of the body, for I perceived nothing of the body, inasmuch as it was not given to reflect upon it.

Thus the perception I had was independent of the body, for the ideas were determined to a vague universality [in universum], and thus, as it were, dissipated, having no determination in myself. Determination in one's self causes that the subjects of it should seem to themselves to be such as they think themselves to be. In a word, the state was altogether different from the ordinary state, nor was there anything but bare speech, for the spirits spoke and I spoke, but the speech was as if it proceeded not from any particular man, but was a mere voice sent forth into vacuity. [Above] there appeared nothing but the celestial blue vault [sprinkled] with little stars. (SE 1706)

AC 1526. I was withdrawn from the ideas of particular things,* or those of the body, so that I might be kept in spiritual ideas. There then appeared a vivid glow of diamond light, and this for a considerable time. I cannot describe the light in any other way; for in its least parts it was like the sparkling of the diamond. And while I was kept in that light, I perceived the particular things, which are worldly and corporeal, as it were below me, and remote; by which I was instructed how great light those are in who are withdrawn from material ideas into those which are spiritual. Moreover, the light of spirits and of angels has been seen by me so many times, that many pages would be filled if all the experiences were recounted. (AC 1526).

TCR 461. The third experience. Once when I was in the spirit I travelled deep into the southern region in the spiritual world, and came into a park there; and I saw that this one was better than the others I had so far visited. The reason was that a garden means intelligence; and it is to the south that all are sent who are especially intelligent. It was this that was meant by the Garden of Eden, where Adam lived with his wife; so their being driven out implies that they were deprived of intelligence, and thus also of uprightness of life. As I was walking in this southern park I noticed some people sitting under a laurel-bush eating figs. I went up to them and asked them to give me some figs. They did so, and at once the figs in my hand turned into grapes. I was surprised by this, but an angelic spirit standing next to me said: 'The figs in your hand turned into grapes, because the meaning of figs by their correspondence is the kinds of good of charity and hence of faith in the natural or external man, and grape means the kinds of good of charity and hence of faith in the spiritual or internal man. As you love what is spiritual, so this happened to you. For in our world everything happens and comes into existence, and also undergoes change, in accordance with correspondences.'

[2] I was at once struck with a keen desire to know how a person can do good coming from God, and yet do it exactly as if of himself. So I asked those who were eating figs how they understood the point. They said that they could only understand this as meaning that God performs this inwardly in a person while he is unaware of it. For if he were conscious of it, and did it in that state, he would do only apparent good, which is inwardly evil. 'Everything,' they said, 'which comes from man comes from his self (proprium), and this is evil from birth. How then can good coming from God and evil coming from man be linked, and so jointly proceed to action? A person's self in matters of salvation is constantly seeking merit; and in so far as he does so, he takes away from the Lord His merit, which is the height of injustice and impiety. In short, if the good which God performs in a person were to flow into his willing and thence into his doing, that good would be utterly defiled and profaned, something God never permits. A person can of course think that the good he does comes from God, and call it God's good done by his means; still we do not understand that it is good.'

[3] Then I disclosed what I was thinking and said: 'You do not understand because your thinking is based upon appearances, and this sort of thinking if supported by argument is fallacy. The appearance and hence the fallacy you are involved in is because you believe that everything a person wills and thinks, and so does and says, is in him and consequently comes from him. Yet in fact nothing of this is in him, except the condition of receiving what flows in. Man is not life in himself, but he is an instrument for receiving life. The Lord is life in Himself, as He also says in John:

As the Father has life in Himself, so He granted to the Son to have life in Himself. John 5:26; and elsewhere, for instance 11:25; 14:6, 19.

[4] 'There are two things which produce life, love and wisdom, or, what is the same, the good of love and the truth of wisdom. These flow in from God, and are received by a person as if they were his own; and because they are felt like this, they also come from a person as if they were his. The Lord grants that they are felt like this by a person, so that what flows in affects him, and so by being accepted remains with him. But because all evil also flows in, not from God, but from hell, and accepting this gives pleasure, man being by birth such an instrument, for this reason only so much good can be accepted from God as there is evil taken away by the person as if by himself, which is achieved by repentance together with faith in the Lord.

[5] 'It can be plainly seen from a consideration of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch that love and wisdom, charity and faith, or to use a more general expression, the good of love and charity, and the truth of wisdom and faith, flow into a person; and that what flows in appears in a person as if it were entirely his own, and it proceeds from him as if it were his own. All the sensations produced in the organs of those senses come from an external source and are felt in the organs concerned. It is the same with the organs of the internal senses, the only difference being that these are affected by spiritual things, which are undetectable, flowing in, whereas the external senses are affected by natural things, which are detectable. In short, man is an instrument for the reception of life from God; it follows that he receives good to the extent that he desists from evil. Everyone is granted by the Lord the potentiality of desisting from evil, because he is granted the power to will and to have understanding; and whatever a person does from his will in accordance with his understanding, or what is the same thing, from his freedom to will in accordance with the power of reason in his understanding, is permanent. By this means the Lord brings a person into a state of being linked with Himself, and in this state He reforms, regenerates and saves him.

[6] 'The life which flows in is life coming forth from the Lord; this life is also called the Spirit of God, and in the Word the Holy Spirit, and of this it is said that it enlightens and quickens, in fact that it works on him. But this life varies and is modified depending on the organisation brought about by love. You can also know that all the good of love and charity, and all the truth of wisdom and faith flow in and are not actually in the person, if you reflect that when anyone thinks that man has such a capability from creation, he must inevitably think that God poured Himself into man, so that people are partially gods. Yet those who think this as a result of firm belief become devils, and in our world stink like corpses.

[7] 'Moreover, what is human action but a mind acting? What the mind wills and thinks, it does and speaks by means of its instrument, the body. When therefore the mind is guided by the Lord, so is its action and speech. Action and speech are guided by the Lord, when He is believed in. If this were not so, tell me if you can, why did the Lord in thousands of places in His Word order man to love his neighbour, perform the good deeds of charity, to produce fruit like a tree and keep His commandments, and to do both one and the other in order to be saved? Again, why did He say that a person would be judged according to his deeds or what he had done, those whose deeds were good going to heaven and life, those whose deeds were wicked going to hell and death? How could the Lord have said such things, if everything coming from a person was done to acquire merit and therefore wicked? You ought therefore to know that if the mind is charity, so too is action; but if the mind is faith alone, and this too is faith separated from spiritual charity, action also is that faith.'

[8] On hearing this those who were sitting under the laurel said: 'We grasp that you have spoken fairly, but still we do not grasp the point.' 'You grasp,' I answered them, 'that I have spoken fairly by means of the general perception which all people enjoy as the result of the light which flows in from heaven when they hear something true. Your failure to grasp the point is due to your own personal perception, which everyone has as a result of light flowing in from the world. In the case of the wise those two kinds of perception, internal and external, or spiritual and natural, act as one. You too can make them act as one, if you look to the Lord and put away evils.' Since they understood this, I took some shoots off a vine and held them out to them saying, 'Do you think this is from me or from the Lord?' They said it was from the Lord through me; and at once the shoots in their hands put forth grapes.

When I left, I saw a table of cedar-wood, on which was a book, under a flourishing olive-tree with a vine wound about its trunk. When I looked, I saw to my surprise that the book was the one written through me called ARCANA COELESTIA. I said that that book contained a full demonstration that man is an instrument for the reception of life, and was not himself life; and that life could not be created and so by being created be in man, any more than light could be created in the eye.  (TCR 461)

AR 875:9 But when I departed, I saw a cedar table, upon which was a book, under a green olive-tree, the trunk of which was entwined with a vine. I looked, and behold, it was a book written by me, called The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom, and also concerning The Divine Providence; and I said that it was fully shown in that book, that man is an organ recipient of life, and not life.  (AR 875:9)

AC 1880. As regards spirits and angels in general, who all are human souls living after the death of the body, I may say here that they have much more exquisite senses than men-that is, sight, hearing, smell, and touch-but not taste. Spirits however are not able, and angels are still less able, to see anything that is in the world by their own sight, that is, by the sight of the spirit; for the light of the world or of the sun is to them as thick darkness; just in the same way as man by his sight, that is, by the sight of the body, cannot see anything that is in the other life; for the light of heaven, or the Lord's heavenly light, is to man as thick darkness.

[2] But still when the Lord pleases, spirits and angels can see the things in this world through the eyes of a man. But the Lord does not grant this except in the case of one whom He enables to speak with spirits and angels, and to be together with them. Spirits and angels have been permitted to see the things in this world through my eyes as plainly as I could see them myself, and also to hear men talking with me. It has sometimes happened that to their great astonishment, some through me have seen their friends whom they had had in the life of the body, just as they had seen them before. Some have also seen their married partners, and their children, and have desired me to tell them that they were close by and saw them, and to give an account of their state in the other life, but I had been forbidden to tell them or reveal to them that they were seen in this way, and this partly for the reason that they would have called me insane, or would have thought such things to be delirious fancies of the mind; for I was well aware that although they would acknowledge it with the lips, they did not believe in heart in the existence of spirits, or that the dead are risen.

[3] When my interior sight was first opened, and through my eyes spirits and angels saw the world and the things that are in it, they were so amazed that they called it the miracle of miracles; and they were affected with a new joy, in that in this way communication was opened of earth with heaven, and of heaven with earth.

This delight lasted for months, but afterwards it became familiar, and now they do not wonder at all. I have been instructed that the spirits and angels who are present with other men do not in the slightest degree see the things of this world, but only perceive the thoughts and affections of those with whom they are.

[4] These things have shown that man was so created that while living on earth among men, he might at the same time also live in heaven among angels, and the converse; so that heaven and earth might be together, and might act as a one, and that men might know what is going on in heaven, and angels what in the world; and therefore that when men depart this life they would pass from the Lord's kingdom on earth into the Lord's kingdom in the heavens, not as into another kingdom, but as into the same as that in which they had been when living in the body. But in consequence of man's becoming so corporeal, he has closed heaven against himself. (AC 1880)

AC 3749. A certain spirit came to me without warning and flowed into my head (spirits can be identified one from another by whatever parts of the body they flow into). I wondered who he was and where he came from. But after he had stayed silent for some while the angels present with me said that he had been chosen from the spirits present with some learned person still alive in the world today. He - that is, the learned man - had sought the reputation of possessing more learning than others. At that point communication through this intermediary spirit with the thought of that man was also permitted. I asked the spirit what idea that learned man was able to have about the Grand Man and about its influx, and therefore about correspondence. He replied that he was able to have none.

After that I asked what idea did that man have of heaven. He said, None at all, apart from blasphemous ones, such as that those in heaven spend their time playing musical instruments like those on which country people are accustomed to produce a tune. Yet that individual is held in higher esteem than others and is thought to know what influx is, what the soul is, and what its interaction with the body is. He is also probably thought to have greater knowledge than others of what heaven is. This shows what those are really like who teach others at the present day; that is to say, using mere stumbling-blocks they oppose the goods and truths of faith, though publicly they declare something different. (AC 3749)

HH 299. I have also been permitted to know the source of human anxiety, grief of mind (animus), and interior sadness, which is called melancholy.

There are spirits not as yet in conjunction with hell, because they are in their first state; these will be described in the following pages where the world of spirits is dealt with. These spirits love things undigested and unprofitable, such as pertain to food becoming foul in the stomach. Consequently, they are present where such things are with man, because they find delight in them; and they talk there with one another from their own evil affection. The affection that is in their speech inflows from this source with man; and when this affection is the opposite of man's affection it becomes in him sadness and melancholy anxiety; but when it is in agreement it becomes in him gladness and cheerfulness.

These spirits appear near to the stomach [of the Grand Human], some to the left and some to the right of it, and some beneath and some above, also nearer and more remote, thus variously in accordance with the affections in which they are. That this is the source of anxiety of mind has been shown and proved to me by much experience. I have seen these spirits, I have heard them, I have felt the anxieties arising from them, I have talked with them; when they have been driven away the anxiety ceased; when they returned the anxiety returned; and I have noted the increase and decrease of it according to their approach and removal.

From this, it has been made clear to me why some who do not know what conscience is, because they have no conscience, ascribe its pain to the stomach.# (HH 299)

HH 440. As regards the first, namely, withdrawal from the body, it happens thus. Man is brought into a certain state that is mid-way between sleeping and waking, and when in that state he seems to himself to be wide awake; all the senses are as perfectly awake as in the completest bodily wakefulness, not only the sight and the hearing, but what is wonderful, the sense of touch also, which is then more exquisite than is ever possible when the body is awake. In this state, spirits and angels have been seen to the very life, and have been heard, and what is wonderful, have been touched, with almost nothing of the body intervening. This is the state that is called being withdrawn from the body, and not knowing whether one is in the body or out of it. I have been admitted into this state only three or four times, that I might know what it is, and might know that spirits and angels enjoy every sense, and that man does also in respect of his spirit when he is withdrawn from the body. (HH 440)

HH 441. As regards the second, being carried away by the spirit to another place, I have been shown by living experience what it is, and how it is done, but only two or three times. I wish to relate a single instance. Walking through the streets of a city and through fields, talking at the same time with spirits, I did not know otherwise than that I was fully awake, and in possession of my usual sight. Thus I walked on without going astray, and all the while with clear vision, seeing groves, rivers, palaces, houses, men, and other objects. But after walking thus for some hours, suddenly I saw with my bodily eyes, and noted that I was in another place. Being greatly astonished I perceived that I had been in the same state as those who were said to have been led away by the spirit into another place. For in this state there is no reflection upon the distance, even though it be many miles, nor any reflection upon the time, though it be many hours or days, neither is there any feeling of fatigue; and one is led unerringly through ways of which he himself is ignorant, even to the destined place. (HH 441)

HH 442. But these two states of man, which are his states when he is in his interiors, or what is the same, when he is in the spirit, are extraordinary; but as they are states known about in the Church, they were exhibited to me only that I might know what they are. But it has been granted to me now for many years to speak with spirits and to be with them as one of them, even in full wakefulness of the body. (HH 442)

D.WIS. 6. This, too, has been shown from heaven. It was granted me to be present with angels who presented this in a living way. By a wonderful fluxion into gyres, such as no words can describe, they formed an image of the heart and of the lungs, with all their interlacings, interior and exterior, and they then followed the flow of heaven, for heaven has a tendency to such forms because of the influx of love and wisdom from the Lord. They thus represented the particulars in the heart and the particulars in the lungs and their union, which they called the marriage of love and wisdom. And they said that it is the same through out the body, and in its particular members, organs, and viscera, with the things pertaining to the heart in them, and the things pertaining to the lungs in them; and that where these do not both act and each take its turn distinctly, no motion of life from any voluntary principle, and no sense of life from any intellectual principle is possible. (D.WIS 6)

SE 152. About the collective [energy] field of spirits

It is certainly difficult to understand what the collective field of spirits is, and what their impact upon human minds is, without being informed how spirits are differentiated most distinctly into kinds and species, and how their energy, which creates that field, responds to, and thus guides, every single thought and mental image in a human being.

[The relation of human minds to] the collective field of spirits is no different from that of the air, which is the grosser atmosphere and related to hearing, compared to the ether or purer atmosphere related to sight; or the dense clouds around the earth compared to the clear and serene region up above.

1) The [energy] field of spirits is now so corrupted, that whatever flows from the more inward heaven into their realm, which constitutes the third heaven,* becomes so distorted that whatever [is communicated] does not become known at all, but all and the least messages stream into human minds with an entirely opposite content.

2) Such is that field at this day, and so it has been growing and is growing toward the last day, when it will be dispersed. But in most ancient times, it was not so. It is also because of this field that revelations cannot come forth today as they did in ancient times, except by an extraordinary way, and that there is no such communication with the heavens as there once was.

3) For a period of some hours I was shown how the collective field operates into human minds, and in fact, when it was allowed, how I was not in the least able to stop them from taking away my thought, and from prevailing - such is the strength of that field today, when spirits are given the power to act.

4) The whole field utterly opposes the angels' endeavors; and the power of the angels, who all belong to God the Messiah, is increased so that they are able to overcome.

5) Astounding things would emerge if I should tell what filthy objects they portray when they are allowed to work by fantasies - which I would rather pass by, because it would be shocking to tell; they are nothing less than filthy.

6) Angels of the third level** can also be in that same realm, and because they are governed by the heaven of angels, they cannot be hurt at all.

7) A fact I have found noteworthy was that at times, I have heard a spirit speaking with me, and he was abruptly removed. Now I have been allowed to learn that he was snatched away by the collective field, that is, compelled to speak in accord with the field's action. I observed still more things that have slipped from my memory: for that field takes away whatever truth and goodness they find to be the most unpleasant. But if God the Messiah sees fit, [I will speak] more fully elsewhere about this collective field, in general and in details. 1747, the 14th day of September (old calendar).

8) The collective field can be compared with the ethereal atmosphere, in that this conveys to the eye the individual objects, like those on streets and in the countryside, in all the details of their forms and shapes - indeed, to a thousand eyes at the same time, or even tens of thousands - and in this way, to each of a person's thoughts, reasonings and fantasies individually. [The comparison is valid,] for [the collective field] lies inside of nature.
* I.e. in descending order.
** I.e. third in a descending order. (SE 152)

CL 498. That as to the understanding, the natural, sensual, and corporeal man is equally rational as the spiritual man, was demonstrated before me in the case of those satans and devils spoken of here and there in the Memorable Relations who, by leave, rose up out of hell and conversed with angelic spirits in the world of spirits. (CL 498)

((In other words, their mental state was experimentally altered from lower to higher, from insane to sane))

There was a certain one who had confirmed himself in the notion that nothing is of the Divine Providence, but that each and all things are of sagacity, and are also from fortune and chance. He granted that there is fortune, but knew not what it is. He was one of the subtle evil spirits, because he had been more given to thought than to speech and conversation. When he came into the other life he continued there his former life, as all do; he sought out and learned all things-even magical arts-that he supposed might be of service to him, and by means of which he might take such care of himself as to be fortunate from himself. I conversed with him, and he said that he was in his heaven when this was the case, and that there could not possibly be any other heaven than that which he made for himself.

But it was given to answer that his heaven is turned into hell as soon as the real heaven flows into it. He was then in the world of spirits, and when spirits are there they are in the delights of the loves in which they had been in the world (see n. 5852). But it then came to pass that heaven flowed into his delight, and he then suddenly felt hell, and said with horror that he had never believed this. I was told by good spirits that he was worse than the others because there was a more subtle influx from him than from the others. Afterward the same spirit was reduced into the state of his infancy, and the Lord showed the angels what his quality had been at that time, and also what was the then foreseen quality of his future life, and that every detail of his life had been led by the Lord, and that he would have plunged into the most atrocious hell if there had been even the least cessation of the continual providence of the Lord. This can be presented to view before the angels.

He was also asked whether he had ever thought about eternal life. He said that he had not believed in it, and that he had rejected everything of the kind, because he saw so much confusion, the righteous suffering, and the wicked glorying, with other such things; also because he saw that brute animals have similar senses and life, also discernment and sagacity; thus he had believed that he should die as they do. He said that he had been in the utmost amazement when he perceived that he lived after death. (AC 6484)

I have been shown by live demonstration the manner in which spirits flow in with a person. When they come to him they adopt everything his memory contains, thus everything he has learned and retained since early childhood. Then the spirits suppose that what they have adopted is their own and thus play the part so to speak of the person in the person; but they are not allowed to go beyond the interior parts forming the person's thought and will. They are not allowed to enter the exterior parts of actions and speech; for these are brought into play by means of a general influx from the Lord, without the intervention of specific spirits or angels.

But although the spirits play the part of the person in the person so far as what forms his thought and will is concerned, they are not actually aware of their presence with him. The reason for this is that they take possession of all that his memory contains and imagine that it does not belong to another but is their own. A further reason is that they are thus prevented from doing the person harm, for if the spirits from hell who are present with a person did not imagine the contents of his memory were their own they would try by every method to destroy the person, body and soul, since that is hell's essential delight. (AC 6192)

AC 8989. And he shall bring him to the door, or unto the door post. That this signifies a state of communication of truth confirmed and implanted with spiritual good, is evident from the signification of a "door," as being the introduction of truth to good (see n. 2356, 2385), here of truth confirmed and implanted, which is signified by a Hebrew manservant after a service of six years (n. 8976, 8984), and as "a door" denotes introduction, it also denotes communication, for one room communicates with another by means of a door; and from the signification of "door-post," as being the conjunction of such truth with good, for a door-post stands between two rooms and joins them together.

Who cannot see that this ritual for the menservants who remain contains in it some secret, and indeed a Divine one? for it was dictated and commanded by Jehovah from Mount Sinai. They who do not believe that there is anything more holy and Divine in the Word than that which appears in the letter, must needs wonder that these and many other things contained in this chapter and in the following chapters were dictated by Jehovah in a living voice; for in the letter they appear to be such things as are contained in the laws of nations-as this concerning menservants-that one who did not wish to go forth from service should be brought to a door or to a door-post, and should have his ear bored through with an awl by his master. In the sense of the letter this does not savor of anything Divine; nevertheless it is most Divine; but this does not appear except through the internal sense. The internal sense is that they who are in mere truths and not in the corresponding good, but yet are in the delight of the remembrance of spiritual goods (n. 8986, 8987), have some communication and conjunction with spiritual good. (...)

[3] In order that the arcana which are contained in this procedure with menservants that remain with their master may be opened still further, it must be told whence it is that "a door" and "a door-post" signify communication and conjunction. Angels and spirits have habitations which appear quite like those which are in the world (see n. 1116, 1626-1628, 1631, 4622), and-what is a secret-each and all things that appear in their habitations are significative of spiritual things; for they flow forth from the spiritual things which are in heaven, and which are consequently in their minds. Communications of truth with good are there presented to view by means of doors, and conjunctions by means of door-posts, and other things by the rooms themselves, by the courts, by the windows, and by the various adornments.

That this is so, a man at this day, especially one who is merely natural, cannot believe, because such things are not manifest to the senses of the body. Nevertheless that such things were seen by the prophets when their interiors had been opened into heaven, is evident from the Word. They have also been perceived and seen by me a thousand times. I have moreover frequently heard them say, when their thoughts were in communication with me, that "the doors of their rooms were opened," and when they did not communicate, that they "were closed." (AC 8989)

SE 3358. Continuation on the adulterous later descendants of the corrupted most ancient Church.          
These dwell under the earth, under a great rock midway in the deep beneath the buttocks, and there they remain in their dreadful fantasies against the Lord, treating the Lord in most cruel ways. About these wicked things I am not permitted to write. They are at a very great depth beneath the buttocks, laboring with their fantasies, and I am allowed and let in order to hear this: it is an uproar that is heard, and also felt in both buttocks, causing them to twitch, as I now observe. (SE 3358)

SE 1719. For these reasons let men beware of giving heed to those opinions which some persons would fain publish and inculcate, that spirits are altogether devoid of sense, or that spiritual essences lack all that kind of affection which they enjoyed while living in their bodies. I know the contrary, which has been demonstrated to me by a thousand and a thousand most sensible proofs of experience, as I can solemnly declare and attest; and if men are unwilling to believe from the weight which they attach to their suppositions and opinions in respect to spiritual essences; let them take heed to themselves when they come into the other life, where experience will compel them to believe what they do not credit in this world. (SE 1719)

AC 1879. On one occasion while in bed I was told that evil spirits were conspiring against me with the intention of suffocating me, but as I was safe and felt secure under the Lord's keeping, I disregarded the threats and went to sleep. But awaking in the middle of the night, I felt that I was not breathing of myself, but from heaven, for there was nothing of my own respiration, as I plainly perceived. It was then said that the band of conspirators was present, and that it was composed of those who hold in hatred the interior things of the Word (that is, the very truths of faith, for these are the interiors of the Word), and who thus hate them because they are contrary to their fallacies, persuasions, and cupidities, which the sense of the letter might be brought to support.
[2] After their attempt had failed, their leaders tried to enter into the viscera of my body, and to penetrate even to the heart, and to this also they were admitted. This was all the time perceived by manifest sensation, for one to whom the interiors of the spirit are opened, gets at the same time a sensible perception of such things. But I was then introduced into a kind of celestial state, which was that I made no effort to repel these visitors, still less to avenge the injury. They then said that there was peace; but soon they were as if deprived of rationality, breathing out vengeance, and striving to carry out their purpose, but in vain. They afterwards dispersed of themselves. (AC 1879)


It is indeed difficult to understand what the general sphere of spirits is and the activity of spirits on human minds, unless there be given the knowledge of how they are most distinctly divided into genera and species, and that their activity, which forms the sphere, responds to each thought and imagination of man, and acts in this way. The general sphere of spirits is comparatively like the air or grosser atmosphere, which is that of hearing, to the ether or purer atmosphere, which is that of sight; or as dense clouds about the earth, respectively to the clear and serene region above.

(1) The sphere of spirits is now so perverse that when anything whatever is let down from the more interior heaven into that sphere, which constitutes the third heaven, it is so perverted that nothing is known, but each and all things inflow into human minds in an entirely contrary sense.

(2) Such is that sphere at this day, and it has so increased and is increasing until the last day when it will be dissipated. But yet in the most ancient times it was not so. This also is the reason why there can no longer be revelations at this day as in days of old, except in an extraordinary manner, and why there is not such communication with the heavens as formerly.

(3) For several hours it was shown me how the general sphere operates into human minds, and indeed that when it was permitted I could by no means resist spirits taking away my thoughts, and overpowering me. Such is the power of that sphere at this day when the opportunity of acting is given to spirits. (4) The whole sphere is utterly opposed to those things which the angels intend; and the power of the angels, who all belong to God Messiah, is increased so that they are able to overcome it. (5) It would be astonishing were I to relate what abominable objects they represent when they are permitted to act by phantasies, which I would rather pass over because it would be horrible to tell; they are nothing else than abominable. (6) Angels of the third degree can also be in the same sphere, but because they are ruled by the heaven of angels they can in no wise be injured.

(7) It was worthy of my observation that sometimes I heard a spirit speaking with me, and in a moment he was changed. It is now given me to know that he was snatched away by the general sphere, that is, compelled to speak according to the activity of that sphere. Still more things were observed which have escaped my memory, for that sphere takes away whatever is true and good which is especially displeasing to them. But God Messiah deeming it worthy, this general sphere will be treated more fully elsewhere, in general and in its particulars. 1747. Sept. 14, o.s.  (SE 152)

SE 152a] The general sphere can be compared to the ethereal atmosphere in that it reflects the single objects, as of a meadow or field, in their details, together with their forms and figures, to the eye, and even to a thousand or ten thousand eyes at the same time. So [this sphere reflects things] distinctly to the single thoughts, reasonings, and phantasies of man, for this sphere is within nature. (SE 152a)

AC 3891. That not only does the universal heaven respire as one man, but also each of the societies in company, nay all angels and spirits, has been testified to me by very many living experiences, so as to leave me in no doubt on the subject. spirits are surprised that anyone should have any doubt concerning the matter; but as there are few who have any other idea of angels and spirits than as of that which is immaterial, whence they would be mere thoughts, and thus scarcely substances, still less would as men enjoy the senses of seeing, hearing, and of touch, and still less would have respiration, and thus a life like man‘s (although of an interior kind, such as is the life of a spirit relatively to that of a man) therefore I may here adduce yet further experiences.

Before falling asleep I was once told beforehand that there were some who were conspiring against me with the intent to kill me by suffocation; but I paid no attention to their threats, because I was protected by the Lord, and therefore I fell asleep without apprehension. But on awaking at midnight I was made very sensible that I did not respire from myself, but from heaven; for the respiration was not my own, and yet I respired. On many other occasions it has been given me to be sensible of the breathing or respiration of spirits, and also of angels, from the fact that they respired within me; and that my own respiration was nevertheless at the same time present, distinct from theirs. But no one can be sensible of this unless his interiors are opened, and he is thus brought into communication with heaven. (AC 3891)

AC 3892. I have been informed by the most ancient people, who were celestial men, and above all other men were in love to the Lord, that they had not external respiration such as their posterity had, but internal; but that they respired with the angels, with whom they were in fellowship because they were in celestial love. I was further informed that their states of respiration were altogether according to their states of love and of the derivative faith (n. 608, 805, 1118-1120). (AC 3892)

AC 3893. Angelic choirs were once celebrating the Lord together, and this from gladness of heart. Their celebration was sometimes heard as sweet singing for among themselves spirits and angels are possessed of a sonorous voice, and are heard by each other as well as a man is heard by a man; but human singing is not to be compared with that for a sweetness and harmony which are celestial.

From the variety of the sound I perceived that there were many choirs. I was instructed by the angels with me that they belonged to the province of the lungs and to their functions; for it is theirs to sing because this is the office of the lungs. This also was given me to know by experience. They were permitted to direct my respiration, which they did so gently and sweetly, and also so interiorly, that I was scarcely sensible of any respiration of my own. I was further instructed that they who are appointed to the involuntary respiration are distinct from those who are appointed to the voluntary respiration; and I was told that they who are appointed to the involuntary respiration are present with man during sleep; for as soon as he sleeps, the voluntariness of his respiration ceases, and he receives involuntary respiration. (AC 3893)

TCR 613. If anyone knows the relationship of heaven and hell, and how one is removed from the other, he can tell how a person is regenerated, as well as what a regenerated person is like. To make this intelligible I must first make the brief revelation that all in heaven turn their faces towards the Lord and look at Him, while all in hell turn their faces away from the Lord. So if one looks down from heaven into hell, one sees nothing but the backs of heads and people's backs. Indeed they even appear upside down like the people of the Antipodes, who have their feet up and their heads down, despite the fact that they walk upon their feet and can screw their faces round. It is the reverse direction in which the interiors of their minds face that produces this appearance. I can report these surprising facts from my own observation.

[2] By this means [that is, empirically by observation] it was revealed to me how regeneration takes place, exactly as hell is removed and is thus separated from heaven. For, as I said before, a person as regards his first nature, which he has from birth, is a hell on the smallest scale, and as regards his second nature, which he gets from being born again, is a heaven on the smallest scale. It follows from this that the evils in a person are removed and separated just as hell and heaven are on the large scale. As evils are removed they turn away from the Lord, and by stages turn upside down. This happens to the extent that heaven is planted in the person, so that he becomes a new man. For the sake of illustration I shall add that each evil in the person has a link with those in hell who have the same evil, and on the other hand each good in the person has a link with those in heaven who possess similar good. (TCR 613)

AC 1648. There is a speech of good spirits, and also of angelic spirits, which is a simultaneous speech of many, especially in circles or choirs, concerning which of the Lord's Divine mercy hereafter. The speech in choirs has often been heard by me; it has a cadence [labens], as if in rhythm. They have no thought about the words or ideas, for into these their sentiments flow spontaneously. No words or ideas flow in which multiply the sense, or draw it away to something else, or to which anything artificial adheres, or that seems to them elegant from self, or from self-love, for such things would at once cause disturbance. They do not inhere in any word; they think of the sense; the words follow spontaneously from the sense itself. They come to a close in unities, for the most part simple; but when in those which are compound, they turn by an accent to the next. These things are the result of their thinking and speaking in society; hence the form of the speech has a cadence in accordance with the connection and unanimity of the society. Such was once the form of songs; and such is that of the Psalms of David. (AC 1648)

SE4848. CONCERNING MAGICAL [WRITTEN] CHARACTERS. It was told, and almost exhibited to me, how it was with magical written-characters, to wit, that they [i. e. the magicians] wrote lines with varying direction, curvature and bend, and that, according to the direction, they, by means of those characters, cheated the eyes, and at the same time the thought, concerning the thing to be accomplished; and that they then disposed themselves according to some form of an interior heaven, or of the world of spirits, and so induced various persuasions, by influxes according to those forms: for all thought of man, spirit and angel takes place according to the form of heaven, which is incomprehensible, being known to the Lord alone. Magicians have learned something concerning that form, by much experience, especially the Ancients, the Babylonians and some in Egypt; and they, similarly, induced upon the minds of others whatsoever they wished. (SE 4848)

AC 7361. That such also was the speech of the most ancient people on this earth, has been given to me to know by conversation with some of them (see n. 607, 608). To make the matter clearer, I may again relate what has been given to me to know from experience about the speech of the most ancient of this earth; as follows. "There was shown me by a certain influx which I cannot describe, what was the nature of the speech of those who were of the Most Ancient Church, namely, that it was not articulate, like the vocal speech of our time, but tacit; and was produced not by external but by internal respiration. It was also granted me to notice the nature of their internal respiration, that it advanced from the navel toward the heart, and so through the lips, without sound, when they spoke; and that it did not enter into the ear of another by an external way, and strike upon what is called the drum of the ear; but by a certain internal way, and in fact by a way there which is now called the Eustachian tube.

[2] It was shown me that by such speech they could much more fully express the sentiments of the mind and the ideas of thought, than can possibly be done by articulate sounds or sonorous words, which likewise are directed by the respiration, but external; for there is no vocal word, nor anything in a vocal word, which is not directed by applications of the respiration. But with them this is done much more perfectly, because by internal respiration, which, being more interior, is also more perfect, and more applicable and conformable to the very ideas of thought. Moreover, they express themselves by slight movements of the lips, and corresponding changes of the face; for as they had been celestial men, whatever they thought shone forth from their faces and eyes, which were varied conformably; the face as to form and life, the eyes as to light. They could not possibly put on an expression of countenance that was not in agreement with what they were thinking. Simulation, and still more deceit, were to them a monstrous crime (n. 1118). As their speech was of this nature, and they had internal respiration, they could be in company with angels. (AC 7361)

AC 7361. That such also was the speech of the most ancient people on this earth, has been given to me to know by conversation with some of them (see n. 607, 608). To make the matter clearer, I may again relate what has been given to me to know from experience about the speech of the most ancient of this earth; as follows. "There was shown me by a certain influx which I cannot describe, what was the nature of the speech of those who were of the Most Ancient Church, namely, that it was not articulate, like the vocal speech of our time, but tacit; and was produced not by external but by internal respiration. It was also granted me to notice the nature of their internal respiration, that it advanced from the navel toward the heart, and so through the lips, without sound, when they spoke; and that it did not enter into the ear of another by an external way, and strike upon what is called the drum of the ear; but by a certain internal way, and in fact by a way there which is now called the Eustachian tube.

[2] It was shown me that by such speech they could much more fully express the sentiments of the mind and the ideas of thought, than can possibly be done by articulate sounds or sonorous words, which likewise are directed by the respiration, but external; for there is no vocal word, nor anything in a vocal word, which is not directed by applications of the respiration. But with them this is done much more perfectly, because by internal respiration, which, being more interior, is also more perfect, and more applicable and conformable to the very ideas of thought. Moreover, they express themselves by slight movements of the lips, and corresponding changes of the face; for as they had been celestial men, whatever they thought shone forth from their faces and eyes, which were varied conformably; the face as to form and life, the eyes as to light. They could not possibly put on an expression of countenance that was not in agreement with what they were thinking. Simulation, and still more deceit, were to them a monstrous crime (n. 1118). As their speech was of this nature, and they had internal respiration, they could be in company with angels. (AC 7361)

AC 7362. The respiration of the spirits of the planet Mars has also been communicated to me. Spirits and angels breathe, (n. 3884-3894); and it was perceived that their respiration was interior, proceeding from the region of the chest toward the navel, and thence rolling itself upward through the breast, with an imperceptible breathing toward the mouth. From these and other proofs of experience it was made evident to me that they were of a celestial genius, and thus not unlike those who were of the Most Ancient Church on this earth. (AC 7362)

DP 298. Every man when he becomes a spirit, which takes place after death, for he then puts off the material body and puts on the spiritual, is introduced alternately into the two states of his life, the external and the internal. While he is in the external state he speaks and acts rationally, just as a rational and wise man does in the world; and he can also teach others many things that pertain to moral and civil life; and if he has been a preacher he can also teach things pertaining to spiritual life. But when from this external state he is introduced into his internal state, and the external is put to sleep and the internal awakes, if he is wicked the scene is changed. From being rational he becomes sensual, and from being wise he becomes spiritually insane; for he then thinks from the evil of his will and its delights, thus from his own intelligence, and he sees falsity only and does nothing but evil, believing that wickedness is wisdom and that cunning is prudence; and from his own intelligence he believes himself to be a deity and with his whole mind revels in wicked practices.

[2] I have frequently seen instances of such insanity; and I have also seen spirits introduced into these alternate states two or three times within an hour, and then it was granted them to see their insanities and also to acknowledge them. Nevertheless, they were unwilling to remain in a rational and moral state, but of their own accord they returned to their internal sensual and insane state; for they loved this more than the other because in it was the delight of their life's love. Who can believe that a wicked man is such beneath his outward appearance and that he undergoes such a transformation when he comes into his internal state? (DP 298)

SD 335. THAT WHEN THE PSALMS OF DAVID WERE READ, THEY HAD SUCH EFFECT IN HEAVEN THAT CERTAIN HEAVENLY BEINGS COULD NOT BUT BE AMAZED Some Psalms of David were read, and this in such a manner that by the mercy of God Messiah the interior and more interior senses were transferred into the perception of certain heavenly beings, who were so amazed that they declared with a loud voice that they never would have believed such things; even the dead, in the life after death, [were astonished] because with them also the Word operated in a similar manner. And in order that the difference might be observed, the [literal] sense of the Word was also brought forth for them, almost such as it had been in their life; when similar things were read, the sense was so different that they thence perceived scarcely anything whatever of heavenly life. Hence it can be concluded what efficacy is within the Word when God Messiah from mercy vivifies it; also what it is like when the letter is, as it were, dead, as when it is read by those who are dead. 1747, Dec. 13. (SD 335)

CL 326  Seeing them from my lodging I came into the spirit, and in the spirit I went out to them; and I approached the chief teacher, who lately had proposed the question concerning the soul.

When he saw me he said, "Who are you? I wondered, when I saw you approaching in the way, that now you came into my sight and the next moment passed out of sight, or that at one moment you were visible to me and suddenly became invisible. You certainly are not in our state of life."

To this I answered, smiling, "I am not a player of tricks, nor one who changes himself; but am an alternate, now in your light, now in your shade, and thus foreign and also native."

At this the chief teacher looked at me and said, "You say strange and amazing things. Tell me who you are."

I said, "I am in the world in which you were, and from which you departed, which is called the natural world; and I also am in the world to which you came and in which you are, which is called the spiritual world. I am therefore in a natural state, and at the same time in a spiritual state; in the natural state with men on earth, and in the spiritual state with you; and when I am in the natural state I am not visible to you, but when in the spiritual state I am visible. That I am so has been given by the Lord. To you, O enlightened man, it is known that the man of the natural world does not see the man of the spiritual world, nor the reverse; therefore when I let my spirit down into the body, I was not visible to you, and when I raised it out of the body I became visible." (CL 326)

SD 3464  I was thus during many years, from the period of childhood, introduced into such respirations, especially by means of absorbing speculations, in which the breathing seems to become quiescent, as otherwise the intense study of truth is scarcely possible. Afterwards, when heaven was opened to me, and I was enabled to converse with spirits, I sometimes scarcely breathed by inspiration at all for the space of a short hour, and merely drew in enough of air to keep up the process of thinking. Thus was I introduced by the Lord into interior respirations. I have also observed again and again, that when I was passing into a state of sleep, my respiration was almost taken away, so that I would awake and catch my breath. When I observe nothing of the kind, I continue to write and think, and am not aware of my respiration being arrested, unless I reflect upon it. This I may say has happened in instances innumerable. Nor was I at such times able to observe the various changes, because I did not reflect upon them. The design of all this was, that every kind of state, every kind of sphere, and every kind of society, particularly the more interior, might find in my own a fit representation, which should come into play without any reflection on my part, and that thus a medium of intercourse might be afforded with spirits and angels. (SD 3464)

TCR 135. The second experience.

On waking up one morning I saw the sun of the spiritual world shining brightly, and below it I saw the heavens at a great distance, as remote as the earth is from its sun. From these heavens inarticulate sounds were audible, which joined to form an intelligible utterance: 'God is one, He is man and His dwelling is in that sun.' This utterance passed down through the middle heavens to the lowest, and from there into the world of spirits, where I was; and I noticed that the angels' idea of one God as it gradually descended was turned into the idea of three Gods. This observation induced me to start a conversation with those who thought of three Gods. 'What a monstrous idea!' I said, 'Where did you get it?' (...) (TCR 135)


Man has external thought, and he has internal thought. A man is in external thought when he is in company, that is, when listening or speaking or teaching or acting, and also when writing; but he is in internal thought when he is at home and gives free rein to his interior affection. Internal thought is the proper thought of his spirit within himself; but external thought is the proper thought of his spirit in the body. Both remain with man after death, and even then it is not known what the quality of the man is until external thought is taken away from him; after that he thinks, speaks, and acts from his affection. The man who is of sound mind will then see and hear wonderful things. He will hear and see that many who in the world talked wisely, preached learnedly, taught with erudition, wrote knowingly, and also acted discreetly, as soon as the external of their mind has been taken away, think, speak, and act as insanely as crazy people in the world; and what is wonderful, they then believe themselves to be wiser than others.

[2] But that they may not continue in their insanity, they are at times remitted into externals, and thereby into their own civil and moral life in which they were in the world. When in company there and in heaven, a remembrance of those insanities is given them; and then they themselves see and confess that they spoke insanely and acted foolishly; but the moment they are remitted into their interiors, that is, into what is proper to their spirits, in like manner as before, they are insane.

Their insanities are of many kinds; which may all be included in this, that they will to have dominion, to steal, to commit adultery, to blaspheme, to do evil; to despise, reject, or deride what is honest, just, and sincere, and every truth and good of the church and heaven. And, what is more, they love this state of their spirit; for the experiment has been tried with many whether they would rather think sanely or insanely, and it has been found that they would rather think insanely.

Moreover, it has been disclosed that they are such because they loved self and the world above all things, and gave thought to uses only for the sake of honor and gain, and greatly preferred enjoyments of the body to enjoyments of the soul. In the world they were such that they never thought sanely within themselves except when they saw men.

There is this sole remedy for their insanity: to be put to work in hell under a judge. So long as they are at work there, they are not insane; for the works with which they are occupied hold the mind, as it were, in prison and bonds, to prevent its wandering into the delirious fancies of their lusts. Their tasks are done for the sake of food, clothing, and a bed, thus unwillingly from necessity, and not freely from affection.

[3] But on the other hand, all those who in the world have loved uses and who have performed uses from the love of them, think sanely in their spirits, and their spirits think sanely in their bodies; for with such, interior thought is also exterior thought, and from the former through the latter is their speech, and likewise their action. Affection of use has kept their mind in itself, nor does it suffer them to stray into vanities, into what is lascivious and filthy, into what is insincere and deceitful, into the mockeries of various lusts. After death they are of a like character; their minds are in themselves angelic; and when the outer thought is taken away, they become spiritual, and angels, and thus recipients of heavenly wisdom from the Lord.

From all that has been said, it is now plain that unless use be the affection or occupation of a man, he is not of sound mind. (D. Love 15)

TCR 162.  [7] But a certain person who in the world had been a leading writer on the doctrine of justification by faith alone, came up boldly and said, "When I was in the world I did not falsify the Word. Together with faith I exalted charity and taught that a man in that state of faith in which he practices charity and its works is renewed, regenerated, and sanctified by the Holy Spirit; also that faith does not exist solitary, that is, separated from good works, as there can be no good tree without fruit, no sun without light, no fire without heat. I also rebuked those who said that good works are not necessary; and even obedience to the commandments of the Decalogue is not necessary; and I made repentance of great importance; and thus in wonderful manner applied everything in the Word to the subject of faith; and yet I made it clear and demonstrated that faith alone is saving."
Confident in this assertion that he had not falsified the Word, this man approached the table, and in spite of the warning of the angel he touched the Word; and suddenly out of the Word there went forth fire and smoke, and there was an explosion and a crash which hurled him to a corner of the room, where he lay like one dead for nearly an hour.

The angelic spirits were astonished at this; but they were told that although this leader had exalted more than others the goods of charity as proceeding from faith, yet he had meant nothing more than political social works, which are also called moral and civil, and which were to be done for the sake of the world and worldly prosperity, but by no means for the sake of salvation; also that he had assumed some hidden works of the Holy Spirit, of which man knows nothing, but which are generated in the act of faith in a state of faith. (TCR 162).

SE 1623. HOW INDURATION APPEARS. We read in a great many places that the heart is hardened; this hardening is also manifestly apparent, yea, it is felt, not indeed in the [literal] heart, for the heart signifies what pertains to the affections. It takes place, therefore, where first principles exist, to wit, in the brain. When the souls of the recently deceased appear after death in the world of spirits, the brains of some of them seem to be hardened, like things that you see elsewhere, so that the exterior or crustal portion is, as it were, hard and conglutinated. This is seen by a spiritual idea, and thus plainly exhibited, as also its softening. Thus it is without faith. Something similar it was given me to experience, namely, a hardness in the left region of the cerebrum, as if occasioned by somewhat large and hard lumps which were the seat of an obscure dull pain, and I was informed that it was thence perceived, namely, from these hardenings, that there yet remained something not belonging to true faith. It appears hence that an actual hardness does exist in the organicals [of the body] when faith is wanting, and that the greater the obduration, the less the conscience, so that those who have no conscience, manifesting itself in anxieties, seem to have their brain, after death, externally hardened, which was formerly soft, and this is attended with pains and torture. - 1748, March 21. (SE 1623)

SE 1624. Moreover, when I apprehended only the literal sense of the Word, there was a closing up, as it were, of the way to the understanding of interior things. Accordingly those who inhere only in the literal sense of the Word have the brain hardened and [its functions] so clogged that the way is not opened to an interior [interiori], much less to a more interior [intimiori] sense, and in this way a kind of crust or shell is induced, which is conglutinated from the corporeal or sensual things of the external man. The case is otherwise when a way is opened to the sense of interiors, or to the spirit, which way is opened by the Lord alone. While the mind dwells in the literal sense without penetrating beyond, then if it attempt to open a way from itself to interiors, continual scandals are present, which I am able to confirm from abundant experience. But such a man does not perceive what is implied in his opening a way to interiors, for he supposes that this is the only way in which it can be done; and accordingly he who is not led by the Lord can by no means perceive this and similar things, and therefore cannot believe it; which may appear from the case of spirits who lack that kind of perception. - 1748, March 21. Some of them know, but yet are unwilling to know, those, namely, to whom it was given by a lively experience to know the fact mentioned, and who were afterwards remitted [into another state]; when in this state of remission they have a kind of knowledge how the fact is, but they do not perceive it. (SE 1624)

AC 878. That the "hand" signifies and represents power, is evident from the representatives in the world of spirits, where a naked arm sometimes comes into view, in which there is strength enough to crush one's bones and squeeze their inmost marrow to nothing, causing such terror as to melt the heart; and in fact this strength is actually in it. (AC 878)

AC 2128. The idea of a Last Judgment as presented to the evil, which I have seen two or three times, was as follows. When the spirits around me had combined into mischievous societies, so as to exercise predominance, and did not suffer themselves to be so governed by the law of equilibrium according to order as not to annoy other societies in an excessive manner, and to begin inflicting injury upon them by their overpowering force, there then appeared a band of spirits of considerable magnitude, coming from the quarter in front, a little to the right and above, at the approach of which there was heard a hubbub that as it were rose and fell with a loud roar; and as soon as the spirits heard it they were seized with consternation and terror, the result of which was a confusion; and then the spirits who were in those societies were dispersed, one this way and another that, so that they dissolved away from one another, and no one knew where his companion was. While this lasted, it appeared to the spirits just as if it were the Last Judgment with the destruction of all things. Some uttered lamentations; some from fright as it were lost all heart; in a word, a sense of danger as of a final crisis seized on all.

[2] The sound of those advancing from the quarter in front was heard by them variously; by some as the sound of armed horsemen, and by others otherwise, according to their state of fear and the phantasy it excited. It was perceived by me as a continuous murmur, with undulations rising and falling, and indeed as of many together. I was instructed by those near me that such bands come from that quarter when societies have been evilly combined in this way, and that they know how to dissociate and dissever the one from the other, and at the same time to strike terror, so that nothing is thought of but flight; and that by means of such disjunctions and dispersions all are at last reduced by the Lord into order. I was also told that this is what is signified in the Word by the "east wind." (AC 2128)

AC 5717. There are some who not only relate to the most viscid substances of the brain, which are its excremental things, but also know how to infect them as if with poisons. When such spirits arrive they rush within the skull, and thence by continuity even into the spinal marrow. This cannot be felt by those whose interiors are not open. It has been given me plainly to feel the inroad, and also the effort to destroy me; but this was vain, because I was protected by the Lord. They strove to take away from me all the capacity of the intellect. I plainly felt their operation, and felt also pain from it, which however soon ceased. I afterward spoke to them, and they were compelled to confess whence they were. They said that they lived in dark forests, where they durst not injure their companions, because in that case their companions were allowed to treat them cruelly. Thus they are kept in bonds.

They are ugly, having the face of a wild beast, and hairy. I was told that they are such as had formerly slain whole armies, as we read in the Word; for they rushed into the chambers of everyone's brain, and inspired terror, together with such madness that they killed each other. At the present day such spirits are kept shut up within their own hell, and are not let out. These too bear relation to deadly tumors of the head within the skull. It was said above that they rush within the skull and by continuity therefrom even into the spinal marrow; but be it known that it is only an appearance that the spirits themselves rush in, they being borne along outside by a way which corresponds to the spaces in question within the body, which is felt within as if there were an inroad. This sensation is caused by correspondence, from which their operation is easily brought to bear upon the man to whom it is directed. (AC 5717)

AC 2130. In regard to the second subject, namely, the idea of a Last Judgment as presented to the good when they are being intromitted into heaven, I may relate how the case is. It is said in the Word that the door was shut, so that they could no longer be admitted; and that they had no oil, and came too late, and therefore were not admitted; by which things also there is signified the state of the Let Judgment. How these matters are and are to be understood, has been shown me.

[2] I heard societies of spirits, one after another, saying in a clear voice that the wolf had wanted to carry them off, but that the Lord rescued them, and that so they were restored to the Lord, in consequence of which they rejoiced from the inmost heart, for they had been in despair, and thus in fear, that the door had been shut, and that they had come too late to be admitted. Such thought had been infused into them by those who are called "wolves " but it vanished on their being admitted, that is, on their being received by angelic societies, for intromission into heaven is nothing else. The intromission was seen by me as though it were made and continued with one society after another up to twelve, and that the twelfth society was intromitted (that is, received) with more difficulty than the eleven that had preceded it. There were afterwards admitted eight additional quasi societies that I was told were of the female sex. When I had seen these things, it was said that this process of admission (that is, of reception) into the heavenly societies presents this appearance, and this continuously, in order, from one place to another; and also that heaven can never to eternity be filled, still less is the door shut; but the more there come thither, the more blessed and happy are those who are in heaven; because the harmoniousness is so much the stronger.

[3] After these had been admitted, it appeared as if heaven were shut; for there were a number more who desired to be intromitted (that is, received) next. But they were answered that they could not be received as yet; which is signified by those who came too late, by the door being shut, by their knocking, and by their lacking oil in their lamps. Their not being admitted was because they were not yet prepared to be capable of being among the angelic societies, where there is mutual love, for, as before said (n. 2119 at the end), they who in this world have lived in charity toward the neighbor are by degrees raised into heaven by the Lord.

[4] There were also other spirits who were ignorant of what heaven is, that it is mutual love, who also desired to be then admitted, supposing that admission is everything; but they were answered that it was not yet their time, but that they would be admitted at another time, when they were ready. The reason that the societies appeared to be twelve, was that by "twelve" are signified all things of the faith, as before said (n. 2129 at the end). (AC 2130)

LJP 287. [263.] Concerning simple substance, Leibniz said that his opinion regarding the monad was never like that of Wolff regarding simple substance. He said that he did indeed regard the monad as a unit, but that that unit contained within it simpler and purer substances by which the monad was formed and from which arose the changes of state in it, since if nothing were posited in it, it would be a vacuum, in which no change of state is possible, because a vacuum is incapable of being affected. Leibniz was consequently astonished that Wolff postulated his monad-which he called simple substance-to be created out of nothing, and if divided to collapse into nothing, and yet attributed to it changes of state. He was also astonished, too, that Wolff called some phenomena simple substances, including things which exist in nature, which anyone can see to be aggregates of substances, as, for example, the constituents in air and the ether, the elements in metals, and also souls. Wolff said that he hoped by the definitions of his simple substances to win over the hearts of theologians, who wish it to be believed that all things were created by God out of nothing, without any intervening means-not knowing at the time that his followers who established those principles in themselves would close to themselves the paths to angelic wisdom, which nevertheless is founded on natural truths. (LJP 287)

AC 2485. A certain one was with me whom I had not known during his life in the body. When I inquired whether he knew whence he was, he did not know; but by means of the interior sight he was led by me through the cities where I had been, and at length through the city from which he was, and then through its streets and squares, all of which he recognized, and at length into the street where he had dwelt; and if I had been acquainted with the houses, and how they were situated, I should have been able to know his house. (AC 2485)

AC 2743. A great dog like Cerberus was seen by me, and I asked what it signified, and was told that by such a dog is signified a guard lest anyone should pass in conjugial love from heavenly delight to infernal delight, or the reverse; for they who are in genuine conjugial love are in heavenly delight; but they who are in adulteries are also in a delight which appears to them as heavenly, but is infernal. By the dog is thus represented that those opposite delights must not communicate. (AC 2743)

AC 2744. I have been shown the way in which the delights from conjugial love advance on one side towards heaven and on the other towards hell. The advancement of delights towards heaven was an advancement into forms of blessedness and happiness constantly increasing, until they were beyond number or description. And the more interiorly they advanced the more countless and indescribable they became, even to the celestial forms themselves of blessedness and happiness of the inmost heaven, which is the heaven of innocence. And all this entails perfect freedom, for all freedom is attributable to love, so that perfect freedom is attributable to conjugial love, which is heavenly love itself. I was then shown the way in which the delights of conjugial love advance towards hell; that they move away from heaven little by little, which too entails apparent freedom, until scarcely anything human at all remains in them. The final deadly and hellish condition into which they ended was seen by me but I cannot describe it. A certain spirit who was with me at the time and who also saw those things hurried forwards to some sirens who were of this character, crying out that he would show them the nature of their delight. At first he had the idea of delight, but as little by little he went forwards his idea was made to continue, like the advancement of the delight, towards hell, and at length to end in such horror. Sirens are women who labour under the delusion that it is perfectly correct to commit whoredom and adultery, and who are also esteemed by others for being such as they are and for leading outwardly respectable lives. The majority of them come into the next life from Christendom. See what is said about them in 831, 959, 1515, 1983, 2483. (AC 2744)

AC 3720. That "wood" and "stone" have such a signification, is not only evident from the Word where they are mentioned, but also from the representatives in the other life; for they who place merit in good works, appear to themselves to cut wood; and they who place merit in truths, in that they have believed themselves to have been better acquainted with truth than others, and yet have lived evilly, appear to themselves to cut stones; which things have often been seen by me. From this I was assured what is the signification of wood and stone, namely that "wood" signifies good, and "stone" truth; and also from the experience that when a wooden house was seen, there was instantly presented an idea of good; but when a house of stone was seen, there was presented an idea of truth; concerning which I was instructed by angels. For this reason, when mention is made in the Word of the "house of God," there is presented to the angels the idea of good, and good of such a quality as is treated of in that connection; and when mention is made of a "temple," there is presented to them the idea of truth, and truth of such a quality as is treated of in that connection. From this again we can infer how deep and utterly hidden are the heavenly arcana in the Word. (AC 3720)

CL 381. The heavens are divided into two kingdoms, one of which we call celestial, the other spiritual. In the celestial kingdom love toward the Lord reigns, and in the spiritual kingdom wisdom arising from that love reigns. The first kingdom, where love reigns, is called heaven's kingdom of the heart; and the second kingdom, where wisdom reigns, is called heaven's kingdom of the lungs. It must be known that the whole angelic heaven in its entirety resembles a single person, and in the Lord's sight appears as a single person. Consequently the heart of that person forms one kingdom, and the lungs of that person form another. For present throughout the whole of heaven are general cardiac and pulmonary motions, and on that account particular ones in every angel; and the general cardiac and pulmonary motions come from the Lord alone, because from Him alone come love and wisdom. Indeed, these two motions are present in the sun where the Lord is and which originates from the Lord, and from that are present in the angelic heaven and in the universe. To judge the reality of this, rid yourself of notions of space and think of omnipresence, and you will be convinced. (CL 381)

AC 3884. As in the world it is quite unknown that there is a correspondence of heaven or the Grand Man with all things of man, and that man comes forth and subsists therefrom, so that what is said on the subject may seem paradoxical and incredible, I may here relate the things that experience has enabled me to know with certainty. Once, when the interior heaven was opened to me, and I was conversing with the angels there, I was permitted to observe the following phenomena. Be it known that although I was in heaven, I was nevertheless not out of myself, but in the body, for heaven is within man, wherever he may be, so that when it pleases the Lord, a man may be in heaven and yet not be withdrawn from the body. In this way it was given me to perceive the general workings of heaven as plainly as an object is perceived by any of the senses. Four workings or operations were then perceived by me. The first was into the brain at the left temple, and was a general operation as regards the organs of reason; for the left side of the brain corresponds to rational or intellectual things, but the right to the affections or things of the will.

[2] The second general operation that I perceived was into the respiration of the lungs, and it led my respiration gently, but from within, so that I had no need to draw breath or respire by any exertion of my will. The very respiration of heaven was at the time plainly perceived by me. It is internal, and for this reason is imperceptible to man; but by a wonderful correspondence it inflows into man's respiration, which is external, or of the body; and if man were deprived of this influx, he would instantly fall down dead.

[3] The third operation that I perceived was into the systole and diastole of the heart, which had then more of softness with me than I had ever experienced at any other time. The intervals of the pulse were regular, being about three within each period of respiration; yet such as to terminate in and thus direct the things belonging to the lungs. How at the close of each respiration the alternations of the heart insinuated themselves into those of the lungs, I was in some measure enabled to observe. The alternations of the pulse were so observable that I was able to count them; they were distinct and soft.

[4] The fourth general operation was into the kidneys, which also it was given me to perceive, but obscurely. From these things it was made manifest that heaven or the Grand Man has cardiac pulses, and that it has respirations; and that the cardiac pulses of heaven or the Grand Man have a correspondence with the heart and with its systolic and diastolic motions; and that the respirations of heaven or the Grand Man have a correspondence with the lungs and their respirations; but that they are both unobservable to man, being imperceptible, because internal. (AC 3884)

AC 4046. There appeared a number of spirits at a middle distance above the head, who acted in common by a kind of beating of the heart; but it was as it were a reciprocal undulation downward and upward, with a kind of cold breathing on my forehead. From this I was able to conclude that they were of a middle sort, belonging both to the province of the heart and to that of the lungs, and also that they were not interior spirits. The same spirits afterwards presented a flaming light, gross but yet luminous, which first appeared under the left side of the chin, afterwards under the left eye, and then above the eye, but it was dim and yet flaming, not shining white. From these things I was enabled to know their quality, for lights indicate affections, also degrees of intelligence.

[2] When I afterwards applied my hand to the left side of the skull or head, I felt a pulsation under the palm, undulating in a similar manner downward and upward; from which indication I knew that they belonged to the brain. When I asked who they were, they were not willing to speak. It was said by others that they do not willingly speak. Being at last compelled to speak, they said that if they did so their quality would be disclosed. I perceived that they were of those who constitute the province of the dura mater, which is the general integument of the cerebrum and the cerebellum. It was then disclosed of what quality they were, for I was permitted to know this by speaking with them. They were (as before when they had lived as men) those who had thought nothing about spiritual and heavenly things, nor had they spoken about them; because they were such as to believe in nothing except that which is natural, and this because they had not been able to penetrate further, but yet had not confessed this unbelief. Nevertheless like others they had worshiped the Divine, had said their prayers, and had been good citizens.

[3] There were afterwards others who also flowed into the heartbeat, but by an undulation not downward and upward, but crosswise; and others who flowed in not with a reciprocating action, but more continuously; and also others under whose action the beating jumped from one place to another. It was said that these had relation to the outer lamella of the dura mater, and that they were of those who had thought of spiritual and heavenly things solely from such things as are objects of the external senses, not conceiving of interior things in any other manner. These were heard by me as of the female sex. They who reason concerning the things of heaven, or the spiritual things of faith and love, from outward things of sense, and therefore from what is worldly and earthly, insofar as they make them a one and confound them together, wend their way more and more outward, even to the outer skin of the head, which they represent. Nevertheless provided they have led a good life, these are within the Grand Man, although in its extremes or outermost parts; for everyone is saved who is in the life of good from the affection of charity. (AC 4046)

AC 4050. A certain face was first seen by me above an azure window, but presently withdrew itself within. I then saw a little star near the region of the left eye, and afterward a number of ruddy little stars that sparkled with white. Afterwards I saw the walls of a house, but no roof, the walls being only on the left side; and lastly I saw as it were the starry heaven. As these things were seen in a place where there were evil ones, I supposed that some hideous sight would be presented to me, but the wall soon disappeared, together with the starry heaven, and then there appeared a well, out of which came forth as it were a bright white cloud or vapor; and something also seemed to be pumped up out of the well.

[2] I asked what these things signified and represented, and was told that it was a representation of the infundibulum in the brain, above which is the brain itself, which was signified by the starry heaven; and that what was next seen was that vessel, signified by the well and called the infundibulum; and that the cloud or vapor arising from it was the lymph that passes through and is piped out of it; and that this lymph is of two kinds, namely, that mixed with the animal spirits, which is among the useful lymphs; and that mixed with serosities, which is among the excremental lymphs.

[3] I was next shown the quality of those who belong to this province, but only those of the viler sort, whom I also saw running about hither and thither, applying themselves to those whom they saw, paying attention to everything, and reporting to others what they heard; and being prone to suspicions, impatient and restless, in close resemblance to the lymph which is therein, and is borne hither and thither; their reasonings being the fluids there which they represent. But these are of the middle sort.

[4] But those who have relation to the excremental lymphs are they who drag down spiritual truths to earthly things, and there defile them-as for example, those who when they hear anything about conjugial love apply it to whoredoms and adulteries, and thus drag down the things of conjugial love to these; and the same with everything else. These appeared in front at some distance to the right. But those who are of the good sort are similar to those described just above in n. 4049. (AC 4050)

AC 4530. Colors also are seen in the other life which in splendor and refulgence surpass the luster of the colors of this world to such a degree that scarcely any comparison is possible. These colors are produced by the variegation of the light and shade there; and as it is the intelligence and wisdom that come from the Lord which there appear as light before the eyes of angels and spirits, and at the same time inwardly illumine their understandings, in their essence these colors are variations or so to speak modifications of intelligence and wisdom. The colors there--not only those with which the flowers are adorned, the atmospheres made brilliant, and the rainbows varied, but also those which are distinctly presented in other forms-have been seen by me an almost countless number of times. They have their brightness from the truth which is of intelligence, and their effulgence from the good which is of wisdom, and the colors themselves are produced from the whiteness and the darkness thereof, thus from light and shade, like the tints of color in this world.

It is for this reason that the colors mentioned in the Word, such as those of the precious stones in Aaron's breast plate and upon his garments of holiness, and those of the curtains of the tent where the ark was, and those of the stones of the foundation of the New Jerusalem, described by John in Revelation, besides others mentioned elsewhere, represented such things as are of intelligence and wisdom. But what each of these colors represents shall of the Lord's Divine mercy be told in the explications. In general the colors seen in the other life have splendor and whiteness insofar as they come from the truth of intelligence; and they have refulgence and crimson insofar as they come from the good of wisdom. Those colors which derive their origin from these sources also belong to the provinces of the eyes. (AC 4530)


What is the nature of the correspondence between the soul and the body, or between the things of the spirit which is within man and those of his body which are without him, may be plainly seen from the correspondence, influx, and communication of the thought and perception, which are of the spirit, with the speech and hearing, which are of the body. The thought of a man who is speaking is nothing but the speech of his spirit, and the perception of the speech is nothing but the hearing of his spirit. When man is speaking, his thought does not indeed appear to him as speech, because it conjoins itself with the speech of his body, and is in it; and when man hears, his perception appears merely like hearing in the ear. This is the reason why most persons who have not reflected know no otherwise than that all sense is in the organs of the body, and consequently that when these organs fall to decay by death, nothing of sense survives, whereas the man (that is, his spirit) then comes into his veriest life of sensation.

[2] That it is the spirit which speaks and hears has been made very manifest to me from conversations with spirits. Their speech communicated to my spirit fell into my interior speech, and thence into the corresponding organs, and there terminated in an endeavor which I have sometimes plainly perceived. Hence their speech was heard by me as sonorously as the speech of a man. Sometimes when spirits spoke with me in the midst of a company of men, some of the spirits supposed that as their speech was heard so sonorously, they would be heard by the other people who were there present; but they were informed that such was not the case, because their speech flowed into my ear by an internal way, and human speech flows in by an external way. This shows how the spirit spoke with the prophets-not as a man with a man, but as a spirit with a man, that is, in him (see Zech. 1:9, 13; 2:2, 7; 4:1, 4, 5; 5:10; 6:4; and in other places).

But I know that these things cannot be comprehended by those who do not believe that man is a spirit, and that the body merely serves this spirit for uses in this world. Those who have confirmed themselves in this unbelief are unwilling even to hear about any correspondence, and being in denial, if they do hear of it they reject it, and are rather made sad that anything should be taken away from the body. (AC 4652)

AC 4658. To the interiors of the ear belong those who have the sight of the interior hearing, and who obey the things which its spirit there dictates, and give fit utterance to its dictates. What their character is has also been shown. A kind of penetrating sound was observed from below, near the left side even to the left ear. I noticed that it was spirits who were thus striving to come forth, but of what character they were I could not know. But when they had struggled forth they spoke with me, saying that they had been logicians and metaphysicians, and that they had immersed their thoughts in such things with no other end but that of hearing themselves called learned, and of thus coming to honors and wealth, and they lamented that they were now leading a miserable life because they had imbibed such things without any other use, and thus had not perfected their rational by their means. Their speech was slow, and had a muffled sound.

[2] Meanwhile two were speaking with each other above my head; and when it was asked who they were, it was said that one of them was a man most renowned in the learned world, and it was given me to believe that it was Aristotle. Who the other was, was not told. The former was then let into the state in which he was when he lived in the world; for everyone can be easily let into the state of his life which he had in the world, because he takes all the state of his life with him. But to my surprise he applied himself to my right ear, and there spoke hoarsely, but still sanely. From the meaning of what he said I observed that he was of a genius quite different from those schoolmen who first rose up, in that the things which he wrote he had hatched out from his own thought, and thereby had brought forth his philosophy; so that the terms which he invented, and which he gave to the subjects of his thought, were forms of expression by which he described interior things; and also that he had been stirred to such things by the delight of affection, and the desire of knowing the things which are of thought, and that he followed obediently what his spirit dictated.

For this reason he came to my right ear. It is different with his followers, who are called schoolmen, and who do not advance from thought to terms, but from terms to thoughts, thus in a contrary way. And many of them do not advance to thoughts, but stay in the mere terms, and if they apply these, it is to prove whatever they wish, and to impose on falsities an appearance of truth, in accordance with their desire of persuading. Hence to them philosophy is the means of becoming insane rather than of becoming wise, and hence they have darkness instead of light.

[3] I afterwards spoke with him about analytic science, and it was given me to say that a child speaks more things philosophically, analytically, and logically in half an hour than he would be able to describe in volumes (because all the things of human thought and thence of human speech are analytical, the laws of which are from the spiritual world), and that he who wishes to think artificially from terms is not unlike a dancer who wants to learn to dance from a knowledge of the motor fibers and muscles; but if while he dances his attention were fixed on this knowledge he could scarcely move a foot; and yet without this knowledge he moves all the motor fibers scattered throughout his entire body, and in adaptation to them the lungs, the diaphragm, the sides, the arms, the neck, and all the rest, for describing all of which volumes would not suffice; and the case is similar with those who desire to think from terms. These things he approved, saying that if things are learned in this manner, they proceed in inverted order, and he added, If anyone desires to be a fool let him proceed so; but rather let him continually think of use, and from within.

[4] He then showed me what idea he had of the Supreme Deity, namely, that he represented Him to himself with a human face and encompassed about the head with a radiant circle; and that he now knows that the Lord is that very Man, and that the radiant circle is the Divine going forth from Him, which flows not only into heaven, but also into the universe, and disposes and rules these; adding that He who disposes and rules heaven, also disposes and rules the universe, because the one cannot be separated from the other. He also said that he had believed in one only God, whose attributes and qualities had been distinguished by as many names as were worshiped as gods by others.

[5] A woman was seen by me who stretched out her hand, wishing to stroke his cheek. When I wondered at this, he said that when he was in the world such a woman was often seen by him, who as it were stroked his cheek, and that her hand was beautiful. The angelic spirits said that such women were sometimes seen by the ancients, and were called by them Pallases; and that she appeared to him from the spirits who, when they lived as men in ancient times, were delighted with ideas and indulged in thoughts, but without philosophy. And because such spirits were with him, and were delighted with him because he thought interiorly, they therefore presented to view such a woman representatively.

[6] Lastly he told what kind of idea he had entertained respecting man's soul or spirit, which he called pneuma - namely, that it was an unseen vital something, as of ether. And he said that he had known that his spirit would live after death, because it was his interior essence, which cannot die, because it can think; and further that he could not think distinctly concerning it, but only obscurely,. because he had no knowledge respecting it from any other source than from himself, and a very little also from the ancients. Moreover, Aristotle is among sane spirits in the other life, and many of his followers are among the foolish. (AC 4658)

AC 4792. As food and nourishment correspond to spiritual food and nourishment, therefore taste corresponds to the perception and affection of this food. Spiritual food is knowledge, intelligence, and wisdom, for from these, spirits and angels live and are nourished, and they desire and have appetite for them just as men who are hungry desire and have appetite for food. Hence appetite corresponds to this desire. And wonderful to say, from this food they grow to maturity; for little children who die appear in the other life no otherwise than as little children, and also are such as to understanding; but as they increase in intelligence and wisdom, they appear not as little children, but as advancing in age, and at last as adults. I have conversed with some who had died in infancy, and were seen by me as young men, because they were then intelligent. From this it is evident what spiritual food and nourishment are. (AC 4792)

AC 4934. I have seen a bare arm, bent forward, which was possessed of such force and such power to inflict terror that I was not only horrified, but felt as if I might be crushed to atoms, even as to my inmost things, for it was irresistible. This arm has been seen by me twice; and from it I was given to know that the arms signify strength, and the hands power. A warmth was also felt exhaling from that arm. (AC 4934)

AC 5055. But I have not been allowed to know the identity and essential nature of the communities that belong to specific organs of generation because those communities are far too internal for anyone in a lower sphere to discern. Those communities also correlate with hidden functions served by these organs, hidden and also unknown to science for the providential reason that things such as these, which in essence are utterly heavenly, must not suffer any damage from filthy thoughts. They must not be damaged by thoughts that accompany wantonness, whoredom, or adultery and that are aroused in most people by the mere mention of those organs. This being so, let me describe some things witnessed by me which took place further away. (AC 5055)

AC 6200. To illustrate this by an example: When I thought of a man whom I know, then the idea of him, such as it appears when his name is mentioned before a man, was presented in the midst; but round about, like an undulating volatile something (undans volatile), was everything that I had known and thought about him from childhood; whereby the whole of him, such as he was in my thought and affection, appeared among the spirits In an instant. Moreover when I have been thinking about any city, then from that undulating sphere that was round about, the spirits instantly knew all that I had seen and known about it. The case was the same with matters of science. * Thought represented by an undulating sphere with a solid in the middle. When a stone is thrown into clam water it produces a concentric undulation. This however is only in a plane. But imagine a sphere or globe of some fluid medium with such an exciting object in the middle, and undulations going away from it in all directions. This may give some idea of the "material ideas in the middle" and the "volatile undulating sphere" all around it. (AC 6200.)

AC 1277. The case is the very same with men, as to their souls, which are constantly bound to some society of spirits and of angels. They too have a situation in the kingdom of the Lord according to the nature of their life, and according to their state. It matters not that they are distant from each other on earth even though it were many thousands of miles-still they can be together in the same society-those who live in charity in an angelic society, and those who live in hatred and such evils in an infernal society. In like manner it matters not that there be many together on earth in one place, for still they are all distinct in accordance with the nature of their life and of their state, and each one may be in a different society. Men who are distant from each other some hundreds or thousands of miles, when they appear to the internal sense may be so near each other that some of them may touch, according to their situation. Thus if there were a number of persons on earth whose spiritual sight was opened, they might be together and converse together, though one was in India and another in Europe, which also has been shown me. Thus are all men on earth, both generally and individually, most closely present to the Lord, and under His view and providence. (AC 1277)

SS 61. I have been permitted to converse with many after death who had believed that they would shine in heaven like the stars, because, as they said, they had regarded the Word as holy, had often read it through, had collected from it many things by which they had confirmed the tenets of their faith, and had thereby been celebrated in the world as learned men. On this account they believed they would be Michaels and Raphaels.

[2] Many of them however have been examined in respect to what was the love from which they had studied the Word, and some of them were found to have done so from the love of self, that they might appear great in the world, and be revered as dignitaries of the church; and others of them had done so from the love of the world, that they might get rich. When examined as to what they knew from the Word, it was found that they knew nothing of genuine truth from it, but only such as is called truth falsified, which in itself is falsity. And they were told that this was because their ends (or what is the same their loves) had been themselves and the world, and not the Lord and heaven. When men read the Word while themselves and the world are the ends in view, their minds cleave to themselves and the world, and this causes them to be constantly thinking from their own,* which is in thick darkness in respect to all things of heaven, in which state the man cannot be withdrawn by the Lord from his own, and thus be raised into the light of heaven, and consequently cannot receive through heaven any influx from the Lord.

[3] I have even seen them admitted into heaven, but when they were found to be devoid of truths, they were cast down; yet the conceit remained that they deserved heaven. Very different has it been with those who had studied the Word from the affection of knowing truth because it is truth, and because it is of service to the uses of life, not only to their own uses but also to those of the neighbor. I have seen these raised up into heaven, and thus into the light in which is Divine truth there, and at the same time exalted into angelic wisdom and its happiness, which is eternal life. (SS 61)

SS 64. It has been made plain to me by much experience that the spiritual angels are in the spiritual sense of the Word, and the celestial angels in its celestial sense. While reading the Word in its sense of the letter it has been given me to perceive that communication was effected with the heavens, now with this society of them, now with that, and that what I understood according to the natural sense, the spiritual angels understood according to the spiritual sense, and the celestial angels according to the celestial sense, and this in an instant. As I have perceived this communication many thousands of times, there remains with me no doubt about it. Moreover there are spirits beneath the heavens who abuse this communication; they recite some sayings from the sense of the letter, and immediately observe and take note of the society with which communication is effected. This I have frequently seen and heard. From these things it has been given me to know by actual experience that the Word in respect to its sense of the letter is the Divine medium of conjunction with the Lord and with heaven. (Concerning this conjunction by the Word see also what is said in Heaven and Hell, n. 303-310.) (SS 64)


Hitherto it has not been known that the Word is in the heavens, nor could it be made known so long as the church was ignorant that angels and spirits are men like the men in this world, and that they possess in every respect like things to those possessed by men, with the sole difference that they themselves are spiritual, and that all things they possess are from a spiritual origin; while men in this world are natural, and all things they possess are from a natural origin. So long as this fact was hidden it could not be known that the Word exists in the heavens also, and is read by angels there, and also by spirits who are beneath the heavens. But that this might not be forever hidden, it has been granted me to be in company with angels and spirits, to converse with them, see what exists with them, and afterwards relate many things that I have heard and seen. This has been done in Heaven and Hell, published in London in 1758; in which work it may be seen that angels and spirits are men, and that they possess in abundance all things that men possess in this world. (SS 70)

SS 90. As the subject here treated of is the Divinity and holiness of the Word, to what has already been said we may add something worthy of mention. A small piece of paper marked with Hebrew letters, but written as the ancients wrote them, was once sent me from heaven. In those times some of the letters that now are partly formed with straight lines were curved, and had little horns that turned upward. The angels who were then with me said that they themselves discerned complete meanings from the very letters, and that they knew them especially from the curvings of the lines and of the points of each letter. And they explained what the letters meant when taken each by itself and what when taken together; and said that the H that was added to the names of Abram and Sarai means what is infinite and eternal. They also explained in my presence from the letters or syllables alone the meaning of the Word in Psalm 32:2, showing that the sum of their meaning is that the Lord is merciful even to those who do evil.

[2] They informed me that the writing in the third heaven consists of curved letters that are bent in various ways, and that each letter possesses a complete meaning; that the vowels there indicate a sound that corresponds to the affection, and that in that heaven they cannot utter the vowels i and e, but instead of them y and eu, but that they do use the vowels a, o, and u, because they give a full sound.* Further: that they do not pronounce any consonants as hard, but soft, and that it is from this that certain Hebrew letters have a dot in the center as a sign that they are to be pronounced as [hard, and are without this dot when] soft; and they said that hardness in pronouncing the letters is in use in the spiritual heaven because there they are in truths, and truth admits of what is hard, but not good, in which are the angels of the celestial kingdom or third heaven. They also said that these angels possess the Word written with curved letters that have significant points and little horns. This shows what is meant by the words of the Lord:
One jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law till all be fulfilled (Matt. 5:18);

It is easier for heaven and earth to pass away than for one tittle of the law to fail (Luke 16:17).

(SS 90)

SS 113. It has been given me to know by much experience that by means of the Word man has communication with heaven. While I read the Word through from the first chapter of Isaiah to the last of Malachi, and the Psalms of David, I was permitted clearly to perceive that each verse communicated with some society of heaven, and thus the whole Word with the universal heaven. (SS 113)

SS 97. [5] Divine truth in the Word, and the quality of it, are described by the cherubs in the first, ninth, and tenth chapters of Ezekiel; but as no one can know what is signified by the several particulars of the description of them, except one to whom the spiritual sense has been opened, it has been disclosed to me what in brief is signified by all the things said about the cherubs in the first chapter of Ezekiel, which are as follows:

The external Divine sphere of the Word is described (Ezek. 1:4);
It is represented as a man (Ezek. 1:5);
And conjoined with spiritual and celestial things (Ezek. 1:6);
The natural of the Word, its quality (Ezek. 1:7);
The spiritual and the celestial of the Word conjoined with its natural, their quality (Ezek. 1:8-9)
The Divine love of the good and truth celestial, spiritual, and natural therein, severally and also together (Ezek. 1:10-11);
They all look to the one thing (Ezek. 1:12);
The sphere of the Word from the Lord's Divine good and Divine truth, from which the Word is alive (Ezek. 1:13-14);
The doctrine of good and truth in the Word and from the Word (Ezek. 1:15-21);
The Divine of the Lord above the Word and in it (Ezek. 1:22-23);
And from it (Ezek. 1:24-25);
The Lord is above the heavens (Ezek. 1:26);
And Divine love and Divine wisdom are His (Ezek. 1:27-28).

These summaries have been compared with the Word in heaven, and are in conformity with it.  (SS 97)

AC 6494. For a number of years I have carefully observed whether fortune is anything, and I have found that it is, and that sagacity then availed nothing. Moreover all who have long reflected on this subject, know and confess this, but they do not know whence it is: scarcely anyone knows that it is from the spiritual world, when yet this is the source of it. I once played in company a common game of chance with dice, and the spirits who were with me spoke to me about fortune in games, and said that what is fortunate was represented to them by a bright cloud, and what is unfortunate by a dusky cloud; and that when a dusky cloud appeared with me, it was impossible for me to win; moreover by this sign they predicted to me the turns of fortune in that game. From this it was given me to know that what is attributed to fortune, even in games, is from the spiritual world; much more that which befalls man in relation to the vicissitudes in the course of his life; and that what is called fortune is from the influx of Providence in the ultimates of order, where it so comes forth; thus that Providence is in the veriest singulars of all things, according to the Lord's words, that not even a hair falls from the head without the will of God. (AC 6494)

AC 9827. All articles of clothing derive their signification from the part of the body which they cover; as for instance that which covers the breast, like the breastplate; that which covers the loins, like the breeches; that which covers the feet, like the stockings; that which covers the soles of the feet, like the shoes; and so likewise that which covers the head, like the miter, the tiara, the cap.

[2] That such is the case is evident from the representatives in the other life. When wisdom and intelligence are taken away from spirits, as is the case when angelic societies are removed from them, the covering of the head appears to be taken away from them; and as soon as this is done they become stupid, and have no perception of truth and good; but afterward, as intelligence and wisdom return, the head is again covered. (AC 9827)

For additional entries on Experiments see Swedenborg's Autobiographical Letters and statements in Section


by evil is learned what is good, the quality of good being known from its opposite. All perception of a thing is according to reflection bearing on the distinctions that come from contraries in various ways and in various degrees.. (AC 7812)


ac 4223. But as regards this correspondence, the fact is that although the heavens above mentioned do indeed correspond to the very organic forms of the human body, and therefore it is said that these societies or those angels belong to the province of the brain, to the province of the heart, to the province of the lungs, or to the province of the eye, and so on, they nevertheless correspond chiefly to the functions of these viscera or organs. The case herein is as with the organs or viscera themselves, in that their functions constitute a one with their organic forms; for no function can be conceived of except from forms, that is, from substances, for the substances are the subjects from which they exist. Sight, for example, cannot be conceived of apart from the eye; nor breathing apart from the lungs. The eye is the organic form from which and by means of which the sight exists, and the lungs are the organic form from which and by means of which the breathing exists; and so with all the rest. It is the functions therefore to which the heavenly societies chiefly correspond; and as they correspond to the functions, they correspond also to the organic forms; for the one is indivisible and inseparable from the other, inasmuch that whether you speak of the function or the organic form by which and from which is the function, it comes to the same thing. Hence there is correspondence with the organs, members, and viscera, because there is with the functions; and therefore when the function is brought into exercise, the organ also is excited. The same is the case with everything that man does; when he wills to do this or that, in this manner or that, and is thinking of it, the organs then move in concurrence, thus in accordance with the intention of the function or use; for it is the use that commands the forms.

[2] This shows that the use existed before the organic forms of the body came forth; and that the use produced and adapted them to itself, and not the reverse. But when the forms have been produced, and the organs adapted, the uses proceed from them; and then it appears as if the forms or organs were prior to the uses, when yet such is not the case. For use flows in from the Lord, and this through heaven, according to order, and according to the form in which heaven has been ordinated by the Lord, thus according to correspondences. Thus does man come into existence, and thus also does he subsist. And hence again does it appear why it is that man corresponds to the heavens in regard to both generals and particulars. (AC 4223)

[HELL] see also [HEAVEN]

HH 541. Hell, like heaven, is divided into societies, and into as many societies as there are in heaven; for every society in heaven has a society opposite to it in hell, and this for the sake of equilibrium. But evils and falsities therefrom are what distinguish the societies in hell, as goods and truths therefrom are what distinguish the societies in heaven. That for every good there is an opposite evil, and for every truth an opposite falsity may be known from this, that nothing can exist without relation to its opposite, and what anything is in kind and degree can be known from its opposite, and from this all perception and sensation is derived. For this reason the Lord continually provides that every society in heaven shall have an opposite in some society of hell, and that there shall be an equilibrium between the two. (HH 541)

CL 75. The First Memorable Relation:
Once when meditating on conjugial love, my mind was seized with a desire to know what that love had been with those who lived in the Golden Age, and what it had been later with those who lived in the Ages that followed and which are named from silver, copper, and iron; and, knowing that all who had lived well in those Ages are in the heavens, I prayed the Lord that He would allow me to speak with them and be instructed. And lo, an angel stood by me and said: "I am sent by the Lord to be your guide and companion. First I will guide and accompany you to those who lived in the first age or period called GOLDEN"; and he added, "The way to them is hard. It lies through a dark forest through which no one can pass without a guide given him by the Lord."

[2] Being in the spirit, I girded myself for the journey, and we turned our faces towards the east. As we went on, I saw a mountain whose height extended above the region of the clouds. We passed through a great desert and came into the forest of which the angel had spoken. It was thick with trees of various kinds, and dark by reason of their density. The forest was intersected by many narrow paths, and the angel said: "These paths are so many tortuous paths of error, and unless his eyes are opened by the Lord to see the olive trees entwined with vine tendrils, and his steps directed from tree to tree, the traveler would wander off into the Tartarean shades which lie round about at the sides. This forest is such, to the end that it may guard the approach; for none but the primeval race dwells on that mountain."
[3] After entering the forest, ...(CL 75)

CL 183. The second Memorable Relation:
Seen by me in the eastern quarter was a grove of palm trees and laurels arranged in spiral gyres. I approached it, and entering, walked on its paths which wound around in several spirals. At the end of the windings, I saw a garden which formed the center of the grove. Separating the two was a small bridge, and on it, a gate on the grove side and another on the garden side. I drew near, and the gates were opened by a guard. To my question, "What is the name of this garden?" he answered, "Adramandoni," which means the delight of conjugial love. (...) (CL 183)

CL 326. To this I will append two narrative accounts [about Swedenborg's experiences in the spiritual world]. Here is the first:

After the question concerning the soul had been discussed in the school and answered, I saw the people going out in order, the headmaster in front, after him the older men, with the five young men who had responded to the question in the midst of them, and after them the rest. As they left the building, they went around to the sides, where there were walkways surrounded by bushes. And gathering there, they broke up into small groups, all of them circles of young men conversing on matters of wisdom, with one of the wiser men from the balcony in each.

Seeing them from my place of lodging, I entered a state of the spirit and in the spirit went out to them. And there I went over to the headmaster, who a little before had posed the question concerning the soul.
When he saw me he said, "Who are you? As I watched you approaching on the way here, I was astonished to see that one minute you would pop into view, the next minute drop out of sight, so that one moment I would see you and suddenly then not. Surely you are not in the same life-state as our people."

Gently laughing at this I replied, "I am not a marionette, nor a chameleon, but I am one who alternates, being sometimes in your light and sometimes not, so that I am an alien and at the same time a native."

[2] At this the headmaster looked at me and said, "These are strange and extraordinary things you are saying. Tell me who you are."

So I said, "I live in the world in which you once lived and from which you have departed, which is called the natural world; and I live as well in the world into which you have come and in which you are now living, which is called the spiritual world. I am as a result in a natural state and at the same time a spiritual one - in a natural state when I am with people on earth, and in a spiritual state when I am with you. Moreover, when I am in a natural state, I am not visible to you; but when I am in a spiritual state, I am. To be as I am is something I have been given by the Lord.

"Being an enlightened man, you know that an inhabitant of the natural world does not see an inhabitant of the spiritual world, or vice versa. Therefore when I conveyed my spirit into my body, you did not see me; but when I conveyed it out of my body, you did.

"You also taught in your school exercise that you are souls, and that souls see souls because they are human forms. But you know that you did not see yourselves or your souls within your bodies when you were in the natural world. This fact is due to the difference that exists between something spiritual and something natural."

[3] When he heard me mention a difference between something spiritual and something natural, he said, "What is the difference? It is not like the difference between something more pure and something less so? So what is something spiritual but a purer form of something natural."

But I replied, "That is not what the difference is, but it is as the difference between something prior and something subsequent, between which there is no finite relationship. For the prior is in the subsequent, as a cause in its effect, and the subsequent exists from the prior, as an effect from its cause. That is why the one is not visible to the other."
To this the headmaster said, "I have reflected and ruminated on the difference, but so far in vain. I would like to have some concept of it."

[4] So I said, "You shall not only have a concept of the difference between something spiritual and something natural, but you will even witness the difference." Whereupon I spoke to him as follows:

"You are in a spiritual state when you are with your own people, but in a natural state with me; for you speak with your associates in spiritual language, the common language of every spirit and angel, whereas with me you speak in my native tongue. Indeed, every spirit or angel in speaking with a mortal person uses the person's customary language, thus speaking French with a Frenchman, English with an Englishman, Greek with a Greek, Arabic with an Arab, and so on.

"So then, to learn the difference between something spiritual and something natural in terms of languages, do the following: Go over to your associates, say something there and remember the words. Then with these memorized, come back and repeat them to me."

So he did as I said, and returned to me with the words in his mouth, but when he uttered them he did not know what any of them meant. The words were altogether strange and unfamiliar, being words not found in any language of the natural world.

After he repeated this experiment several times, it became clearly apparent to him that people in the spiritual world all speak a spiritual language which has nothing in common with any language of the natural world, and that every person comes automatically into use of that language after death. At the same time he also then discovered that the very intonation of spiritual language is so different from the intonation of natural language that the intonation of spiritual language, even when loud, is not at all audible to a natural person, nor the intonation of natural language to a spiritual person.

[5] After that I asked the headmaster and some others standing by to go over to their associates and write down some thought on a piece of paper, and with that piece of paper come back to me and read it. They did as I said, and they returned with the piece of paper in hand; but when they went to read it, they were unable to make out what any of it meant, since the writing consisted only of some alphabetic letters with curly lines over them, each of which carried some meaning connected with the subject. (Because every letter of the alphabet carries some meaning there, it is apparent from what origin the Lord is called the Alpha and the Omega.)** As they again and again withdrew, wrote and returned, they discovered that their writing included and contained a countless number of elements which no natural writing could ever express. But they were told that this is because a spiritual person thinks thoughts incomprehensible and inexpressible to a natural person, and these cannot descend or be put into any other form of writing or language.

[6] Then, because the others standing by were unwilling to believe that spiritual thought so far surpasses natural thought as to be inexpressible in comparison, I said to them, "Try an experiment. Go over into your spiritual association, think on some subject, and holding the thought come back and express it to me."

So they went, thought, held the thought, and came back; but when they went to express what they had thought, they could not. For they did not find any natural mental concept equivalent to any spiritual concept. So neither did they find any word to express their thoughts, since ideas of 7the mind take form as words in speech. At that they then began to withdraw and return, to prove to themselves that spiritual ideas were higher than natural ones, being inexpressible, ineffable and incomprehensible to the natural man. And because spiritual ideas are so transcendent, they began to say that spiritual ideas or thoughts compared to natural ones were the essences of ideas and the essences of thoughts, and that they therefore expressed the essences of qualities and the essences of affections; consequently that spiritual thoughts were the germs and origins of natural thoughts. It also became evident from this that spiritual wisdom was the essence of wisdom, thus unintelligible to any person of wisdom in the natural world.

They were then told from the third heaven that there is a still more interior or higher wisdom, called celestial, which has a similar relationship to spiritual wisdom as spiritual wisdom does to natural wisdom; and that these levels of wisdom flow in succession in accordance with the heavens from the Lord's Divine wisdom, which is infinite. (CL 326)

CL 327. Following these events I said to the people standing by, "From the evidence of these three experiments you now see what the difference is between something spiritual and something natural; and also the reason why a natural person is not visible to a spiritual one, nor a spiritual person to a natural one - even though they are affiliated in respect to their affections and thoughts and so in respect to their presence. That, Headmaster, is why one moment you would see me on the way, and the next moment not."

After that we heard a voice from the higher heaven saying to the headmaster, "Come up here."

So he went up. And when he returned he said that like himself, the angels had not known before the differences that exist between something spiritual and something natural, owing to the fact that they had not previously been given an opportunity to contrast them in the case of a person who was at the same time in both worlds; and without the contrast these differences are not known. (CL 327)

CL 329. After the headmaster and the rest left me, some boys who were also present at the school exercise followed me home, and they stood by me there for a while as I was writing. Suddenly then they saw a cockroach scurrying across my paper, and they asked in astonishment what that little creature was to be so swift.

So I said, "It is called a cockroach, and I will tell you some wonderful things about it. In that living thing, small as it is, there are as many parts and organs as in a camel. It has, for example, a brain, a heart, air passages, sensory organs, motor organs and organs of generation, a stomach, intestines, and many other things; and each one is composed of fibers, ligaments, blood vessels, muscles, tendons, membranes, and each of these of still finer elements, which are too tiny for any eye to see."

[2] The boys then began to say that the little creature still looked to them as though it consisted only of a single substance.

But I said, "Nevertheless it has countless parts within. I tell you this to teach you that it is the same in every phenomenon that appears to your eyes as unitary, single, and irreducible, including your actions, and likewise your affections and thoughts. I can assure you that every particle of your thought and every drop of your affection is divisible to infinity, and according as your ideas are divisible, so are you wise.

"Be advised that everything divided becomes more and more multiple, and not more and more simple, because as something is divided again and again it approaches nearer and nearer to the Infinite in which are all things infinitely. This is something new I am telling you, which you have not heard before." (CL 329)

They have the Word in the spiritual kingdom in its higher region so written that it may be more and more intelligently understood by one who is intelligent, but simply by one who is simple, in which Word stands forth both interior and exterior intelligence, and the interior is written. This is effected by various points above the letters, the points signifying affections, and the series of points expressing the interior things of intelligence continuously to the more intelligent.

This Word was seen by me, that is, something of it was seen. Something also of the Word of the celestial kingdom was seen, in which still more arcana were described, but by various curves and spirals above and within the letters, which are peculiar to the celestial kingdom. These arcana are very transcendent, nor can they be comprehended by an angel of the spiritual kingdom, nor even thought of; wherefore it was said to them that they can no more approximate to the wisdom of angels of the celestial kingdom than can those who are in a natural sphere approximate to the intelligence of angels of the spiritual kingdom; and how far this transcends has frequently been tried. From experience it was made evident to me, that the intelligence of angels of the spiritual kingdom is ineffable and incomprehensible to those who are in the natural kingdom; and that the wisdom of the angels of the celestial kingdom is incomprehensible and ineffable to those who are in the spiritual kingdom. But as to the Divine wisdom of the Lord, this so transcends all wisdom that no ratio can be given; for all the intelligence and wisdom of angels is finite, but the Divine wisdom of the Lord is infinite; and there is no ratio between the finite and the infinite. The intelligence and wisdom of angels is finite, because angels are recipients, and all recipients are created, and so finite. (De Verbo 24)

D. Wisdom 1. That I might know in what light the learned in the world are at the present day, two ways were seen by me; one was called the way of wisdom and the other the way of folly. At the end of the way of wisdom there was a palace in light, but at the end of the way of folly there was something like a palace, but in shade. About three hundred of the learned were there assembled, and they were permitted to choose which way they would take, and two hundred and sixty were seen to enter the way of folly, and only forty the way of wisdom. Those who took the way of wisdom entered the palace that was in light, where there were magnificent things, and garments of fine linen were given them, and they became angels; while those who went in the way of folly wished to enter that which appeared like a palace in the shade, and behold, it was a theatre of actors, and there they put on stage garments and masks and talked nonsense and became fools. I was afterwards told that such and so numerous at the present day are the learned fools who are in natural light as compared with the learned wise who are in spiritual light; and that those have spiritual light who love to understand whether that which another says is true; while those have natural light who merely love to confirm what has been said by another. (D. Wisdom 1)

D. Wisdom 3. As there are two things, love and wisdom, that form the embryo in the womb, so there are two receptacles, one for love and the other for wisdom; so again there are two things in the body throughout, and these likewise are distinct and are united. There are two hemispheres of the brain, two eyes, two ears, two nostrils, two chambers of the heart, two hands, two feet, two kidneys, two testicles, and the rest of the viscera are doubled; and in every case what is on their right side has relation to the good of love, and what is on their left to the truth of wisdom. That these two are so joined together as to act as one mutually and reciprocally, a diligent investigator can see if he will take the trouble. The union itself stands forth to view in the fibers stretched to and fro and interlaced in the midst of their course; and this is the reason of the signification of "right" and "left" in the Word. From all this the truth is clear that love and wisdom, unitedly and harmoniously form each and all things in the embryo, and yet in these things they may be distinguished.

[4] 4. The receptacles are distinguished into three degrees with man, one within the other; and the two higher are dwelling-places of the Lord, but not the lowest.

Some one might possibly form a fallacious idea of the beginnings of the human form, which pertain to the seed of the man, because they are called receptacles. From the term receptacle one may easily fall into the idea of a vessel or a little tube. I desire therefore to define and describe that initial form, as it was seen by me and made clear to me in the heavens, as adequately as the expressions of natural language will permit. These receptacles are not tubular, or hollowed out like little vessels, but they are like the brain, of which they are an exceedingly minute and invisible type, with a delineation resembling a face in front, with no visible appendage. This primitive brain in the upper convex part was a structure of contiguous globules or little spheres, each little sphere being a conglomeration of like spheres still more minute, and each of these again of the very least. In front, in the flattened region of the nose, a kind of outline appeared for a face; but in the recess between the convex part and this flattened part there was no fiber; the convex part was covered round about with a very thin membrane, which was transparent.

Thus was seen by me and shown to me the primitive of man, the first or lowest degree of which was the structure first described, the second or middle degree was the structure secondly described, and the third or highest degree was the structure thirdly described, thus one was within the other. I was told that in each little sphere there were indescribable interlacings, more and more wonderful according to the degrees, also that in each particular the right part is the couch or receptacle of love, and the left part is the couch or receptacle of wisdom, and that by wonderful connections these are like partners and comrades, the same as the two hemispheres of the brain are.

[[2]] It was further shown in the light that fell brightly on it, that the structure of the two interior degrees was, in its position and flow, in the order and form of heaven, while the structure of the lowest degree in its position and flow, was in the form of hell. This is why it is said that the receptacles are distinguished into three degrees with man, one within another, and the two higher are dwelling-places of the Lord, but not the lowest. The lowest degree is such because man, from a hereditary taint, is born opposed to the order and form of heaven, and thus into evils of every kind; and this taint is in the natural, which is the lowest of man's life, and it is not wiped away unless the interior degree that has been formed for the reception of love and wisdom from the Lord is opened in him. But how this degree and the inmost degree are opened is taught by the Lord in the Word, and will be taught in what follows. But to gain light on this subject, see what has been said before about degrees, also about the brain.

These degrees are called higher, although they are interior, and for the reason that there is successive order of degrees and simultaneous order; things higher and lower are in successive order, but things interior and exterior are in simultaneous order, and the same things that in simultaneous order are interior, in successive order are higher; and the same is true of things exterior and lower. And as there are three degrees in man so there are three degrees of the heavens, for the heavens consist of men who have become angels. According to degrees in successive order, the heavens are seen one above another, and according to degrees in simultaneous order, one within another. From this it is that "high" signifies in the Word what is internal, and the Lord is called "Most High," because He is in inmost things.

Since, then, man in the beginning of his development is such a dwelling place of the Lord as has been described, and these three degrees are then open, and since everything that proceeds from the Lord as a sun is Man in least things and in greatest (as has been shown before in its place), so extension into any other form than the human is not possible; nor is extension possible except through rays of light from wisdom with heat from love in the midst; thus through vivified fibers, which are rays brought out into form. That there is a like determination is apparent to the eye.

[[3]] So many are the degrees of life with man; but with beasts the two higher degrees are lacking and they have only the lowest; consequently the beginnings of their life are not receptacles of the Lord's love and wisdom, but are receptacles of natural affection and knowledge, into which they are born. With clean beasts these receptacles are not reflected or turned contrary to the order of the flux of the universe, but are conformable to it; therefore from birth, as soon as they are brought forth, they are led into their functions and know them. For beasts have had no ability to pervert their affections, since they have not the intellectual faculty to think and reason from spiritual light, and to violate the laws of Divine order.

[5] 5. One receptacle is for the will of the future man and the other for his understanding; and yet nothing whatever of his will or of his understanding is present in the formation.

Will and understanding with man do not begin until the lungs are opened, and this does not take place until after birth; then the will of man becomes the receptacle of love, and the understanding becomes the receptacle of wisdom. They do not become such receptacles until the lungs are opened, because the lungs correspond to the life of the understanding, and the heart corresponds to the life of the will, and without the cooperation of the understanding and will, man has no life of his own, as there is no life apart from the co-operation of love and wisdom by means of which the embryo is formed and vivified, as has been said before. In the embryo the heart alone beats, and the liver leaps, the heart for the circulation of the blood, and the liver for the reception of nourishment; from these is the motion of the other viscera, and this motion is felt as pulsative after the middle period of gestation.

But this motion is not from any life proper to the fetus; one's own life is the life of the will and the life of the understanding; while the life of the infant is the life of commencing will and commencing understanding; from these only do the sensitive and the motor life in the body exist; and this life is not possible from the beating of the heart alone, but is possible from the conjunction of this with the respiration of the lungs. This is seen to be true in men, who have both will and understanding; when they fall into a swoon or are suffocating, and respiration stops, they become as if dead; they have no sensation, their limbs do not move, they do not think nor will, and yet the heart performs its contractions and the blood circulates.

But as soon as the lungs return to their respirations the man comes back into his activities and to his senses, and into his will and understanding. From all this a conclusion may be formed about the quality of the life of the fetus in the womb, in which only the heart performs its motions, and not yet the lungs, namely, that nothing of the life of the will and nothing of the life of the understanding is present in it; but the formation is effected solely by the life from the Lord by which man afterwards is to live. But about this more may be seen in the following article.

[6] 6. There is life in the embryo before birth, but the embryo is not conscious of it.

This follows from what has been said above; also that the life from which the embryo in the womb lives is not its life, but the Lord's alone, who alone is life. (D. Wisdom 3)


AC 5119. By reciprocal influx it is not meant that the exterior natural flows into the interior, because this is impossible; for exterior things cannot possibly flow into interior things; or what is the same thing, lower or posterior things into higher and prior ones (...) It appears as if the things which are in the world flow in through the senses toward the interiors, but this is a fallacy of sense; the influx is of interiors into exteriors, and by means of this influx, perception. (AC 5119)


CORO 11. Judgment, which is the last phase of every Church, does not take place in the natural world, but in the spiritual world, into which all are gathered after death; and they are collected into heavens distinctly according to religion, thus according to faith and love. Judgment takes place in the spiritual world, for the reason that every man after death is a man; not a material man, as before, but a substantial man. Every man's mind, or spirit, is such a man: the body which he carried about in the world, is only a covering, and as it were sheath, which he has laid aside, and from which his spirit has disengaged itself. Now, since it was man's mind, or spirit, that thought in the material body, and then either from religion or not from religion, and in favour of God or against God, from truths of faith or from falsities of faith, that loved his neighbour or held him in hatred; and since the material body was only obedience; it follows that the mind, which is the substantial man, and is called the spirit, is what undergoes judgment, and, according to the intentions and acts of its life, is rewarded or punished. From these things it can be plainly seen that judgment, which is the last of every Church, takes place in the spiritual world, but not in the natural world. (CORO 11)

TCR 661. To this I will add two Memorable Relations. First: In the higher northern quarter near to the east in the spiritual world, there are places of instruction for boys, and for youths, and for men, and also for old men. All who die infants are sent to these places and educated in heaven; likewise all who are newcomers from the world and who wish to know about heaven and hell. This place is near the east, in order that all may be instructed by influx from the Lord; for the Lord is the east, because He is in the sun there, and the sun is pure love from Him; consequently the heat from that sun in its essence is love, and the light from it in its essence is wisdom; and these are inspired by the Lord from that sun into those who are instructed according to their ability to receive, and their ability to receive is according to their love of being wise. When their times of instruction are over, those who have become intelligent are sent away, and these are called disciples of the Lord. First, they are sent away to the west, and those who do not stay there go to the south, and some through the south to the east, and thus they are introduced into the societies where their abodes are to be.

[2] Once, when meditating upon heaven and hell, I began to wish for a universal knowledge of the state of each, knowing that one who knows universals is afterwards able to comprehend the particulars, because the latter are included in the former as parts in the whole." (TCR 661)

SE-WE 237. But because the Jewish Church, in itself, must be one and the same with the Church truly Christian, as was the earliest or infant Church, therefore, so that that Church might be portrayed as an inner one, Abraham depicts a belief that makes one righteous. The fact that belief was accounted to him because he had believed the promise concerning Isaac, who was to be the promised son [Gen. 15:4-6], could not have made Abraham righteous, unless at the same time he had believed that by the promised son was meant the Messiah, Who was to be born, and Who is the One Only promised Son. (SE-WE 237)


The natural substances of that mind-which, as we said, are by death left behind-form an epidermal envelope encompassing the spiritual body that spirits and angels have. It is in consequence of such an envelope, taken from the natural world, that their spiritual bodies have permanent existence, for the natural element is the outmost containing vessel. That is why there is no spirit or angel who was not first born a person in the world. (DLW 257)



[This is the Author's Index. The figures refer to the numbered paragraphs]

I heard certain new-comers in the spiritual world talking together about three Divine persons from eternity; and then a certain one who in the world had been a primate opened the ideas of his thought respecting that mystery, saying that it had been and still was his opinion that the three sit upon high thrones in heaven, God the Father upon a throne of the finest gold, with a scepter in His hand; God the Son at His right hand, upon a throne of the purest silver with a crown on His head; and God the Holy Spirit upon a throne of shining crystal, holding in His hand a dove, in the form of which He appeared when Christ was baptized, with lamps hanging around about them in triple order, glittering with precious stones; while at a distance innumerable angels were standing in a circle, worshiping and singing praises. He also spoke of the Holy Spirit, how He introduces faith, purifies and justifies. He said that many of his order favored his ideas, and he trusted that I also as a layman gave them credit. But as an opportunity to speak was then given me, I said that from my childhood I have cherished the idea that God is one. I therefore explained to him what the trinity involves, and what is signified by throne, scepter, and crown, where these in the Word are ascribed with God. To this I added that all who believe in three Divine persons from eternity must necessarily believe in three Gods; and, furthermore, that the Divine essence cannot be divided (n. 16).


A discourse of the angels about God,-that His Divine is the Divine Being (Esse) in itself, and not from itself; and that it is One, the Same, the Itself, and Indivisible; also that God is not in place, but is present with those who are in place; and that His Divine love appears to the angels as a sun, the heat from it being in its essence love, and the light therefrom in its essence wisdom (n. 25).
That the proceeding Divine attributes which are creation, redemption, and regeneration, are attributes of one God, and not of three (n. 26).


Perceiving that avast multitude of men are in the persuasion that all things belong to nature, and consequently that nature is the creator of the universe, in a certain gymnasium where there were persons of this kind I spoke with a certain gifted man respecting these three things: (1) Whether nature is a property of life, or life of nature; (2) Whether the center is from the expanse, or the expanse is from the center; (3) Respecting the center and the expanse of nature and of life; that the center of nature is the sun of the natural world, and the expanse itself of that center is its world; and that the center of life is the sun of the spiritual world, and the expanse itself of that center is its world. These propositions were discussed on both sides, and lastly it was shown what the truth is (n. 35)


I was conducted to a kind of theater of wisdom where angelic spirits from the four quarters were assembled with an injunction from heaven to discuss three arcana: (1) What is the image of God, and what is the likeness of God. (2) Why is not man born into the knowledge proper to any love, when even the beasts and the birds are born into the knowledge proper to all their loves. (3) What do the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil signify. And further, they were to unite the answers to these three in one opinion, and refer this to the angels of heaven; this was done, the opinion was referred, and was accepted by the angels (n. 48).


From evil spirits who were just above hell a sound was heard like the roaring of the sea; which was from a tumult that arose among them from their hearing it said above them that the Almighty God had bound Himself to order. A certain one ascending therefrom, addressed me sharply on the matter, saying that as God is omnipotent He is not bound to any order. And on being questioned about order, I said: (1) God is Order itself. (2) He created man from order, in order, and for order. (3) He created man's rational mind in accordance with the order of the spiritual world, and his body in accordance with the order of the natural world. (4) Therefore it is a law of order that man from his little spiritual world or little heaven should govern his little cosmos or little natural world, just as God from His great heaven or spiritual world governs His great cosmos or natural world. (5) Many other laws of order flow forth from these, some of which are recited. What afterward befell those spirits is described (n. 71).


Concerning the reasoning between certain Dutch and British in the spiritual world on the subject of imputation and predestination; on the one side, why God, since He is omnipotent, does not impute the righteousness of His Son to every man, and thus make them redeemed, for being omnipotent, He is able to make all the satans of hell angels of heaven; and even, if it be His good pleasure, He can make Lucifer, the dragon, and all the goats, to be archangels; and what is needed for this but a little word? On the other side, that God is Order itself, and that He can do nothing contrary to the laws of His order; because to act contrary to them would be to act contrary to Himself. Also much beside, about which they contended on this subject (n. 72).


I afterward spoke with others who had believed in predestination, deducing it from God's absolute power or omnipotence; saying that otherwise God would have less power than a king in the world who is a despot, and who can as easily change the laws of justice as he can turn his hands, and can act without restriction, like Octavius Augustus and also like Nero. To which it was answered, that God created the world and each and all things thereof, from Himself as Order, and thus impressed order upon them; also that the laws of His order are just as many as are the truths in the Word. Some of the laws of order were then recited, - what they are, and the nature of them, on God's part, and also on man's part. These cannot be changed, because God is Order itself: and man was created an image of His order (n. 73).


I spoke with clergymen and laymen who had gathered together, concerning the Divine omnipotence; and they said that omnipotence is unlimited, and that limited omnipotence is a contradiction. To this it was answered, that there is no contradiction in acting omnipotently according to laws of justice with judgment. It is said in David that "Justice and judgment are the support of God's throne" (Ps. 89:14); and that there is no contradiction in acting omnipotently according to the laws of love and wisdom; but there is a contradiction in God's being able to act contrary to the laws of justice and love; which would be to act from what is not judgment and wisdom; and such contradiction is implied in the faith of the church of the present day, which is that God is able to make an unjust man just, and endow the impious with all the gifts of salvation and the rewards of life. With much more concerning this faith and concerning omnipotence (n. 74).


When I was once meditating upon the creation of the universe by God, I was led in the spirit to certain wise ones who at first complained of the ideas they had acquired in the world which related to the creation of the universe out of chaos, and creation out of nothing; because these ideas obscure meditation upon the creation of the universe by God, and degrade and pervert it. Therefore when asked for my opinion, I replied that it is idle to try to form any but a speculative conclusion about the creation of the universe, unless it is known that there are two worlds, the spiritual and the natural, and that in each of these is a sun; and that the sun of the spiritual world, in the midst of which is God, is nothing but love, and that from it are all spiritual things, which in themselves are substantial; while the sun of the natural world is nothing but fire, and from it are all natural things, which in themselves are material. From these knowledges it can be concluded in regard to the creation of the universe, that it is from God, and how. This was also slightly traced out (n. 76).


Some satans of hell desired to talk with the angels of heaven, for the purpose of convincing them that all things are from nature, and that God is a mere word unless nature is meant. They were permitted to ascend. Then certain angels descended from heaven into the world of spirits to hear them. When the satans saw the angels they ran up to them furiously and said, "You are called angels because you believe that there is a God, and that nature is relatively nothing; this you believe although it is contrary to every sense; for which of your five senses has a sensation of anything but nature?" After these and many other bitter words, the angels called to the remembrance of the satans that they were then living after death, although formerly they had not even believed that they would so live; and then they caused them to see the beautiful and splendid things of heaven, and told them that these were there because all there believe in God; and afterward they caused them to see the vile and filthy things of hell, and told them that these were there because those there believe in nature. From seeing these things the satans were at first convinced that there is a God and that He created nature; but as they descended, the love of evil returned and closed their understanding from above; and when this was closed they believed as before, that all things are of nature, and nothing of God (n. 77).


A type of the creation of the universe was shown me in a living way, by angels. I was conducted into heaven; and it was granted me to see there all things of the animal kingdom, of the vegetable kingdom, and of the mineral kingdom, which were in every respect like the objects of those three kingdoms in the natural world. And then they said, All these things in heaven are created in a moment by God, and they continue to exist as long as the angels are interiorly as to their thought in a state of love and faith; and this instantaneous creation furnishes a clear proof of the creation of similar things, and even a similar creation, in the natural world, with the sole difference that natural things invest spiritual things, and that this clothing was provided by God for the sake of generations one from another, by which creation is perpetuated. Consequently, the creation of the universe was effected in a way similar to that in which it is effected every moment in heaven. Nevertheless, all the noxious and hideous things in the three kingdoms of nature (which are enumerated), were not created by God, but sprang up along with hell (n. 78).


In a conversation relating to the creation of the universe, with some who when in the world had been celebrated for learning, these spoke from the same ideas that they had formerly entertained. One of them said that nature created itself; another, that nature gathered its elements into vortices, and that by the collision of these the earth was formed; and a third that the origin of all things was chaos which in extent had equalled a great part of the universe; and that first there burst forth therefrom the purest elements, of which the sun and stars were formed; and afterwards those less pure, of which the atmospheres were formed; and at last the grosser matters, of which the terraqueous globe was formed. To the question, "What was the origin of human souls?" they answered, that the ether gathered itself into little individual globules, and that these infuse themselves into those who are about to be born, and make their souls; and that after death these globules fly away to their former company in the ether, and afterward return into others according to the doctrine of metempsychosis of the ancients. After this a certain priest, by solid arguments in favor of the creation of the universe by God showed all the things which they had said to be an absurd medley, and put them to shame. But still they held to their former delusions (n. 79).


A conversation with a certain satan about God, and the angelic heaven, and religion; who, not knowing that he was not still in the former world, declared that God is the universe, and that the angelic heaven is the atmospheric firmament, and that religion is nothing but a bewitchment of the common people, besides other follies. But when it was brought to his remembrance that he was then living after death, and that he formerly did not believe in that life, for the moment he confessed that he was insane; but as soon as he turned and went away he was as insane as before (n. 80).


I saw by night an ignis fatuus, often called a dragon, falling toward the earth. I noticed the place where it fell; the ground there was sulphurous, mixed with iron dust. And looking there in the morning, I saw two tents; and just then a spirit fell from heaven. I went to him and asked why he had fallen down from heaven. He replied that he was cast down by the angels of Michael, for saying that God the Father and His Son are two, and not one. He also said that the whole angelic heaven believes that God the Father and His Son are one, as soul and body are one, and that they prove this by many things from the Word and still further from the reason, that the soul of a son is from the father only, and that this is a likeness of the father and from it the likeness is in the body. And he added that he indeed had confessed in heaven, as before on earth, that God is one; but because the confession of the mouth and the thought of the mind disagreed in regard to this, they said in heaven that he did not believe in any God, because the confession and the thought dissipate each other; and he said that this was the cause of his being cast down. Returning the next day to the same place, instead of the two tents I saw two statues composed of the same sort of dust, which was a mixture of sulphur and iron. One of these represented the faith and the other the charity of the church of the present day, both beautifully clothed; but the garments were induced by fantasies. And because they were made of dust, when the rain descended from heaven both of them began to effervesce and burn (n. 110).


In the spiritual world it is unlawful to say anything except what one thinks; if he does, the hypocrisy is distinctly manifest to the ear. In hell, therefore, no one can utter the name Jesus, because Jesus signifies salvation. In this way an experiment was made to ascertain how many in the Christian world at this day believe that Christ even as to His Human is God. Therefore, when many of the clergy and laity were assembled, it was proposed that they say "Divine Human;" but there were scarcely any who were able to draw forth from the thought these two words at once, and so to utter them. It was proved in their presence by many things out of the Word, that the Lord even as to His Human is God as by the following: (Matt. 28:18; John 1:1, 2, 14; 17:2; Col. 2:9; 1 John 5:20; and in other places also); still they were not able to utter the words Divine Human,- and, what seemed surprising, neither were the Evangelicals able to do this, although their orthodoxy teaches that in Christ God is Man and Man is God; and still more, neither could the monks, although they most devoutly adore the Body of Christ in the Eucharist. From all this it was ascertained that Christians at the present day for the most part are interiorly either Arians or Socinians; and that these, if they adore Christ as God, are hypocrites (n. 111).


An altercation about a little book entitled, A Brief Exposition of the Doctrine of the New Church, published by me at Amsterdam; and especially about this doctrine in it, that not God the Father, but the Lord God the Redeemer is to be approached and worshiped. It was argued that on the other hand it is said in the Lord's Prayer, "Our Father, Who art in the heavens, hallowed be Thy name: Thy kingdom come," And that consequently it is God the Father who is to be approached. I was summoned to end this strife; and I then showed that God the Father cannot be approached in His Divine, but only in His Human; and as the Divine and Human in Him are one Person, that the Lord is that Father. This also was proved by the Word; both by the Word of the Old Testament, where the Son of God is called Father of Eternity, and in many places called Jehovah the Redeemer, Jehovah our Righteousness, and the God of Israel, and from many passages in the Word of the New Testament; consequently when the Lord the Redeemer is approached, the Father is approached; and then His name is hallowed, and His kingdom comes. With much beside (n. 112).


I saw an army on red and black horses, with the faces of all the riders turned to the horses' tails, and with the hinder part of the head turned towards the horses' heads; they were crying out for battle against those who were riding on white horses. This ludicrous army was from the place called Armageddon (Apoc. 16:16), and consisted of those who in youth had become imbued with the dogmas relating to justification by faith alone, but who afterwards, when they had been promoted to prominent offices, had rejected all things pertaining to faith and religion from the internals of their minds to the externals of their bodies, where at last they disappeared. A description of those who were seen in Armageddon; and it was heard that they wished to meet and contend with the angels of Michael; which was permitted, although at some distance from that place. The contention was about the meaning of these words in the Lord's Prayer; "Our Father, Who art in the heavens, hallowed be Thy name; Thy kingdom come." It was then said by the angels of Michael that the Lord the Redeemer and Saviour is Father to all in the heavens; since He taught, that the Father and He are one; that the Father is in Him, and He in the Father; and that he that sees Him sees the Father: that all things of the Father are in Him; also that it is the will of the Father that men should believe in the Son, and that those who believe not the Son shall not see life, but that the wrath of God will abide on them; also, that He has all power in heaven and on earth; and that He has power over all flesh; and moreover, that no one has seen or can see God the Father, except the Son only who is in the bosom of the Father; and more besides. After this combat, some of the vanquished Armageddons were cast into the abyss mentioned in Apoc. 9, and some of them were banished into a desert (n. 113).


I was in a temple in which there were no windows, but a large opening in the roof, and those assembled there were conferring about Redemption, saying unanimously that redemption was wrought by the passion of the cross. But while they were engaged in that conversation, a black cloud covered the opening in the roof, and because of this it became dark in the temple; but a little after that cloud was dispelled by angels descending from heaven, who then sent down one of their number into the temple to instruct them about redemption. He said that the passion of the cross was not redemption, but redemption was the subjugation of the hells, the restoration of order in the heavens, and thus the restitution of all things which were in disorder both in the spiritual world and in the natural world, and that without it no flesh could have been saved. And of the passion of the cross he said, that by it was completed the inmost union with the Father; and that when it is taken for redemption many things unworthy of God, and even unfit to be spoken, follow as consequences; as that He passed sentence of damnation upon the whole human race, and that the Son took that damnation upon Himself, and that thus He propitiated the Father, and by intercession brought Him back to His Divine essence, which is love and mercy; besides many other things, which it is scandalous to attribute to God (n. 134).


The sun of the spiritual world was seen, wherein is Jehovah God in His Human. Presently there was heard from heaven, that God is One. But when this descended into the world of spirits it was changed according to the forms of the minds there, and finally into the expression three Gods. This was confirmed by one there by this reasoning: that there is one who created all things, another who redeemed all, and a third who operates all things; also that there is one who imputes, another who mediates, and a third who inscribes, and thus implants faith in man, by which He justifies him. But because the belief in three Gods had perverted the whole Christian church, from a perception granted me I disclosed to them what, with the one God, is meant by mediation, intercession, propitiation, and expiation; namely, that these four are attributes of the Human of Jehovah God; that because Jehovah God without the Human cannot approach man, nor be approached by man, mediation means that the Human is the intermediary; that intercession means that it mediates perpetually; that propitiation means that an approach is mercifully opened for every man to God; and that expiation means that this is also for sinners; and all these through the Human (n. 135).


I entered a gymnasium, where they were discussing what is meant where it is said of the Son of God, that He sits at the right hand of the Father. Concerning this there were various opinions; yet it was the opinion of all that the Son actually sits thus; but they were discussing why it was so. Some supposed that it was done on account of redemption; some that it was from love; some, that He might be a counselor; some, that He might have honor from the angels; some, because it was given Him to reign instead of the Father; some, that His right ear may hear those for whom He intercedes. They further discussed whether it was the Son of God from eternity who sits thus, or the Son of God born in the world. Having heard these things, I raised my hand, requesting that I might be permitted to say something, and to tell what is meant by sitting at the right hand of God. I said that it is the omnipotence of God, by means of the Human which He assumed that is meant; for by means of this He wrought redemption, that is, subjugated the hells, created a new angelic heaven, and established a new church. That this is meant by sitting at the right hand, I proved from the Word, in which "the right hand" signifies power; and afterwards it was confirmed from heaven, by the appearance of a right hand over them, from the power of which and the terror therefrom they all became almost lifeless (n. 136).


I was conducted in the spiritual world to a certain synod at which were assembled celebrated persons who lived before the Nicene council, and who were called Apostolic Fathers; also men renowned in the ages after that council; and I saw that some of the latter appeared with beardless chins, and in curled wigs of women's hair; but all the former with bearded chin, and in natural hair. In front of them stood a man, a judge and critic of the writings of the present century, who began by a kind of lamentation, saying, "A man from the laity has risen up, who has dragged down our faith out of its sanctuary, which yet is a star shining day and night before us; but this is done because that man is blind to the mysteries of that faith, and does not see in it the righteousness of Christ, and thus not the wonders of its justification; and yet that faith is a faith in three Divine persons, and thus in the whole Deity; and because He has transferred his faith to the second Person, and not even to Him, but to His Human, it cannot be otherwise than that naturalism should flow from it." Those who lived after the Nicene council favored his speech, saying, that it is impossible that there should be any other faith, or from any other source. But the Apostolic Fathers, who had lived before that age, being indignant, related many things which are said in heaven respecting the Nicene and Athanasian faith, which may be seen [in the text]. But because the president of the council was affiliated in spirit with that writer in Leipsic, I addressed him, and showed from the Word that Christ, even as to the Human, is God; and also from the dogmatic book of the Evangelicals called Formula Concordiae, "That in Christ God is Man, and Man God;" as also that the Augsburg Confession especially approves of the worship of Christ; besides other things; at which he was silent, and turned away. Afterwards I spoke with a certain spirit who was affiliated with an eminent man in Gottenburg, who defiled the worship of the Lord with a still greater reproach. But at length both of these slanders were declared to be lies craftily invented to turn away men's wills and deter them from the holy worship of the Lord (n. 137).


There appeared a smoke ascending from the lower earth, and it was said that smokes are nothing else than falsities collected together. And then certain angels were seized with a desire to ascertain what the falsities were that thus smoked; and they descended, and found four crowds of spirits, two of which were of the learned and unlearned of the clergy, and two of the learned and unlearned of the laity, who were all proving to each other that an invisible God is to be worshiped, and that the worshipers then secure holiness and a hearing. It is otherwise when a visible God is worshiped. Holiness and a hearing from an invisible God they proved by various things; for which reason they acknowledge three Gods from eternity, who are invisible. But it was shown that the worship of an invisible God, and still more of three invisible ones, is no worship. To confirm this, Socinus and Arius with some of their followers, all of whom had worshiped an invisible Divinity, were brought forth from below; and when these spoke from the natural or external mind, they said that there is a God, although He is invisible; but when their external mind was closed, and the internal mind was opened, and from that mind they were compelled to avow their belief respecting God, they said, "What is God? We have neither seen His shape, nor heard His voice. What then is God, but a figment of reason or nature?" But they were taught that it had pleased God to descend and assume the Human, that they might see His shape and hear His voice. But this was said to them in vain (n. 159).


First concerning the stars in the natural world; that perhaps they were of the same number as the angelic societies in heaven, since every society there sometimes shines like a star. Afterwards, I spoke with the angels about a certain way that appears crowded with innumerable spirits, that it is the way by which all who depart out of the natural world pass into the spiritual world. I went in company with angels towards that way, and we called from that way twelve men, and asked them what they believed about heaven and hell and a life after death. And because they were recently from the world, and did not know but what they were still in the natural world, they answered from the idea which they brought with them The First. That all who live a moral life go to heaven; and as all do live a moral life no one goes to hell. The Second, That God rules heaven, and the devil rules hell; and because they are opposite, one calls good what the other calls evil; and that the man who is a dissembler, because he sides with both, can live equally under the dominion of the one and of the other. The Third, That there is no heaven, and no hell. "Who has come thence and told us?" The Fourth, That no one is able to come back and tell, because man, when he dies, is either a ghost or a wind. The Fifth, That we must wait till the day of the last judgment, and then it will be told, and you will know all about it. But when he said this he laughed in his heart. The Sixth, "How can the soul of man, which is only a wind, re-enter its body that has been eaten up by worms, or be clothed with a skeleton that has either been dried up or has crumbled into dust? "The Seventh, That men can no more live after death than beasts and birds, are not these equally rational? The Eighth, "I believe that there is a heaven, but I do not believe that there is a hell, because God is omnipotent, and is able to save all. "The Ninth, That God, because He is gracious, cannot send any one into eternal fire. The Tenth, That no one can go to hell, because God sent His Son, who has made expiation for all, and taken away the sins of all. What can the devil do against that? The Eleventh, who was a priest, That those only are saved, who have attained to faith, and that election is according to the will of the Almighty. The Twelfth, who was a politician, "I do not say anything about heaven and hell; but let the priests preach about them, that the minds of the common people may be kept bound by an invisible bond to the laws and rulers." On hearing these things the angels were astonished; but they waked up the twelve by teaching them that they were already living after death; and they conducted them into heaven, but they did not stay there long, because. it was found that they were merely natural, and that from this the hinder part of their heads was hollow; concerning which hollowness and the cause of it, something is lastly said (n. 160).


There was heard a noise like that of a mill, and following the noise I saw a house full of chinks, to which there was an entrance opening under ground, and in it a man collecting from the Word and books many things concerning justification by faith alone; and at his side copyists were writing his collections upon paper; and when asked what he was now collecting, he said, "This, that God the Father ceased to be gracious towards the human race, and that He therefore sent the Son to make expiation and propitiation. "To which I answered, that it is contrary to Scripture and contrary to reason, that God could fail of grace, for this would be also failing of His essence, and thus He would not be God. And when I demonstrated this even to conviction, he grew warm, and ordered his copyists to cast me out. But when I had gone out of my own accord, he threw after me a book that he happened to lay hand upon; and that book was the Word (n. 161).


There was a discussion among spirits whether one can see any genuine truth in the Word unless he goes immediately to the Lord who is the Word itself. But as some objected to this an experiment was made; and therein those who went to God the Father, did not see any truth; but all who went to the Lord saw. During this discussion some spirits ascended from the abyss (see Apoc. 9), where they discuss the mysteries of justification by faith alone, saying that they go to God the Father and see their mysteries in clear light. But it was answered that they see them in fatuous light, and that they have not even a single truth; at which, being nettled, they brought forth from the Word many things which were true; but they were told that while these were true in themselves, they were falsified in them. That this was so, was proved by their being led into a house where there was a table upon which light from heaven flowed directly; and they were told to write those truths which they had brought forth from the Word upon paper, and lay it upon that table; and when this was done, the paper on which the truths had been written shone like a star; but when they came up and fixed their gaze upon it, the paper appeared blackened as if by soot. Afterwards they were led to another similar table, upon which lay the Word encircled with a rainbow; and when a certain champion of the doctrine of faith alone touched this with his hand there was an explosion as if from a gun, and he was cast into a corner of the room, and lay as (lead for half an hour. From all this they were convinced that all the truths that they had from the Word were true in themselves but falsified in them (n. 162).


There are climates in the spiritual world, as in the natural world; thus also there are northern zones where are snow and ice. On one occasion, being brought thither in spirit, I entered a temple then covered over with snow, illuminated within by lamps, and behind the altar there was seen a tablet, upon which was written this, The Divine Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, who are essentially one, but personally three. And I heard a priest preaching about four mysteries of faith respecting which the understanding is to be kept under obedience to faith, which may be seen [in the text]. After the discourse, the hearers thanked the priest for his sermon so rich in wisdom. But when I asked them whether they understood anything, they answered, "We took in everything with full ears; why do you ask whether we understood? Is not the understanding benumbed by such matters?" To this the priest who was present added, "Forasmuch as you have heard and have not understood, you are blessed, for thereby you have salvation." And other things (n. 185).


The human mind is divided into three regions, like the heaven in which angels dwell; and in those who love truths because they are truths theological matters have their seat in the highest region of the mind; and under these, in the middle region, moral subjects, and beneath these in the lowest region, political subjects; and the various sciences constitute the door. But theological matters with those who do not love truths have their seat in the lowest region, and mingle themselves there with what is man's own, and thus with the fallacies of the senses; and for this reason some cannot perceive theological principles at all (n. 186).


I was brought to a place where those were who are meant by "the false prophet" in the Apocalypse; and I was invited by those there to see their temple. I followed and saw it, and in it the image of a woman clad in a scarlet robe, holding in her right hand a golden coin, and in her left a chain of pearls; but these appearances were produced through fantasy. But when the interiors of my mind were opened by the Lord, instead of the temple there was seen a house full of chinks; and instead of the woman there was seen a beast, such as is described in the Apocalypse (13:2); and under the floor there was a bog, in which lay the Word, deeply concealed. But presently, an east wind springing up, the temple was carried away, and the bog was dried up, and the Word lay exposed; and then, by the light from heaven, there appeared there a tabernacle like that of Abraham when the three angels came slid foretold to him the birth of Isaac; and afterwards, light being sent forth from the second heaven, instead of the tabernacle there appeared a temple similar to that of Jerusalem; and after this a light shone upon it from the third heaven, and then the temple disappeared, and the Lord alone was seen standing upon the foundation stone where the Word was. But because an overpowering sanctity then filled their minds this light was withdrawn, and in place of it light from the second heaven was let in, which caused the previous view of the temple to return, and also that of the tabernacle within it (n. 187).


There was seen a magnificent palace, in which there was a temple, and in this seats were placed in triple order. In it there was a council convoked by the Lord, in which they were to deliberate concerning the Lord the Saviour, and concerning the Holy Spirit. When as many of the clergy were present as there were seats, they began the council. And because they were to consult in regard to the Lord, the first proposition was, Who assumed the Human in the virgin Mary? And then the angel standing beside the table read before them what the angel Gabriel said to Mary, "The Holy Spirit shall come upon thee, and the power of the Most High shall overshadow thee; and the holy thing that shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God" (Luke 1:35; and also from Matt. 1:20, 25); and many other things from the Prophets, that Jehovah Himself was to come into the world, and that Jehovah Himself is called Saviour, Redeemer and Righteousness; from which it was concluded that Jehovah Himself assumed the Human. Another deliberation concerning the Lord, was, Whether the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ are not thus one, as soul and body are one; and this was proved by many passages in the Word, and also from the creed of the present church; from which it was concluded that the soul of the Lord is from God the Father, and consequently that His Human is Divine; and that the Human is to be approached that the Father may be approached, since by means of it Jehovah God sent Himself into the world and made Himself seen before the eyes of men, and thus accessible. This was followed by a third deliberation concerning the Holy Spirit; and then first the idea respecting three Divine persons from eternity was discarded, and it was proved from the Word that the Holy Divine, which is called the Holy Spirit, goes forth out of the Lord from the Father. At length, from the deliberations of this council, this conclusion was reached: That in the Lord the Saviour there is a Divine Trinity, namely, the Divine from which (a quo) which is called the Father the Divine Human which is called the Son, and the Divine going forth which is called the Holy Spirit; and that therefore in the church God is one. When the council was ended, splendid garments were given to those who sat in it and they were conducted to the new heaven (n. 188).


I saw in a certain stable large purses, in which there was silver in great abundance, and near them young men as guards; in the next room, modest virgins with a chaste wife; and also in another room, two little children; and at last a harlot and dead horses. And afterwards I was taught what each of those things signified; and that by them was represented and described the Word as it is in itself and as it is at this day (n. 277).


Writing was seen, such as there is in the highest or third heaven, which consisted of inflected letters with little curves turning upwards; and it was said that the Hebrew letters in the most ancient time were somewhat like these when they were more curved than they are at this day, and that the letter h, which was added to the names of Abram and Sarai, signifies the infinite and the eternal. They explained before me the sense of some words in Psalm 32:2, from the letters or syllables alone there, which is, that the Lord is merciful even to those who do evil (n. 278).


Before the Israelitish Word there was a Word, the prophetical books of which were called Enunciations, and the historical, the Wars of Jehovah; and besides these, also one called the book of Jasher; which three are mentioned in our Word; and this ancient Word was in the land of Canaan, Syria, Mesopotamia, Arabia, Assyria, Chaldea, Egypt, Tyre, Sidon, and Nineveh; but because it was full of such correspondences as remotely signify celestial and spiritual things, which gave occasion for idolatries, this Word, through Divine Providence, disappeared. I have heard that Moses transcribed from this Word the things which he related concerning the Creation, Adam and Eve, the Flood, and Noah and his three sons, but no further. And I was told in the spiritual world by the angels from Great Tartary that this same, Word is still preserved among that people, and that they draw from it the precepts of their faith and life (n. 279).


On account of the distinction between spiritual and natural, or what is the same, between the substantial and the material, those who are in the spiritual world cannot be seen by those who are in the natural world, nor conversely; thus spirits and angels cannot be seen by men, nor men by spirits and angels. From this is the fact that spirits and angels have altogether a different language, different writing, and also different thought from what men have. That this is so, was made evident by living experience, which was done by their going in turn to their associates, and returning to me, and thus comparing. In this way it was discovered, that there is not even one word of spiritual language that is like any word of natural language; and that their writing consists of syllables, each of which involves a meaning pertaining to the subject; and that the ideas of their thought do not fall into the ideas of natural thought. The cause of these differences is, that spirits and angels are in principles, but men in derivatives; or that the former are in prior things which as causes are the origin of posterior things, and that men are in posterior things from those that are prior. It was said that there is a like difference between the languages, writings, and thoughts, of the angels of the third heaven and those of the angels of the second (n. 280).


On the state of men after death, in general, and the state of those who have confirmed themselves in falsities, in particular. In regard to all of these the following things were observed: (1) For the most part men are commonly resuscitated the third day after death, and then they do not know but that they are still living in the former world. (2) All go to the world which is intermediate between heaven and hell, which is called the world of spirits. (3) There they are transferred into various societies, and thus their characters are ascertained. (4) There the good and faithful are prepared for heaven, and the evil and unfaithful for hell. (5) After the preparation, which continues for some years, a way is opened for the good to some society in heaven where they are to live forever, but a way for the evil into hell; besides many more things. Afterwards the nature of hell is described; and it is stated that those there who are in falsities from confirmation are called satans and those who are in evils of life are called devils (n. 281).


From the lower earth, which is next above hell, I heard shouts, "0 how just! 0 how learned! 0 how wise!" and because I wondered how there could be any just, learned, and wise persons in hell, I descended, and first went to the place where they were crying, "0 how just!" and I saw there, as it were, a tribunal, and in it unjust judges who could skillfully pervert the laws, and turn judgments to the favor of any one whatever; and that thus their judgments were purely arbitrary judgments; and when the sentences were carried out to the clients, they cried out for a long distance, "O how just." Concerning these the angels afterwards said, that such are unable to see any least particle of what is just. After a while these judges were cast into hell, and their books were turned into playing-cards, and instead of judging, they were assigned to the task of preparing paint, with which they daubed the faces of harlots, and thus turned them into beauties (n. 332).


Afterwards I went to the place where they were crying out, "0 how learned" and I saw a company of those who were reasoning whether a thing is so or not, but not thinking that it is so; and therefore they stopped at the first step concerning any subject whatever; thus they merely touched it from without and did not enter into it; so they also argue concerning God, whether there is a God. That I might know for certain whether their character was such I put to them the question, What kind of religion is necessary for the salvation of man? They answered, "It must be considered (1) Whether religion is anything. (2) Whether one religion is more efficacious than another. (3) Whether there is any eternal life, and thus whether there is any salvation. (4) Is there a heaven and a hell?" And then they began to discuss the first, Whether religion is anything. And they said that this required so much investigation that it could not be finished in the space of a year; and one among them said, that it could not be finished in a hundred years; to which I replied that in the meantime they would be without religion. But still they discussed this first point so skillfully that the company standing by cried, "0 how learned!" I was told by the angels, that such appear like graven images; and that afterwards they are sent out into deserts, where among themselves they gabble and talk nothing but nonsense (n. 333).


I went on further to the third company, where I heard the cry, "0 how wise!" and I found assembled there those who are unable to see whether truth is truth or not, and yet are able to make whatever they wish seem true, and are therefore called Confirmers. That they were such, I also saw from various answers to propositions as that they could make it true that faith is the all of the church, and afterwards that charity is the all of the church, and also that faith and charity together are the all of the church; and because they confirmed whichever of these they liked, and adorned them with appearances so that they shone like truths, therefore the by-standers cried, "0 how wise!" Afterwards some ludicrous things, also, were proposed to them, that they might make them true; for they say that there is nothing true, except what man makes true. The ludicrous things were these: that light is darkness, and darkness light; and also that a crow is white, and not black; which two they made to appear as wholly true. The arguments for these may be seen in the text. I was told by the angels that such do not possess a single grain of understanding, since all that is above the rational with them is closed, while all below the rational is open; and by this man can confirm whatever he pleases, but cannot see any truth to be truth therefore, this does not belong to a man of understanding, but it does belong to him to be able to see that truth is truth and that falsity is falsity, and to confirm it (n. 334).


I spoke with spirits who, in the natural world, had been famed for erudition, who were disputing among themselves about connate ideas, whether men have any, as beasts have; and then a certain angelic spirit thrust himself in and said, "You are disputing about goat's wool. Men have no connate ideas, neither have beasts. "At which words all were enraged. But afterwards, opportunity to speak being given, he spoke first concerning beasts, saying, "They have no connate ideas; for the reason that they do not think, but only act from instinct, which they have from their natural love, which makes in them something analogous to a will, and this flows immediately into the senses of their body and excites that which agrees with and favors the love; and yet ideas are predicable only of thought. "That beasts have sensation only and not thought, he confirmed by various things, especially by the wonderful things which are known respecting spiders, bees, and silk-worms, saying, "Does a spider think in its little head, when it forms its web, that the web is to be so woven for the rake of such or such uses? Does a bee think in its little head, 'From these flowers I will suck honey, and from these I will gather wax, out of which I will build compact rows of little cells, and in these I will put honey in abundance that it may be sufficient also for the winter?' besides other things. Does the silkworm think in its little head, 'Now I will betake myself to spinning silk, and when I have spun it I will fly forth and sport with my companions, and provide for myself posterity?' besides like things with beasts and birds." Concerning men he said, that every mother and nurse, and the father also, know that new-born infants have no connate ideas, and that they have no ideas at all until they have learned to think, and that then ideas arise and are produced according to every kind of thought which they have imbibed by instruction; and that this is so because man has nothing born in him except a capacity to know, to understand and to be wise, and an inclination to love not only himself and the world, but also the neighbor and God. These things Leibnitz and Wolfe heard at a distance; and Leibnitz favored, but Wolfe did not (n. 335).


Once a certain angelic spirit illustrated what faith and charity are, and what their conjunction effects. He illustrated it by comparison with light and heat, which meet together in a third; because the light in heaven in its essence is the truth of faith, and the heat there in its essence is the good of charity; therefore as light without heat, such as there is in winter-time in the world, strips the trees of leaves and fruits, so is faith separated from charity; and as light conjoined to heat, such as there is in spring-time, vivifies all things, so is faith conjoined with charity (n. 385).


Two angels descended, one from the eastern heaven where love prevails, and the other from the southern heaven, where wisdom prevails, and spoke concerning the essence of the heavens, whether it is love or wisdom; and they agreed that it is love and wisdom therefrom; consequently, that the heavens were created by God, from love by means of wisdom (n. 386).


After that, I entered a garden, where I was led around by a certain spirit, and at length to a palace which was called the Temple of Wisdom. This was four-square, the walls of crystal, the roof of jasper, the substructure of various precious stones. And he said that no one can enter it who does not believe that what he knows, understands, and is wise in, compared with what he does not know and understand and is not wise in, is relatively so little that it is scarcely anything. And because I believed this, it was granted me to enter; and it was seen that the whole of it was built to be a form of light. In that temple I related what I had lately heard from the two angels about love and wisdom; and they asked, "Did they not also speak of a third, which is use?" And they said that love and wisdom apart from use are merely ideal entities, but that in use they become real, and that it is the same with charity, faith, and good works (n. 387).


One of the spirits of the dragon invited me to see the delights of his love; and he led me to something like an amphitheater, upon the seats of which sat satyrs and harlot, And then he said, "Now you shall see our sport." And he opened a door, and let in, as it were, calves, rams, kids, and lambs; and presently through another door he let in lions, panthers, tigers, and wolves, which rushed upon the flock, tearing them and slaughtering them. But all these things which were seen were induced by means of fantasies. Having seen this I said to the dragonist, "After a while you will see this theater turned into a lake of fire and brimstone "The sport being finished, the dragonist went out, attended by his satyrs and harlots, and saw a flock of sheep; from which he inferred that one of the Jerusalemite cities was near by; on seeing which, he was seized with the desire to take it and cast out the inhabitants; but because it was surrounded by a wall, he planned to take it by stratagem. And then he sent one skilled in incantation, who being admitted spoke craftily with the citizens about faith and charity; especially as to which of them is the primary, and whether charity contributes anything to salvation. But the dragonist, enraged at the answer, went out and gathered together many of his crew, and began to besiege the city; but when he was endeavoring to reach and invade it, fire out of heaven consumed them according to what is foretold in the Apocalypse (20:8, 9) (n. 388).


A paper was once sent down from heaven, in which there was an exhortation to acknowledge the Lord the Savior as the God of heaven and earth, according to His words (Matt. 28:18). But two bishops who were there were consulted as to what should be done. They said that the paper should be sent back to heaven from which it came. When this was done that society sank down, but not very deep. The next day some ascended therefrom and told what lot they had met with there; also that they went to the bishops there and reproved them for their advice, and that they had talked much about the state of the church at this day, and had censured the doctrine of the bishops regarding the Trinity, of justifying faith, of charity, and other things which pertained to their orthodoxy, and asked them to discard those doctrines because they were contrary to the Word; but to no purpose. And because they called their faith dead and diabolical, according to James in his Epistle, one of the bishops took off the miter from his head, and laid it down upon the table, saying that he would not resume it until the scoffing of his faith had been avenged. But then a monster appeared coming up from below, like the beast described in the Apocalypse (13:1, 2), which took up the miter and carried it away (n. 389).


I went to a certain house where those assembled were arguing one with another, whether the good which a man does in the state of justification by faith is the good of religion or not. There was an agreement that by the good of religion the good which contributes to salvation is meant. But the opinion of those prevailed who said that no good that is done by man contributes anything to salvation; since no voluntary good of man can be conjoined with what is free, because salvation is bestowed freely neither can any good from man be conjoined with the merit of Christ, by which alone is salvation possible; neither can the operation of man be conjoined with the operation of the Holy Spirit, that does all things without the aid of man. From which it was concluded that good works, even in the state of justification by faith, contribute nothing to salvation; but faith only. On hearing these things, two gentiles who stood at the door said to each other, "These men have no religion. Who does not know that to do good to the neighbor for God's sake, thus from God and with God, is religion?" (n. 390).


I heard the angels lamenting that there is such spiritual destitution at this day in the church that they know nothing else than that there are three Divine persons from eternity, and that faith alone saves; and about the Lord they know only the historical facts; and that they are profoundly ignorant of the things that are taught in the Word respecting the Lord, His oneness with the Father, His Divinity and power. And they said that a certain angel had been sent down by them to discover whether there was such destitution at this day among Christians; and that he asked a certain one what his religion was. He answered, that it was faith. Then he asked him about redemption, regeneration, and salvation. He answered that they were all matters of faith; and also in regard to charity that it is in faith; also, whether any one can do good from himself. Afterwards the angel said to him, "You have answered like a man playing but one note on a flute; I hear only faith; but if you know nothing else but that, you know nothing." Then he led him to his companions in a desert, where there was not even grass. Besides more (n. 391).


I saw five gymnasia encompassed by different kinds of light, and with many others I entered into the first, which was seen in flame-colored light. Many were assembled there, and the president proposed that they should declare their opinions respecting charity; and when they had begun, the first said that in his opinion charity is morality inspired by faith. The second, that it is pity inspired by commiseration. The third that it is doing good to everyone, both virtuous and vicious alike. The fourth, that it is to serve by every means one's relatives and friends. The fifth, that it is giving alms to the poor and assisting the needy. The sixth, that it is building hospitals, infirmaries, and orphans' homes. The seventh, that it is to endow temples and to do good to their ministers. The eighth, that it is the old Christian brotherhood. The ninth, that it is to forgive every one his trespasses. Each of them fully confirmed his opinion; which confirmations cannot be recited because they are many; they may therefore be seen in the Memorable Relation itself. After this there was given me an opportunity to express my opinion; and I said that charity is to act with judgment from a love justice, in every employment and office but from a love derived from no other source than the Lord the Savior; and after this had been demonstrated, I added that all those things which had been said before respecting charity by the nine celebrated men were eminent examples of charity when done with judgment from justice; and because justice and judgment are from no other source than the Lord the Savior, they are to be done by man from Him. This was approved by most of them in their internal man, but not as yet in the external (n. 459).


At a distance there was heard something like the gnashing of teeth, and mingled with this a kind of beating; and I went toward the sounds, and saw a small house built of reeds plastered together; and instead of the gnashing of teeth and the sound of knocking, I heard within, in the little house, disputes about faith and charity which of them is the essential of the church. And those who were for faith brought forward their arguments, saying that faith is spiritual because it is from God, but charity natural because it is from man. On the other hand, those who were for charity said that charity is spiritual and faith is natural unless it is conjoined to charity. To these things a certain syncretist wishing to settle the dispute added to this the proof that faith is spiritual and charity only natural. But it was said that moral life is of two kinds, spiritual and natural, and that in the man who lives from the Lord it is spiritual-moral but in the man who does not live from the Lord it is natural-moral, such as exists with the evil and sometimes with the spirits in hell (n. 460).


In spirit I was brought into a certain garden in the southern quarter, and saw certain persons sitting there under a laurel, eating figs. I asked them how they understood that man can do good from God, and yet do it altogether as if from himself. And they answered that God works good inwardly in man; but if man does it from his own will and from his own understanding, he defiles it so that it is no longer good. But to this I said that man is only an organ of life; and that if he believes in the Lord he does good of himself from the Lord; but if he does not believe in the Lord, and still more, if he does not believe in any God, he does good of himself from hell; and further, that the Lord has given to man freedom of choice in acting from the one or from the other. That the Lord has given this freedom was proved from the Word, in that He commanded man to love God and the neighbor, to perform the good works of charity as a tree produces fruit, and to keep God's commandments that he may be saved, and that everyone will be judged according to his deeds; and that these things would not have been commanded if man could not do good of himself from the Lord. When this had been said, I gave them twigs from a vine, and the twigs in their hands put forth grapes. And more beside (n. 461).


I saw a splendid dock-yard, and in it vessels large and small, and on benches there were boys and girls, who were waiting for tortoises to rise up out of the sea; and when they emerged, I saw that they had two heads; one, which at pleasure they drew back into the shell of the body, and another which appeared in form like a man, and from this they spoke with the boys and girls: and these caressed them, because of their elegant discourse and also gave them presents. When these things had been seen an angel explained what they signified; namely, that there are men in the world, and as many spirits from the world after death, who say that in those who have acquired faith God does not look at anything that they think and do, but only looks at the faith which He has stored up in the interiors of their minds; and that these same persons bring forth before the congregations in temples, holy things from the Word just as others do, but this they do from the greater head which appears as a man, into which they then insert the little one, or draw it into the body. The same persons afterwards were seen in the air in a vessel flying with seven sails, and those in it were decorated with laurels and purple garments, and they cried out that they were the chief of the wise of all the clergy. But the things seen were images of pride flowing from the ideas of the minds of such. And when they were upon the earth I spoke with them, first from reason and afterwards from the Sacred Scripture; and by many means I proved that their doctrine was unsound, and, being contrary to the Sacred Scripture, was from hell; but the arguments by which I proved this were too extended to be set forth here, but may be seen in the Relation itself. Afterwards they were seen in a sandy place, in garments of rags, and girt about the loins with network like fishers' nets, through which their nakedness was visible; and at last they were sent down into a society bordering on that of the Machiavelians (n. 462).


An assembly was called together which sat in a circular temple, in which at the sides there were altars, and near these the members of the assembly sat; but there was no president; therefore each one of himself rushed forth into the midst and spoke out the feelings of his mind. A discussion began about Freedom of Choice in spiritual things. The first speaker, rushing forth, cried out that man has no more freedom of choice in those things than Lot's wife when turned into a statue of salt; the second, that he has no more than a beast or a dog; the third, that he has no more than a mole, or than a bird of night in the day-time; the fourth, that if man had freedom of choice in spiritual things he would become a maniac and believe himself to be as a God who can regenerate and save himself. The sixth read from a book of the Evangelical, called Formula Concordiae that man has no more freedom of choice in spiritual things than a stock or a stone, and that he has no ability whatever to understand think, or will in respect to these things, or even to adapt and accommodate himself to receive what is spiritual; besides other things (of which above, n. 464). When this had been said, and there was also given me an opportunity of speaking, I said, "What else is man, without freedom of choice in spiritual things, than a brute? And without it, of what use is anything theological?" But to this they replied, "Read our theology, and you will not find therein anything spiritual; you will find this so concealed within that not even a shadow of it appears. Therefore, read what our theology teaches respecting justification, that is, the remission of sins, regeneration, sanctification and salvation; you will not see there anything spiritual, because spiritual things flow in through faith, without any consciousness on man's part. It has also removed charity far from what is spiritual, and repentance also from contact with it. And besides, as to redemption, it attributes to God purely natural human properties, as that He included the human race under a universal damnation; that the Son took that damnation upon Himself, and thus propitiated the Father; and what else are intercession and mediation with the Father? From all this it is clear that in all our theology there is nothing spiritual, and not even what is rational, but merely what is natural below them." But then suddenly a thunderbolt was heard from heaven, and the assembly, seized with terror, rushed forth, and each fled to his own home (n. 503).


I talked with two spirits, one of whom loved good and truth, and the other evil and falsity; and I found that both enjoyed the same ability to think rationally. But when the one who loved evil and falsity was left to himself, I saw a kind of smoke that arose from hell and extinguished the lucidity which was above his memory; but when the one who loved good and truth was left to himself, I saw, as it were, a gentle flame descending from heaven and illuminating the region of his mind above the memory, and from that the things below it. Afterwards I spoke with the one who loved evil and falsity respecting freedom of choice in spiritual things; and at the mere mention of it he fired up and cried out that no one can move his foot or hand to do any spiritual good, or his tongue and lips to speak any spiritual truth, and thus that he cannot even adapt and accommodate himself to receive any such thing. He said, "Is not man in such things dead, and merely passive? How can what is dead or merely passive do good and speak truth of itself? Does not our church so speak?" But the other, who loved good and truth spoke thus respecting freedom of choice in spiritual things: "Without it what would the whole Word be, or what the church, what religion, what the worship of God, thus what the ministry? And from the light of my understanding, I know that man without that spiritual freedom would not be man but a beast; for man is man and not a beast because of that freedom; and moreover, man without freedom of choice in spiritual things would have no life after death, thus no eternal life, because no conjunction with God; therefore, to deny this is the part of those who are insane in spiritual things." Afterwards there was seen an appearance of a fiery serpent upon a tree, which handed fruit therefrom to him who denied freedom of choice in spiritual things; and when this had been eaten a smoke appeared ascending from hell, which extinguished the light in the higher part of his rational mind (n. 504).


There was heard a grating sound like that of two mill-stones grinding on each other; and I went up to where the sound began and saw a house in which were many little cells, and in these the learned of this age were sitting and confirming justification by faith alone; and going up to one, I asked what he was now studying. He answered, "Concerning the Act of Justification which is the head of all things of doctrine in our orthodoxy." And I asked whether he knew any sign by which to tell when justifying faith enters, and when it has entered. And he said, that this is done passively, and not actively. To which I replied, "If you take away what is active in it, you also take away receptivity; and thus that act would be a purely ideal thing, such as is called a figment of reason, thus nothing more than the state of Lot's wife, composed of mere salt which tinkles when scratched by a scribe's pen or fingernail." The man growing warm picked up a candlestick, to throw it at me; but the light going out suddenly he threw it at his companion (n. 505).


There appeared two flocks, one of goats and the other of sheep; but when they were viewed closely, in place of goats and sheep men were seen; and it was perceived that the flock of goats consisted of those who make faith alone saving, and the flock of sheep of those who make charity and faith together saving. To the inquiry why they were there, those who were seen as goats said that they were sitting as a council because it had been disclosed to them that the saying of Paul, "That man is justified by faith without the deeds of the law (Rom. 3:28)" is not rightly understood; because by "faith" here is not meant the faith of this day, but faith in the Lord the Savior; and by "the deeds of the law" are not meant the deeds of the law of the Decalogue, but the deeds of the Mosaic law which were rituals; which also was shown. And they said that they had concluded that faith produces good works as a tree produces fruit. This teaching was favored by those who constituted the flock of sheep. Then an angel, standing between the two flocks, cried out to the flock of sheep, "Do not listen, for they have not receded from their former faith." And he divided the flock of sheep into two, and said to those on the left, "Join yourselves to the goats; but I tell you that a wolf is coming which will carry them off and you with them." Then it was asked how they understood that faith produces good works as a tree produces fruit; and it was found that their perception concerning the conjunction of faith and charity was altogether different from that comparison, and thus that it was a fallacious mode of speaking. When these things were understood, the flocks of sheep reunited themselves into one as before, to which some of the goats joined themselves, confessing that charity is the essence of faith, and that thus faith separate from charity is only natural, but conjoined to it it becomes spiritual (n. 506).


A discourse with angels concerning the three loves, which are universal, and therefore with every man; which are, Love of the neighbor, or the Love of uses, which in itself is spiritual; the Love of the world, or the Love of possessing wealth, which in itself is material: and the Love of self, or the Love of ruling over others, which in itself is corporeal; and that when these three loves are rightly subordinated in man, he is truly man; and that they are rightly subordinated when love of the neighbor forms the head, love of the world the body, and love of self the feet; it is altogether otherwise when they become fixed in man in a contrary order. And it was shown what man is when the love of the world forms the head, and what he is when love of self; that then he is an inverted man; and in respect to the interiors of his mind is a wild beast, and in respect to his exteriors and the body is an actor. After this there was seen a certain devil ascending from below, having a dusky face with a white circle around the head; and he said that he was Lucifer, although he was not; and that in his internals, he was a devil, but in his externals an angel of light; and he declared when in externals he was moral among the moral, rational among the rational, and even spiritual among the spiritual; and that when he was in the world he had preached; and that then he accursed evil doers of every kind, and this is why he was called "Son of the morning;" and, what he himself wondered at, when he was in the pulpit he had no other idea than that it was as he spoke; but otherwise when he was out of the temple. This he said because in the temple he was in his externals and then in the understanding only, but out of the temple in his internals and then in the will; and thus he was raised into heaven by his understanding while his will drew him down into hell; but that the will prevails over the understanding, because it disposes the understanding according to its beck and nod. After this the devil who pretended to be Lucifer fell down into hell (n. 607).


There was seen a round temple, the roof of which was crown-shaped, its walls continuous windows of crystal, its door of a pearly substance. In it there was a pulpit, on which was the Word enveloped in a sphere of light. In the center of the temple was a sanctuary, before which was a veil, at that time raised, where stood a cherub waving a sword in his hand. When this had been seen it was explained to me what each particular signified; which may be seen. Above the gate there was this inscription, Now it is permitted; which signified, that now it is permitted to enter understandingly into the mysteries of faith; and it was given me to perceive that it exceedingly dangerous to enter with the understanding into dogmas of faith which are from self intelligence and thus in falsities, and still more to confirm these from the Word; therefore, by the Divine Providence the Word had been taken away from the Roman Catholics, and with Protestants it had been closed by their dogma that the understanding is to be kept under obedience to their faith. But because the dogmas of the New Church are all from the Word, it is permitted to enter into these with the understanding, because they are continuous truths from the Word, and also shine before the understanding. This was what is meant by the writing above the gate, Now it is permitted, and by the veil of the sanctuary being raised, within which the cherub stood. After this there was brought to me a paper from an infant who was an angel in the third heaven, on which was written, Enter hereafter into the mysteries of the Word which has been heretofore shut up; for the particular truths therein are so many mirrors of the Lord (n. 508).


I was seized with a grievous disease, from the smoke that came in from the Jerusalem which is called Sodom and Egypt (Apoc. 11:8); and I was seen by those Who were in that city as dead; and they said one to another that I was not worthy of burial, just as it is said concerning the two witnesses in the same chapter in the Apocalypse; and meanwhile I heard blasphemies in abundance from the citizens on account of my having preached repentance, and faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. But as a judgment came upon them, I saw that the whole city fell down and was overflowed with waters; and afterwards that they were running about among the heaps of stones, and lamenting on account of their lot; when their belief was that, by the faith of their church they were born again and were thus righteous. But it was said to them that they were anything else than such, since they had never performed any actual repentance; and were therefore unaware of any damnable evil in themselves. Afterwards it was said to them from heaven, that faith in the Lord and repentance are the two means of regeneration and salvation; and that this is very well known from the Word, and still further, from the Decalogue, baptism, and the holy supper; concerning which see the Relation (n. 567).


All who after death come into the spiritual world at first are kept in the externals in which they were in the natural world; and because most men who are in externals live morally, frequent churches and pray to God, they believe that they will certainly come into heaven. But they are taught that every man after death gradually puts off the external man, and the internal man is opened, and then the man is known, as he is in himself, since man is man from his will and understanding, and not merely from action and speech: and from this it is that man can in externals appear like a sheep, although in internals he is like a wolf, and that he is such in his internal man unless he examines the evils of his will and of his intention therefrom, and repents of them; with more besides (n. 568).


Every love breathes forth delight. In the natural world the delights from love, are but little felt, but in the spiritual world they are clearly felt; and there they are sometimes turned into odors; and the nature of the delights is then perceived and what love they are from; and the delights from the love of good, such as are in the heavens, are perceived as fragrance in gardens and flower-beds; and on the other hand, the delights from the love of evil, such as are in hell, are perceived as the pungent and fetid smells from stagnant waters and from cesspools; and because they are so opposite, the devils are tortured when they are sensible of any sweet odor from heaven, and on the other hand, the angels are tortured when they are sensible of any ill-smelling odors from hell. That it is so, was confirmed by two examples. This is why the oil of anointing was prepared from fragrant things, and why it is said of Jehovah that He smelled a sweet savor from the burnt-offerings; and on the other hand, why it was commanded the sons of Israel that they should carry unclean things out of their camps, and that they should bury their excrements; for their camps represented heaven, and the desert outside of the camps represented hell (n. 569).


A certain novitiate spirit, who in the world meditated much upon heaven and hell, desired to know the nature of each; and it was said to him from heaven, "Inquire what delight is, and you will know." Therefore going away he inquired; but among spirits merely natural he inquired in vain. But he was led to three companies in succession; to one where they searched out ends and were therefore called wisdoms; to another where they investigated causes, and were therefore called intelligences; and to a third where they inquired into effects, and were therefore called knowledges: and by all these he was taught that every angel, spirit, and man has life from the delight of his love; and that the will and thought cannot move a step except from a delight in some love; and this is to everyone that which is called good; and still further that the delight of heaven is a delight in doing good, and the delight of hell a delight in doing evil. That he might be further taught, a devil providentially ascended, and there before him described the delights of hell, that they were the delights of revenge, fornication, plunder and blasphemy; and these when perceived there as odors are perceived as balsams and therefore he called them the delights of their nostrils (n. 670).


A company of spirits was seen praying to God that He would send angels to teach them about various things pertaining to faith, inasmuch as in most things they were in doubt, because churches so differ one from another, and all their ministers say "Believe us; we are the ministers of God, and we know." And angels appeared, whom they questioned in regard to charity and faith, repentance, regeneration, God, the immortality of the soul, and baptism and the holy supper; about each of which the angels gave such answers as fell into their understanding; saying further that whatever does not fall into the understanding is like what is sown in the sand which, however it may be watered by the rain, still withers away; and the understanding when closed against religion, no longer sees anything in the Word from the light therein from the Lord; and even if the Word is read he becomes more and more blind in the things of faith and salvation (n. 621).


How man, when prepared for heaven, enters it; namely, that after preparation he sees a path that leads to the society in heaven in which he is to live to eternity; and near the society there is a gate which is opened; and when he has entered an examination is made whether he has in him the same light and the same heat, that is, the same good and truth as are in the angels of that society. When this is determined he goes about and inquires where his house is; for there is for each novitiate angel a new house. When this is found he is received and numbered as one among them. But those who have not in them the light and heat, that is, the good and truth of heaven, have this hard lot, that when they enter they are miserably tortured, and because of the torture cast themselves down headlong. This happens to them because of the sphere of the light and heat of heaven, in the opposite of which they are; and afterwards they no longer desire heaven, but are affiliated with their like in hell. From this it is clear that it is idle to believe that gaining heaven is merely an admission from favor, and that those who are admitted enter into the fruition of the joys there, like those in the world who are admitted into a house where there is a wedding (n. 622).


Many who believe that heaven is a mere matter of admission from grace, and after admission there is eternal joy, were permitted to ascend into heaven; but because they could not endure the light and heat, that is, the faith and love there, they cast themselves down headlong; and they appeared to those who stood below like dead horses. Among those who stood below and who thus saw them, were boys with their master; and he taught them what their appearing like dead horses signified, and who those are who so appear at a distance, saying that they are those who when they read the Word think materially and not spiritually about God, the neighbor, and heaven; and that those think materially about God who think about essence from person, and in regard to the neighbor about his quality from the face and speech, and in regard to heaven about the state of love there from place; but those think spiritually who think of God from essence, and from essence of person; of the neighbor from his quality; and from quality of his face and speech; and of heaven from the state of love there and of place from that. And afterwards he taught them that a horse signifies understanding of the Word; and because the Word with those who think spiritually when they read it is a living letter, so such appear at a distance as living horses; and on the other hand, because the Word with those who think materially when they read it is a dead letter, so those at a distance appear as dead horses (n. 623).


An angel was seen descending from heaven into that world with a paper in his hand, upon which was written the marriage of good and truth and it was seen that in heaven the paper shone, but in its descent gradually less and less, until neither the paper nor the angel was seen, except before some unlearned ones who were simple-hearted. To these the angel explained what the marriage of good and truth involves, namely, that all and each of the things in the whole heaven and in the whole world contain the two together, because in the Lord God the Creator good and truth make one; and therefore nothing is anywhere possible which by itself is good, nor anything which by itself is true; consequently in each and everything there is a marriage of good and truth, and in the church a marriage of charity and faith, since charity pertains to good and faith to truth (n. 624).


When I was in profound thought about the second coming of the Lord, I saw heaven from the east to the west luminous, and heard a glorification and celebration of the Lord by the angels, but from the Word, both the prophetic Word of the Old Testament and the Apostolic Word of the New Testament. The passages themselves by which the glorifications were made may be seen in the Relation (n. 625).


In the north-eastern quarter there, are Places of instruction, and those who interiorly receive instruction there are called disciples of the Lord. Once when in the spirit, I asked the teachers there whether they knew the universals of heaven and the universals of hell; and they answered that the universals of heaven are three loves, the love of uses, the love of possessing the goods of the world from the love of performing uses, and true marriage love; and that the universals of hell are three loves opposite to those three, namely, the love of ruling from the love of self, the love of possessing the goods of others from the love of the world, and scortatory love. It is described afterwards what the first infernal love is, which is the love of ruling from the love of self; that it is such with the laity that, when loose rein is given to it, they wish to rule over all things of the world, and with the clergy, that they wish to rule over all things of heaven. That such a hallucination possesses those who are in that love was proved by the like in hell, where such are together in a certain valley, who find enjoyment for their minds in the hallucinations that they are emperors of emperors, or kings of kings; and elsewhere that they are gods; and it was seen that at the sight of these latter, the former, whose minds were so elated, fell upon their knees and worshiped. Afterwards I spoke with two, one of whom was the prince of a certain society in heaven, and the other was the high-priest there; who said that with those in that society there are magnificent and splendid things, because their love is not from the love of self, but from the love of uses; and that they are surrounded by honors and that they accept them not for the sake of themselves, but for the sake of the good of obedience. I then asked them, "How can anyone know whether he does uses from the love of self or the world, or from love of uses since uses are performed from all these loves? Let it be supposed that there is a society consisting of satans only and a society consisting of angels only, and I can imagine that the satans, from the love of self and the world, would perform as many uses in their society as the angels would in theirs. Who, then, can know from which love the uses are?" To this the prince and priest replied that satans perform uses for the sake of reputation, that they may be raised to honors and acquire wealth, but angels perform uses for the sake of uses. And the latter are distinguished from the former especially by this, that all who believe in the Lord and shun evils as sins perform uses from the Lord, and thus from the love of uses; but all who do not believe in the Lord and do not shun evils as sins perform uses from themselves and for the sake of themselves, thus from the love of self or the world (n. 661).


I entered a certain grove and saw two angels talking with each other. I drew near them and they were speaking of the lust of possessing all things of the world, and it was said that many who in actions appear moral and in conversation rational are in the madness of that lust, and that that lust is turned into hallucinations with those who let their minds dwell in ideas concerning it. And because everyone in the spiritual world is permitted to delight himself in his hallucination, provided he does no evil to another there are even congregations of such in the lower earth; and as it was known where they were, we descended and went to them; and we saw that they were sitting at tables, upon which there was an abundance of gold coin, and they said that this was the wealth of all in the kingdom; but it was only a vision of the imagination which is called a hallucination, whereby such an appearance was created. But when they were told that they were insane, they turned away from the tables and confessed that it was so; but because they were exceedingly delighted by the vision, they could not help returning again and again, and indulging the allurements of their senses. To this they added, that if anyone deprives another of his goods, or otherwise harms him, he falls down into a kind of prison under them, and is kept there at work for food, clothing, and some little pieces of money; and if they also do evil there, they are deprived of these and punished (n. 662).


A dispute was heard between an ambassador of a kingdom and two priests, whether intelligence and wisdom, and thus also prudence, are from God or from man. The ambassador insisted that these are from man, but the priests that they are from God; nevertheless it was perceived by certain angels that the priests inwardly in themselves believed the same as the ambassador, namely, that intelligence and wisdom, and prudence therefrom, are from man. That this, therefore, might be made clear, the ambassador was requested to lay aside the garments of his office, and to put on the garments of the sacerdotal ministry, and when this was done the ambassador began to prove by many things that all intelligence and also prudence are from God. And afterwards the priests also were asked to lay aside their garments, and to put on the garments of ministers of state; and when this was done the priests spoke from their interior selves, saying that all intelligence and prudence are from man. They so spoke because a spirit thinks himself to be such as his dress is. After this the three became hearty friends; and as they conversed together they went the way that tended downwards; but afterwards I saw them brought back (n. 663).


First those are treated of who in the Word are called the elect, and it is known that they are such as are found after death to have lived a life of charity and faith, and who are separated from those who have not lived that life; thus the elect mean those who are then elected and prepared for heaven. Therefore to believe that only some, before their birth or after it, are elected and predestined to heaven, and not all, since all are called, would be to accuse God of impotence and also of injustice (n. 664).


It was said in heaven, by a certain new-comer that no one in the Christian world knows what conscience is; and because the angels did not believe this, they said to a certain spirit that he might call together with a trumpet the intelligent, and ask them whether they know what conscience is. And it was so done; and they came, and among them there were statesmen, scholars, physicians, and priests. First, the statesmen were asked what conscience is. They answered that it is a pain arising from fear anticipated or actual, of the loss of honor or wealth; or from a hypochondriacal humor arising from undigested substances in the stomach; and more besides. Afterwards, they asked the scholars what they knew about conscience. They answered that it is a sadness and anxiety infesting the body and from that the head, or the head and from that the body, from various causes, especially from applying the mind to one thing only, which is done especially when the reigning love suffers; giving rise sometimes to hallucinations and deliriums, and with some to a kind of brain sickness in religious matters, which is called remorse of conscience. Next the physicians were asked what conscience is. And they said that it is only a pain arising from various diseases, which they enumerated in abundance; also that they had cured many by means of drugs. The diseases from which the pains called those of conscience spring may be seen enumerated in the Relation. Finally the priests were asked what conscience is. They said that it was the same with the contrition that precedes faith, and that they had cured it by the gospel; moreover, that there are conscientious persons of every religion, true as well as fanatical, who make to themselves scruples about matters of salvation, also about indifferent matters. The angel from hearing these things perceived it to be true that no one knew what conscience is; therefore they sent down one from themselves to teach. He standing in the midst said that conscience is not a pain, as they had all imagined, but is a life according to religion; and that that life is especially in those who are in the faith of charity; and that those who have conscience speak from the heart what they speak, and do from the heart what they do. This he illustrated by examples. So, when it is said of anyone that he has a conscience, it is meant that he is upright; and conversely. When all this had been said, those who had been called together divided themselves into four bodies; those who understood and favored the words of the angel passed over into one; those who did not understand but still favored, into another; those who had no wish to understand, saying to each other, "What have we to do with conscience?" passed over into a third; and those who scoffed, saying, "What is conscience but a breath of wind?" passed over into the fourth. After this the two latter bodies were seen to go aside to the left, and the two former to the right (n. 665).


I was led to a place where the ancient Sophi dwelt who had been in Greece, which place they called Parnassium; and I was told that at times they send out some to fetch new-comers from the world that they may inquire about wisdom, how it is at this day on earth. Then two Christians were found and brought, who were presently asked, "What news from earth?" And they answered that this was new there; that they had found human beings in the woods, perhaps left there in early childhood; and that they appeared from the face to be men, and yet they were not men; and that from this it was concluded in the world that man is no more than a beast, except that he can articulate sound, and thus speak; and that a beast could in like manner become wise if endowed with the ability to make articulate sounds; besides more. The Sophi from hearing these things drew many conclusions respecting wisdom, what changes it had undergone since their times; especially from this, that they do not now know the distinction between the state of man and that of a beast, nor even that man is born merely the form of a man, and becomes man by instructions and such a man as the kinds of instruction he receives; that he becomes wise from truths, unwise from falsities, and inwardly a wild beast from evils; and that he is born merely a capacity to know. understand, and become wise, in order that he might be a subject into which God might inspire wisdom, from the first degree of it to the highest. They said further that they understood from the new-comers that wisdom which in their time was in its rise, is at this day setting. Afterwards they instructed the new-comers how it is that man, created a form of God, could be turned into the form of the devil. But concerning all this the Relation may be seen (n. 692).


There was again a meeting appointed in the place where the ancient Sophi were, since they had heard from those sent out by them that they had found three new-comers from the earth, one a priest, another a politician, and a third a philosopher; these were brought and were presently asked, "What news from earth?" And they replied, "This is new; we have heard that a certain man says that he speaks with angels and spirits; and he relates many things concerning their state and among them that man lives a man after death as much as before, with this difference only, that he is then clothed with a spiritual body, but before with a material body." On hearing which they asked the priest what he had thought about those things on earth. He replied that because he had believed that man was not to live again as a man before the day of the last judgment, he with the rest of his order were of the opinion that the things the man told were visions, and afterwards fictions, and that at last he was in doubt. Then he was asked whether the inhabitants of the earth could not see from reason that man lives a man after death, and thus dissipate the paradoxical notions concerning the state of souls in the mean time, which are, that souls meanwhile are flying about like winds in the universe, continually awaiting the last judgment that they may be combined with their bodies; which lot would be worse than the lot of any beast. To this the priest replied that they talk, but they do not convince; and that they ascribe the combining or re-uniting of souls with their bodies and skeletons in the sepulchre to the omnipotence of God; and when they name omnipotence and also faith, all reason is exiled. Afterwards the politician being questioned concerning the things heard, replied that in the world he could not believe that man would live after death, since all of man lies dead in the grave, and thus he thought that that man saw specters and believed them to be angels and spirits but that now for the first time he was convinced, by his very senses, that he lives a man as before, and that he was therefore ashamed of his former thoughts. The philosopher related nearly the same things concerning himself, and concerning others of his school; saying, moreover, that he referred those things which he had heard respecting the things seen and heard by that man, to a place among the opinions and hypotheses which he had collected from the ancients and moderns. On hearing these things the Sophi were astonished, especially that Christians, who are in light above others from revelation, should be in such thick darkness respecting their life after death; when yet they and the wise men of their time knew about and believed in that life; saying further that they had noticed that the light of wisdom had lowered itself since that age from the interior of the brain even to the mouth under the nose, where it appears as a brightness of the lip, and in consequence the speech of the mouth appears like wisdom. To this one of the tyros added, "How stupid are the minds of those who now dwell on the earth! Would that the disciples of Heraclitus who laughed at everything and the disciples of Democritus who wept at everything were here, and we should hear both great laughter and great weeping." After this there were given to the new-comers plates of copper on which hieroglyphics were engraved and they departed (n. 693).


New-comers from the world were found, and were brought to the city under Parnassium, and were asked, "What news from earth?" And they answered that in the world they had believed that after death there would be rest from all kinds of labor, and yet they had heard, when they were coming hither, that there are here administrations, offices and employments, as in the former world, and thus that there is not rest. To this the wise ones there replied, "Thus you believed that now you are to live in mere idleness, and yet idleness produces a languid, torpid, stupid and sleepy state of the mind, and from that of the whole body, and this is death and not life." And then they were led about in the city, and to the administrators and workmen; on seeing which, they wondered that there should be such things, since they had believed that there would be some empty place in which souls were to live until the new heaven and new earth came into existence. They were also taught that all the things that here appear before the eyes are substantial and are called spiritual; and that all things in their former world are material and are called natural; and that there is this difference because they are from different origins; namely, that all things in this world exist and subsist from a sun which is pure love, and all things in that world exist from a sun which is pure fire. They were also taught that in this world there are not only administrations, but also pursuits of every kind, and also writings and books. The new-comers were delighted with what they were taught, and when they were going away, some virgins came with pieces of needle-work and embroidery made with their own hands, and gave these to them; and they sung before them an ode in which they expressed in angelic melody the affection for useful labor and its charms (n. 694).


I was introduced into an assembly where some of the ancient philosophers were present, and was asked what they knew in my world about influx. To which I answered, that the only influx they knew about was that of the light and heat of their sun into the things which are of nature, both into animate and into inanimate things; and that they knew nothing about the influx of the spiritual world into the natural world, although from that influx are all the wonderful things which are beheld both in the animal kingdom there, and in the vegetable kingdom (these were in part recounted). And because they are ignorant of this influx, they confirm themselves in favor of nature, and become naturalists, and at length atheists (n. 695).


I spoke with the followers of Aristotle, Descartes, and Leibnitz, concerning physical influx, occasional influx, and pre-established harmony, and heard how each confirmed his hypothesis; but as they were able to look into that subject only with an understanding subordinated to confirmations, and not superior to them, they ended the dispute by lot, which came out in favor of spiritual influx, which to some extent coincides with occasional influx (n. 696).


I was taken into a certain gymnasium in which the young were initiated into various things pertaining to wisdom, and this was done by the discussion of some subject which was there proposed by the president; and the subject then under discussion was, What is the soul, and what is its nature? There was a desk into which those who were to answer ascended. And presently one ascended, who said that no one since the creation of the world had been able to find out what the soul is and what its nature is; but since it was known that there is a soul in man, man had sought to know where it is. There was one who held that it has its seat in man in a certain little gland which is called the pineal gland, which is situated between the two brains in the head; and that at first he had believed this; but as it was rejected by many, he afterwards receded from this view. After this the second ascended, and said that he believed the seat of the soul to be in the head, because the understanding is there; but as he was unable to conjecture where in the head it resided, he acceded now to the opinion of those who said that its seat is in the three ventricles of the brain; now to the opinion of those who said that it is in the striated bodies there; now to the opinion of those who said that it is in the medullary or the cortical substance, and now to the opinion of those who said that it is in the dura mater; adding that he would leave it to everyone to think what he liked.

The third ascending said that the seat of the soul is in the heart and thence in the blood; and this he confirmed from the Word where it is said, heart and soul. The fourth next ascending said that from his childhood he had believed with the ancients that the soul is not in one part but in the whole, because it is a spiritual substance, of which place cannot be predicated, but impletion; and further, as soul and life mean the same thing, the life is in the whole. The fifth ascending said that he believed the soul to be something pure, like ether or air, and that he believed this because it is supposed that the soul would be such after it had been separated from the body. But the wise ones in the orchestra, perceiving that none of them knew what the soul is, requested the president, who had proposed the problem, to descend and teach. He therefore descending, said, "The soul is the very essence of man; and because an essence without a form is not anything, the soul is the form of man's forms; and this form is the truly human form, in which wisdom with its perceptions and love with its affections universally reside; and as you believed in the world that you would be souls after death, you are now yourselves the souls;" besides more. And this was confirmed by this declaration in the Book of Creation, "Jehovah God breathed into the nostrils of Adam the soul if lives, and man became a living soul" (Gen. 2:7) (n. 697).


There was seen an angel with a trumpet, with which he called together those celebrated for erudition among Christians, that they might tell what they had believed in the world concerning the joys of heaven and eternal happiness. This was done because it had been said in heaven that no one in the Christian world knew anything about them. And after about an hour there were seen six companies coming from the learned Christians, who were asked what they had known about the joys of heaven and eternal happiness. The first company said that they had believed them to be merely an admission into heaven, and then into its festive joys, as one is admitted into a house where there is a wedding and into its festivities.

The second company said that they had believed them to be most cheerful companionship and the sweetest conversations with angels. The third company said that they had believed them to be feastings with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. The fourth company said that they had believed them to be paradisal delights. The fifth company, that there would be supreme dominion, boundless wealth, and more than royal magnificence. The sixth company, that there would be a glorification of God and a festival enduring to eternity. Therefore that these learned ones might know whether those things which they had believed to be the joys of heaven were so, it was granted them to enter into those their joys, each company by itself, that they might learn by living experience whether those joys were imaginary or real. This takes place with most of those who come from the natural world into the spiritual (n. 731- 733).

And then presently the company that had thought the joys of heaven to be most cheerful companionship and sweetest conversations with angels, were let into the joys of their imagination; but because they were external joys and not internal, after some days they were affected with weariness and departed (n. 734).
Afterwards those who had believed that the joys of heaven are feasts with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, were let into like things; but because they perceived that such joys were only external and not internal, they became weary and went away (n. 735).
The same was done with those who had believed that the joys of heaven and eternal happiness consist in supreme dominion, boundless riches, and more than royal magnificence (n. 736).

Also with those who had believed that heavenly joys, and consequently eternal happiness, are paradisal delights (n. 737).

Afterwards with those who had believed that heavenly joys and eternal happiness are a perpetual glorification of God, and a festival enduring for ever. These were finally taught what is meant in the Word by the glorification of God (n. 738).
Finally, the same was done with those who had believed that they would enter into heavenly joys and eternal happiness if only they were admitted into heaven; and that they would then have joys like the joys of those who enter into the house of a wedding, and join in the festivities there. But when they were shown by living experience that there are no joys in heaven except for those who have lived the life of heaven, that is, a life of charity and faith, but instead, heaven is a torture to those who have led an opposite life, they withdrew and affiliated themselves with their like (n. 739).

Because the angels perceived that as yet no one in the natural world knows what the joys of heaven are, and thus what eternal happiness is, the angel with the trumpet was told to choose ten from those who had been called together, and introduce them into a society of heaven, that they might see with their eyes and perceive with their minds what heaven is and what the joys there are; and so it was done. And when they had been admitted, it was granted them first to see the magnificent palace of the prince there (n. 740). Then the paradise near it (n. 741). Afterwards, the prince himself and his great men in splendid garments (n. 742).

Then, being invited to the table of the prince, they saw such an entertainment as no eye had ever seen oil earth; and at the table they heard the prince give instruction respecting heavenly joys and eternal happiness, that they consist essentially in internal blessedness, and from this in external enjoyments; and that internal blessedness derives its essence from an affection for use (n. 743, 744). After dinner, by command of the prince some wise men of the society were sent for, who taught them fully about the nature and source of internal blessedness, which is eternal happiness; and that this causes external enjoyments to be joys; besides more concerning all these things (n. 745 746). After this they were permitted to see a wedding in that heaven, (of which n. 747-749). And finally, to hear preaching (n. 750, 751). When they had seen and heard all this, full of knowledge concerning heaven and joyful in heart they descended (n. 752).


Revelation is here treated of. It has pleased the Lord to manifest Himself to me, and to open the interiors of my mind and to enable me thereby to see the things which are in heaven and hell and thus He has disclosed mysteries which in excellence and dignity surpass all mysteries hitherto disclosed. They are as follows.

(i.) That, in each thing and all things of the Word there is a correspondential sense, which does not appear in the sense of the letter; and that consequently the Word was written by means of the correspondences of spiritual things with natural.

(ii.) The Correspondences themselves, what they are has been explained.

(iii.) There has also been a revelation concerning the Life of men after Death.

(iv.) Also respecting Heaven and Hell, what the one is and what the other is; also respecting Baptism and the Holy Supper.

(v.) Respecting the Sun in the spiritual world, that it is pure love from the Lord who is in the midst of it, the light proceeding from which is wisdom, and the heat proceeding from which is love; thus that faith and charity are from it; and that all things that go forth from it are spiritual and thus alive; also that the sun of the natural world is pure fire, and therefore all things that are from the sun are natural, and thus dead.

(vi.) That there are three Degrees hitherto unknown.

(vii.) And furthermore, matters have been revealed relating to the Last Judgment; the Lord the Savior as the God of Heaven and Earth; the New Church and its Doctrine; the Inhabitants of the Planets, and the Earths in the Universe (n. 846).

(viii.) Also respecting Conjugial Love; that with the spiritual it is spiritual with the natural it is natural, and with adulterers it is carnal (n. 847).

(ix.) The angels discerned by inquiry that although these mysteries are more excellent than any mysteries hitherto disclosed, still at this day they are regarded by many as of no account (n. 848).

(x.) A murmur was heard from some in the lower earth that they would not believe those things unless Miracles were done; but the answer was made that they would no more believe through miracles than did Pharaoh and the Egyptians; or no more than the posterity of Jacob when they danced about the golden calf in the desert; or no more than the Jews when they saw the miracles done by the Lord Himself (n. 849).

(xi.) Finally, why the Lord revealed these mysteries to me, and not rather to some one of the ecclesiastical order (n. 850).

The things contained in the Memorable Relations which follow the chapters are true; and like things were seen and heard by the prophets before the coming of the Lord, and like things by the apostles after His coming, as by Peter, Paul, and especially by John in the Apocalypse; which things are set forth (n. 851). (TCR 851)


((Why miracles and signs don’t happen today))

The reason why plainly-apparent Divine miracles do not now take place has been revealed to me. It is because the inward things of faith, which we receive from the Lord, cannot be sown or implanted under compulsion, but only in freedom, thus not amid the terror and amazement induced by miracles. The things that inflow under compulsion, as when one is influenced by miracles, are of such a nature that they affect a man's interiors and there they excite persuasions not in accordance with his own state as to time or order.

Consequently, in the case of those who have no faith from any other source, the goods and truths of faith which flow in at the same time are adjoined to falsities and are defiled by evils.

Because they have no other root, in a short time they are either perverted or denied, whence arises a danger of profanation of that which is holy, a danger from which man is withheld by the Lord as far as possible; this must also be obvious to any one. And even if such miracles as were  wrought in Egypt, and by Elijah and Elisha in Canaan, were to take place in these days, while at first regarded as something holy and demanding recognition, yet very soon, when men began to reason about them, would they not be disproved in various ways, and at length be ascribed to nature? This would be the case, more especially with the so-called erudite and intellectual than with the simple minded, but in time these also would be persuaded by the former, and their latter state would thereby become far worse than that in which they had formerly been. For first to acknowledge, but subsequently to pervert and deny, is profanation. (See AC nos. 573, 1008, 1010, 1059, 2081 and 2426.) (MRC 4)

Such is that sphere at this day, and it has so increased and is increasing until the last day when it will be dissipated. But yet in the most ancient times it was not so. This also is the reason why there can no longer be revelations at this day as in days of old, except in an extraordinary manner, and why there is not such communication with the heavens as formerly.(SE 152)

AC 6692. And Pharaoh commanded all his people. That this signifies general influx into the memory-knowledges opposed to the truths of the church, is evident from the signification of "commanding," as being influx (see n. 5486, 5732) here general influx, because done by Pharaoh, by whom is represented memory-knowledge in general (see n. 6015); and from the signification of "his people," as being memory-knowledges opposed to the truths of the church.

(That the Egyptians, who here are the "people," denote memory-knowledges, has been often shown above, see n. 6838.) That by the "Egyptians" are signified memory-knowledges opposed to the truths of the church, is because the representatives and significatives of the Ancient Church, which church had also been with them, were there turned into things magical; for by the representatives and significatives of the church of that time there was communication with heaven. This communication was with those who lived in the good of charity, and was open with many; whereas with those who did not live in the good of charity, but in its opposites, open communication was sometimes granted with evil spirits, who had perverted all the truths of the church, and together with these had destroyed its goods, whence came things magical. This can also be seen from the hieroglyphics of the Egyptians, which also were made use of in sacred things, for by them they signified spiritual things, and perverted Divine order. 

[2] Magic is nothing but the perversion of order, and is especially the abuse of correspondences. It is order that the goods and truths which proceed from the Lord should be received by man. When this is done, there is order in everything the man intends and thinks. But when a man does not receive goods and truths according to the order which is from the Lord, but believes that all things are blind flowings, and that if there comes forth anything that has been determined, it is of his own prudence, he perverts order; for he applies to himself the things of order with a view to taking care only of himself, and not of his neighbor, except insofar as his neighbor favors him.

Hence, wonderful to say, all who have firmly impressed on themselves that all things are of their own prudence, and nothing of the Divine providence, are in the other life very prone to magic, and insofar as they can, they imbue it, especially those who in consequence of trusting to themselves, and ascribing everything to their own prudence, have contrived various arts and craftinesses to raise themselves above others. When such men are judged in the other life, they are cast down toward the hells of the magicians, which are in the plane beneath the soles of the feet to the right, a little toward the front, extending to a great distance; in the lowest depths of which are the Egyptians. Hence then it is that by "Pharaoh," the "Egyptians," and "Egypt," are signified memory-knowledges opposed to the truths of the church.

[3] Lest therefore the representatives and significatives of the church should be further turned into magic, the Israelitish people was taken, with whom the representatives and significatives of the church might be restored; which people was of such a nature that it could not make anything magical therefrom, because it was altogether in externals, and had no belief in anything internal, still less in anything spiritual. With people of such a character, such magic as existed with the Egyptians cannot arise. (AC 6692)

AC 7290. “Saying, Give you a wonder.” That this signifies, and they therefore desire to be confirmed, is evident from the signification of "wonders and signs," as being confirmations of truths (see n. 3900, 6870). As regards the wonders and signs treated of in what follows, be it known that they were done among such as were in external worship, and did not desire to know anything about internal worship, for they who were in such worship had to be driven by external means. This is the reason why miracles were done among the Israelitish and Jewish people, for they were in external worship only. In the absence of their desire for internal worship they had to be in external, in order that they might represent holy things in outward ones, and that in this way there might be communication with heaven as by something of a church, for correspondences, representatives, and significatives conjoin the natural world with the spiritual. This is the reason why so many miracles were done in that nation. 

[2] But miracles are not done among those who are in internal worship, that is, in charity and faith, because to these they are hurtful, for miracles compel belief, and what is compelled does not remain, but is dissipated. The inward things of worship, which are faith and charity, must be implanted in freedom, for then they are appropriated, and what is so appropriated remains; whereas that which is implanted in compulsion, remains outside the internal man in the external, because nothing enters into the internal man except by means of intellectual ideas, which are reasons; for the ground which there receives is an enlightened rational. Hence it is that no miracles are wrought at this day.

That they would be hurtful, can be seen from what has been said; for they drive men to believe, and fix their ideas in the external man that the case is so; and if the internal man afterward denies that which the miracles have confirmed, there results an opposition and collision of the internal and external man; and finally when the ideas derived from miracles are dissipated, there is effected a conjunction of falsity and truth, and thus a profanation. From this it is evident how injurious at the present day are miracles in a church in which the inward things of worship have been disclosed. These moreover are the things signified by the Lord's words to Thomas:

     Because thou hast seen Me, Thomas, thou hast believed; blessed are they who see not, and believe (John 20:29);

 thus they are blessed who do not believe through miracles.

[3] But miracles are not injurious to those who are in external worship without internal, for with such there can be no opposition of the internal and external man, thus no collision, consequently no profanation. That miracles do not contribute anything to faith, may be sufficiently evident from the miracles wrought among the people of Israel in Egypt, and in the wilderness, in that they had no effect at all upon them. Although that people had recently seen so many miracles in Egypt, and afterward the sea Such divided, and the Egyptians sunk therein; the pillar of a cloud going before them by day, and the pillar of fire by night; the manna daily raining down from heaven and although they saw Mount Sinai smoking, and heard Jehovah speaking thence, besides other miracles, nevertheless in the midst of such things they fell away from all faith, and from the worship of Jehovah to the worship of a calf (Exod. 32); from which it is plain what is the effect of miracles.

[4] Still less would be their effect at this day, when it is not acknowledged that there is anything from the spiritual world, and when everything of the kind which takes place, and which is not attributed to nature, is denied; for denial universally reigns against the Divine influx and government in the earth. And therefore if the man of the church were at this day to see the veriest Divine miracles, he would first bring them down into nature, and there defile them, and afterward would reject them as phantasms, and finally would laugh at all who attributed them to the Divine, and not to nature. That miracles are of no effect is also evident from the Lord's words in Luke:

     If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded though one rose from the dead (Luke 16:31).

 (AC 7290)

AC 8078. [3] Faith merely natural is faith which is insinuated by an external and not by an internal way, such as sensuous faith, which consists in believing a thing to be so because the eye has seen, and the hand has touched. This is the faith concerning which the Lord said to Thomas, "Because thou hast seen, Thomas, thou hast believed; blessed are they who do not see, and believe" (John 20:29); and also is like the faith of miracles, which consists in believing a thing to be so merely from the miracles, concerning which faith see above (n. 7290); as also the faith of authority, which consists in believing a thing to be so because another, in whom one has faith, has said it.

[4] But spiritual faith is that which is insinuated by an internal and at the same time by an external way; the insinuation by the internal way causes it to be believed, and then that which is insinuated by the external way causes it to be confirmed. The spiritual of faith is the affection of charity, and from this the affection of truth for the sake of good use and for the sake of life; these make faith to be spiritual. The insinuation of faith by the internal way is effected by the reading of the Word, and by enlightenment then from the Lord, which is granted according to the quality of the affection, that is, according to the end sought in knowing the truth.

[5] From all this it can now be seen what faith merely natural is; and that this faith, because it is not spiritual, cannot be ascribed to the Lord, that is, be acknowledged and believed to be from the Lord; for the Lord flows in through the affection of truth and good. (That faith is an internal affection, see n. 8034.) The truth of innocence, which can be in this faith and be accepted by the Lord, is that which from innocence is believed to be so. From all this it is now evident how it is to be understood that faith merely natural must not be ascribed to the Lord, but the truth of innocence which is therein. (AC 8078)

AC 5935. VASTATION. After a spirit has completed his time in the world of spirits, he at length arrives at the last [period], which is his vastation. He then appears, for the most part, such as he was in the world, and is set at liberty to go whither he pleases; and thus he reaches a place where all conjunction with anything spiritual is taken away. He thus becomes, as it were, silly, and casts himself into hell. (AC 5935)


The external man is respectively a world, because the laws of the Divine order which are in the world, are inscribed upon it, and the internal man is respectively a heaven, because the laws of the Divine order which is in heaven, are inscribed upon it, nos. 4523, 5424, 5368, 6013, 6057, 9278, 9279, 9283, 9706, 10156, 10472; and in the work on Heaven and Hell, nos. 51 to 58. (NJHD 51)


Sum. Exp. Apoc. 1.


This revelation is from the Lord alone, and it is received by those who are to be in the New Jerusalem and acknowledge the Lord as the God of heaven and earth. The Lord is also described as the Word. (Sum. Exp. Apoc. 1)


About those in the church, from whom the New Jerusalem can arise.

From those who look firstly to the truths of faith and not the goods of charity; this refers to the church in Ephesus, v 1-7.

From those who are in goods as regards their life, and in falsities as regards their doctrine; this refers to the church in Smyrna, v 8-11.

From those who make good works the church's all in all and not at all the truths of doctrine; this refers to the church in Pergamum, v 12-17.

From those who are in faith from charity, and consequently in good works; there too about those who are in faith separated from charity, and consequently in evil deeds; this refers to the church in Thyatira, v 18-29. [Written in the margin.] For the churches, that they may acknowledge the Lord as the God of heaven; and the works of charity. (Sum. Exp. Apoc. 2)


A continuation about those from whom the New Jerusalem can arise.

About those whose worship is dead, that is, worship devoid of truths and thus devoid of life; this refers to the Church in Sardis, v 1-16.

About those who are in truths from good proceeding from the Lord; this refers to the church in Philadelphia, v 7-13.

About those who are wise from themselves and are wise from the Word; this refers to the church of Laodicea, v 14-22. [Written in the margin.] Similarly as in the second [chapter]. (Sum. Exp. Apoc. 3)


2992. It has been given me to know from much experience that in the natural world and its three kingdoms there is nothing whatever that does not represent something in the spiritual world, or that has not something there to which it corresponds. Besides many other experiences, this was made evident also from the following. On several occasions when I was speaking of the viscera of the body, and was tracing their connection from those which are of the head to those which are of the chest, and so on to those which are of the abdomen, the angels that were above me led my thoughts through the spiritual things to which those viscera correspond, and this so that there was not the least error. They thought not at all of the viscera of the body of which I was thinking, but only of the spiritual things to which these correspond. Such is the intelligence of angels that from spiritual things they know all things in the body in general and particular, even the most secret things, such as can never come to man's knowledge; nay, they know everything there is in the universal world, without a mistake; and this because from spiritual things are the causes, and the beginnings of causes. (AC 2992)


541. Hell, like heaven, is divided into societies, and into as many societies as there are in heaven; for every society in heaven has a society opposite to it in hell, and this for the sake of equilibrium. But evils and falsities therefrom are what distinguish the societies in hell, as goods and truths therefrom are what distinguish the societies in heaven. That for every good there is an opposite evil, and for every truth an opposite falsity may be known from this, that nothing can exist without relation to its opposite, and what anything is in kind and degree can be known from its opposite, and from this all perception and sensation is derived. For this reason the Lord continually provides that every society in heaven shall have an opposite in some society of hell, and that there shall be an equilibrium between the two. (HH 541)

SD 1719. For these reasons let men beware of giving heed to those opinions which some persons would fain publish and inculcate, that spirits are altogether devoid of sense, or that spiritual essences lack all that kind of affection which they enjoyed while living in their bodies. I know the contrary, which has been demonstrated to me by a thousand and a thousand most sensible proofs of experience, as I can solemnly declare and attest; and if men are unwilling to believe from the weight which they attach to their suppositions and opinions in respect to spiritual essences; let them take heed to themselves when they come into the other life, where experience will compel them to believe what they do not credit in this world. In ancient times there were no men of such a faith in regard to spirits, but [they exist] at this day, when from the ratiocination of their own brain, and not from the Word of the Lord, they would explain the nature of spirits whom they deprive, by their definitions and conjectures, of all sensual properties, denying everything of the kind to their interior and intimate principles, when yet these are the things which merely manifest themselves in externals and which are perceived; and although they appear in externals, yet it is no otherwise than as they believe the eye sees, the ear hears, when at the same time they may know that the eye is merely an organ which transmits visibilities, while the interior minds [of men] are what see and hear, the sensorial power being utterly dead without things interior, as may be abundantly shown.)) (SD 1719)


DP 212. Who does not speak of fortune? Who does not acknowledge it, since he talks of it and knows something about it from experience? But who knows what it is? That it is something, because it exists and presents itself to view, cannot be denied; and a thing cannot exist and present itself without a cause; but the cause of this something, that is, of fortune, is unknown.

Lest fortune, however, should be denied merely from ignorance of that cause, take dice or playing cards and play, or consult players. Does anyone of these deny fortune? For they play with it and it with them in a wonderful way. Who can do anything against fortune if it opposes him? Does it not then laugh at prudence and wisdom? When you shake the dice and shuffle the cards does it not seem to know and dispose the turns and twists of the hand and wrist to favour one player more than another, from some definite cause? Can the cause have any other source than the Divine Providence in ultimates, where by means of things constant and changing it works in a wonderful way along with human prudence, and at the same time conceals itself?

[2] It is well known that the Gentiles in days gone by acknowledged Fortune and built a temple to her, as did the people of Italy at Rome. Concerning this fortune, which is, as has been said, the Divine Providence in ultimates, it has been granted me to know many things that I am not permitted to make public. From these it was made clear to me that fortune is not an illusion of the mind, nor a sport of nature, nor something without a cause, for this has no reality; but that it is ocular evidence that the Divine Providence is in the most individual things of man's thought and action. As the Divine Providence presents itself in the most individual things, so insignificant and trifling, why should it not do so in the most individual things, not insignificant and trifling, such as matters of peace and war on earth, and matters of salvation and life in heaven? (DP 212)



It is believed that man might be more enlightened and become more wise if he should have immediate revelation through speech with spirits and with angels, but the reverse is the case. Enlightenment by means of the Word is effected by an interior way, while enlightenment by immediate revelation is effected by an exterior way. The interior way is through the will into the understanding, the exterior way is through the hearing into the understanding. Man is enlightened through the Word by the Lord so far as his will is in good, but man may be instructed and as it were enlightened through the hearing, though the will is in evil; and what enters into the understanding with a man whose will is in evil, is not within, but without him. It is only in the memory and not in the life, and what is without a man and not in his life, is gradually separated, if not before, yet after death, for the will which is in evil either casts it out, or suffocates it, or falsifies and profanes it. For the will makes the life of man, and continually acts into the understanding, and regards as extraneous that which is from the memory in the understanding. On the other hand the understanding does not act into the will, but only teaches in what manner the will should act. Wherefore, were a man to know from heaven all things which even angels ever know or if he were to know all things that are in the Word, and that are in all the doctrines of the church, and moreover all that the Fathers have written and councils decreed, and yet his will be in evil, he would after death be looked upon as one who knows nothing, because he does not will what he knows. In such case because evil hates truths, the man himself casts them out, and in their place adopts falsities agreeing with the evil of his will. 

[2] Moreover, no leave is given to any spirit or even angel, to instruct any man on this earth in Divine truths, but the Lord Himself teaches everyone through the Word, and teaches him so far as the man receives good from the Lord in the will, and this the man receives so far as he shuns evils as sins. Again, every man is in a society of spirits as to his affections and thoughts thence, in which he is as one with them, wherefore spirits speaking with man speak from his affections and according to them. Man cannot speak with other spirits unless the societies in which he is, be first removed, which cannot be done except by the reformation of his will. Because every man is in society with spirits who are of the same religion with himself, therefore spirits speaking with him confirm all things which he has made a part of his religion. Thus enthusiastic spirits confirm all things of enthusiasm with the man, Quaker spirits all things of Quakerism, Moravian spirits all things of Moravianism, and so on. Hence come confirmations of falsity which can never be extirpated. From this it is plain that mediate revelation, which is effected through the Word, is better than immediate revelation, which takes place through spirits. As for myself, I have not been allowed to take anything from the mouth of any spirit, nor from the mouth of any angel, but from the mouth of the Lord alone. (De Verbo 13)


We said that every person is born into this faculty, or into rationality, but we mean every person in whom the external elements have not been injured by incidental conditions, whether in the womb, or after birth as a result of disease, or owing to the infliction of a head wound, or to some insane love bursting forth and loosening restraints. Rationality in these cases cannot be elevated. For the life which belongs to the will and intellect does not have in such people terminal vessels in which to rest, vessels so disposed that it can perform orderly outward acts. For life operates in accordance with outmost terminations, though not as a result of them.  

            On the impossibility of rationality in little children and preadolescents, see below at the end of no. 266. (DLW 259)


There is no conjunction of good and truth by compulsion, and thus no regeneration (n. 2875, 2881, 4031, 8700).(NJHD 186)


HH 254. I have been told how the Lord spoke with the prophets through whom the Word was given. He did not speak with them as He did with the ancients, by an influx into their interiors, but through spirits who were sent to them, whom the Lord filled with His aspect, and thus inspired the words which they dictated to the prophets. So it was not influx but dictation. As the words came forth immediately from the Lord, therefore, each one of them was filled with the Divine and contains within it an internal sense, which is such that the angels of heaven perceive the words in a heavenly and correspondential sense, while men do so in a natural sense. Thus has the Lord conjoined heaven and the world by means of the Word. How spirits are filled with the Divine from the Lord by aspect has also been shown. A spirit filled with the Divine from the Lord does not know otherwise than that he is the Lord, and that it is the Divine that is speaking; and this continues until he has finished speaking. Afterwards he perceives and acknowledges that he is a spirit, and that he spoke from the Lord and not from himself. Because this was the state of the spirits who spoke with the prophets, they said that it was Jehovah who spoke; the spirits even called themselves Jehovah, as can be confirmed not only from the prophetical but also from the historical parts of the Word. (HH 254)

SE-WE 238. 5587. What has just been written here appeared to have been Divinely inspired; for the very words, although not dictated, were still perceptibly inspired. Other things which happened in connection with these words are many, and too holy to be revealed here; nevertheless, I solemnly declare that of these words, not the smallest one, or the least part of a word, comes from myself. (SE-WE 238.5578)

TCR 779. VIII This, the Lord's second coming, is taking place by means of a man, to whom He has shown Himself in person, and whom He has filled with His spirit, so that he may teach the doctrines of the new church which come from the Lord through the Word.

Since the Lord cannot show Himself in person, as has just been demonstrated, and yet He predicted that He would come and found a new church, which is the New Jerusalem, it follows that He will do this by means of a man, who can not only receive intellectually the doctrines of this church, but also publish them in print. I bear true witness that the Lord has shown Himself in the presence of me, His servant, and sent me to perform this function. After this He opened the sight of my spirit, thus admitting me to the spiritual world, and allowing me to see the heavens and the hells, and also to talk with angels and spirits; and this I have now been doing for many years without a break. Equally I assert that from the first day of my calling I have not received any instruction concerning the doctrines of that church from any angel, but only from the Lord, while I was reading the Word. (TCR 779)



NJHD 51. (Number citations in the original are omitted here)

The Sciences and Knowledges through which the internal spiritual Man is opened.

Those things are called scientifics which are in the external or natural man and in its memory, but not those which are in the internal or spiritual man

Because scientifics belong to the external or natural man, they are respectively things of service, because the external or natural man was made to serve the internal or spiritual man, just as the world was made to serve heaven (...)

There are scientifics which concern natural things; there are such as relate to the civil state and life, and again there are such as relate to the moral state and life, and such as relate to the spiritual state and life. But for distinction those which relate to the spiritual state and life, and which are chiefly doctrinals, are called knowledges

A man ought to become imbued with sciences and knowledges, because through them he learns how to think; afterwards how to understand what is true and good, and at length how to be wise; that is how to live according to what is true and good

Scientifics and knowledges are the first things, on which a man's civil, moral, and spiritual life are built and founded; but they ought to be learned for the sake of the use of life as an end

Knowledges open the way to the internal man, and afterwards conjoin the internal with the external man according to uses. The Rational is born through sciences and knowledges. Still, not through the sciences and knowledges themselves, but through the affection of uses from them, and according to such affection

The internal man is opened and successively perfected through sciences and knowledges, if the man has for an end some good use; particularly the use which has respect to eternal life, no. 3086. In this case, the spiritual things from the celestial and spiritual man, go to meet the scientifics and knowledges which are in the natural man, and adopt those that agree

The uses of a heavenly life are then extracted, eliminated, and elevated by the Lord, through the internal man, from the scientifics and knowledges which are in the natural man. And the scientifics which do not agree, and which are inimical, are rejected to the sides and exterminated

The sight of the internal man calls forth from the scientifics and knowledges of the external man, only such as belong to its love (...)

A man would be born into every science, and into intelligence from it, if he were born into the love of the Lord, and into love towards the neighbour but since he is born into the love of self and the world, he is therefore born into [a state of] entire ignorance (...)

Since scientifics and knowledges belong to the external or natural man, they are in the light of the world; but the truths, which have become matters of love and faith, and have thus obtained life, are in the light of heaven. Still, the truths which have thus obtained life, are comprehended by a man by means of natural ideas (...)

Scientifics and knowledges are receptacles, and as it were vessels, of the truth and good belonging to the internal man

Vessels in the Word, therefore, signify, in the correspondential sense, scientifics and knowledges. (...)

Because scientifics are in the light of the world, they are confused and obscure when compared with the things which are in the light of heaven; consequently, so also are the things which are in the external man, when compared with those which are in the internal man. Therefore, what is intertwined or confused, signifies in the Word the Scientific, likewise by the obscurity of a clo

The starting-point ought to be made from truths of doctrine which are from the Word, and they ought first to be acknowledged; it is permitted afterwards to consult scientifics in order to confirm these truths, which are corroborated in this manner.

Those who are in an affirmative principle in respect to the truths of faith, are therefore permitted to confirm these truths intellectually by means of scientifics, but not those who are in a negative principle; for the affirmation which precedes inclines all things in favour of its own side, while the negation which precedes inclines them to its side

There is an affirmative principle of doubt, and a negative principle of doubt; the former is with some who are good, and the latter with the evil. Entering into scientifics from the truths of faith, is agreeable to order; but, conversely, entering into the truths of faith from scientifics, is contrary to order. For influx is spiritual, and not physical, that is, natural; and, therefore, it takes place from the truths of faith because they are spiritual, into scientifics because they are natural

Whoever is in a principle of negative doubt, which in itself is negative, and who says that he will not believe until he is persuaded through scientifics, will never believe (...)

Many of the learned are more insane in spiritual things, than the simple-minded, because they are in a negative principle, and are furnished in abundance with scientifics by which they confirm the negative [state] (...)

Those who do not understand anything of truth, and they also who are in evil, are able to reason concerning the truths and goods of faith, and yet they are not able to be in any enlightenment (...)

There are scientifics which admit Divine truths, and others that do not. Useless scientifics ought to be destroyed. Those scientifics are useless which regard as their end, and confirm, the loves of self and the world, and which withdraw [the mind] from love to the Lord and love towards the neighbour; because such scientifics shut up the internal man, so that the man is afterwards unable to receive anything from heaven

Scientifics are means for becoming wise, and means for becoming insane; and through them the internal man may either be opened or shut; and thus the Rational may either be cultivated or destroyed

After death the sciences are of no account, but only what a man through the sciences has imbibed into his understanding and life. Still all scientifics remain after death, but they are quiescent

The same scientifics which are false with the wicked because they are applied to evils, are true with the good because they are applied to goods.

Scientific truths are not truths with the evil, however they may appear like truths while they pronounce them for interiorly there is evil in them, and from it they are falsified; science with the evil does not even deserve to be called science, because it is without life (...)

The chief science with the ancients was the science of correspondences, but this science at the present day has perished/ The science of correspondences existed among the eastern nations, and in Egypt. Their hieroglyphics were derived from that source. Through the science of correspondences the ancients introduced themselves into the knowledges of spiritual things. The Word was written by mere correspondences, and its internal or correspondential sense is from that source; and without the science of correspondences it is impossible to know that this sense exists, or yet what the quality of the Word is. How much the science of correspondences excels the other sciences (NJHD 51)

AK, Vol. II, 463. Although we may be surpassingly rich in experience and accomplished in the sciences and gifted besides with a faculty of thinking with the greatest distinctness, yet it by no means follows that we shall therefore be able to rid ourselves of the mists that are involved in the fallacies of the senses and in the fallacies of sensual origin, of rational ideas, and to enjoy an insight into real truths, in simple clothing or naked loveliness . . . . The fires that extinguish this light, belong to the body, to the animal mind, and even to the rational mind itself. The fires of the body are the pleasures of the bodily senses. The fires of the animal mind are lusts or cupidities, whose name is legion. The fires of the rational mind are the ambitions and desires of ends that converge to and terminate in the love of self as the ultimate center.

These heats are powers deriving their ground of activity from the body, which operating in the rational mind, extinguish that holy fire and purely spiritual altar flame. A light still remains, warm in relation to the body, but cold in relation to the soul and the superior mind. In this case although we revolve and combine ideas with distinctness and perspicuously contemplate analyses framed of reasons, yet these are only the spectres and impure phantoms of truths, which have ultimate ends in ourselves and in the love of self which powerfully and confidently persuade us that they are Delphian virgins and graces; and lead us to think that if we ourselves applaud them, the whole Parnassian band will applaud them as well; but they are far indeed from being truths, for they differ from them as much as the phantasms of the body and the mockeries of the world from the essences and forms of heaven.

Thus if we wish to invite real truths, whether natural or moral or spiritual (for they all make common cause by means of correspondence and representation) into the sphere of our rational minds, it is necessary that we extinguish the impure fires of the body and thereby our own delusive lights and submit and allow our minds, unmolested by the influences of the body, to be illuminated with the rays of the spiritual power; then for the first time truths flow in; for they all emanate from that power as their peculiar fountain" (AK, Vol. II, 463).

AC 2568. [4] There are therefore two principles; one of which leads to all folly and insanity, and the other to all intelligence and wisdom. The former principle is to deny all things, or to say in the heart that we cannot believe them until we are convinced by what we can apprehend, or perceive by the senses; this is the principle that leads to all folly and insanity, and is to be called the negative principle. The other principle is to affirm the things which are of doctrine from the Word, or to think and believe within ourselves that they are true because the Lord has said them: this is the principle that leads to all intelligence and wisdom, and is to be called the affirmative principle.

[5] The more they who think from the negative principle consult things rational, the more they consult memory-knowledges, and the more they consult things philosophical, the more do they cast and precipitate themselves into darkness, until at last they deny all things. The causes of this are, that no one can apprehend higher things from lower ones, that is, spiritual and celestial things, still less Divine things, from lower ones, because they transcend all understanding, and moreover everything is then involved in negatives from that principle. On the other hand, they who think from an affirmative principle can confirm themselves by whatever things rational, by whatever memory-knowledges, and whatever things philosophic they have at command; for all these are to them things confirmatory, and give them a fuller idea of the matter.

[6] Moreover there are some who are in doubt before they deny, and there are some who are in doubt before they affirm. They who are in doubt before they deny are they who incline to a life of evil; and when this life carries them away, then insofar as they think of the matters in question they deny them. But they who are in doubt before they affirm are they who incline to a life of good; and when they suffer themselves to be bent to this by the Lord, then insofar as they think about those things so far they affirm. As this subject is further treated of in the verses which follow,. it is permitted of the Lord's Divine mercy to illustrate them more fully there (see n. 2588). (AC 2568)

AC 3833. And it came to pass in the evening. That this signifies the state as yet obscure, is evident from the signification of "evening," as being an obscure state (see n. 3056). Among the ancients, who were in congruent rituals, the feasts that were made in the evening, that is, the suppers, signified nothing else than the state of initiation which precedes conjunction, which state relatively to the state of conjunction is obscure. For during man's initiation into truth and thence into good, all that he learns is obscure to him; but when good is being conjoined with him, and he regards truth therefrom, it then becomes clear to him, and this successively more and more; for now he is no longer in doubt as to whether a thing exists, or whether it is so; but he knows that it exists, and that it is so.

[2] When man is in this state, he then begins to know innumerable things, for he now proceeds from the good and truth which he believes and perceives as from a center to the circumferences; and in proportion as he proceeds, in the same proportion he sees the things which are round about, and successively more and more widely, for he is constantly pushing out and widening the boundaries. Thenceforth also he commences from every subject in the space within the boundaries; and from these as from new centers he throws out new circumferences, and so on. In this way the light of truth from good increases immeasurably, and becomes like a continuous lucidity, for the man is then in the light of heaven, which is from the Lord. But with those who are in doubt and in discussion as to whether a thing exists, and whether it is so, these innumerable, nay, illimitable things do not appear one whit; to them all things in both general and particular are utterly obscure, and are scarcely regarded as one really existing thing, but rather as one thing the existence of which is doubtful. In such a state is human wisdom and intelligence at this day, when he is deemed wise who can reason with ingenuity as to whether a thing exists; and he is deemed still wiser who can reason that it does not exist. (AC 3833)



SD 4390. Then it once happened that a certain spirit knew what I was thinking, for he spoke with me in a few words, at which I was amazed, especially at the fact that spirits could know my thoughts.  (SD 4390)

EU 1. Since, from the Divine mercy of the Lord, the interiors, which are of my spirit, have been opened to me, and thereby it has been granted me to speak with spirits and angels, not only with those who are near our earth, but also with those who are near other earths; because I had a desire to know whether there are other earths, and what their nature is, and the quality of their inhabitants, therefore it has been granted me by the Lord to speak and converse with spirits and angels who are from other earths, with some for a day, with some for a week, and with some for months; and to be instructed by them concerning the earths, from which and near which they were; and concerning the lives, customs, and worship of the inhabitants thereof, and of various other things worthy to be related: and because in this manner it has been granted me to know these things, it is permitted to describe them from what has been heard and seen. It is to be known that all spirits and angels are from the human race; and that they are near their own earths; and that they know what is there; and that by them man may be instructed, if his interiors are so far opened that he can speak and converse with them; for man in his essence is a spirit, and he is together with spirits as to his interiors; wherefore he whose interiors are opened by the Lord, may speak with them as man with man; which has been granted me now for twelve years daily.


There are no spirits and angels who are not from the human race (n. 1880).

The spirits of every earth are near to their own earth, because they are from the inhabitants of that earth, and of a similar genius; and they are serviceable to those inhabitants (n. 9968).

The soul, which lives after death, is the spirit of man, which is the real man in him, and also appears in the other life in a perfect human form (n. 322, 1880 1881, 3633, 4622, 4735, 6054, 6605, 6626, 7021, 10,594).

Man, even when he is in the world, as to his interiors, thus as to his spirit or soul, is in the midst of spirits and angels, of a quality such as he is himself (n. 2379, 3645, 4067, 4073, 4077).

Man can speak with spirits and angels, and the ancients on our earth frequently spoke with them (n. 67-69, 784, 1634, 1636, 7802). But at this day it is dangerous to speak with them, unless man is in true faith, and led by the Lord (n. 784, 9438, 10, 751).

(EU 1)

AC 7252. The inhabitants and spirits of Venus who appear on the other side of that earth, are of an almost contrary disposition, being gentle and humane. It was granted of the Lord that some of these spirits should come thence to me, and then they appeared near above the head.  In talking with me they said that when they were in the world they acknowledged, and now more fully acknowledge, our Lord as their only God. They said that in their earth they had seen Him, walking among them, and they also represented in what manner they had seen Him. (AC 7252)

HH 299   I have also been permitted to learn the source of human anxiety, grief of mind, and interior sadness, which is called melancholy. There are spirits not as yet in conjunction with hell, because they are in their first state; these will be described hereafter when treating of the world of spirits. Such spirits love things undigested and pernicious, such as pertain to food becoming foul in the stomach; consequently they are present with man in such things because they find delight in them; and they talk there with one another from their own evil affection. The affection that is in their speech flows in from this source into man; and when this affection is the opposite of man's affection there arises in him sadness and melancholy anxiety; but when it agrees with it it becomes in him gladness and cheerfulness. These spirits appear near to the stomach, some to the left and some to the right of it, and some beneath and some above, also nearer and more remote, thus variously in accordance with their affections. That this is the source of anxiety of mind has been shown and proved to me by much experience. I have seen these spirits, I have heard them, I have felt the anxieties arising from them, and I have talked with them; when they have been driven away the anxiety ceased; when they returned the anxiety returned; and I have noted the increase and decrease of it according to their approach and removal. From this it has been made clear to me why some who do not know what conscience is, because they have no conscience, ascribe its pangs to the stomach. (HH 299)


Apart from numerous other proofs, the truth of the above proposition may be evinced beyond doubt from the fact that a spirit who spoke with me positively affirmed that he did not know otherwise than that he was I myself, especially when he did not reflect upon the subject; but my own reflections were that spirits did know themselves to be spirits separate from men. In a word, without reflection they know nothing else, nor is reflection given except with those who converse with them and give responses, and then converse with others also. Reflection is indeed given without the speech of man with spirits, but this is effected by the Lord. - 1748, April 6.(SE 1852)

SE 2100  Those to whom the Lord gives inner sight are able to know and recognize quite precisely, whenever the Lord so wishes, who in a given group, and who outside of the group, are flowing into the thoughts and the speaking. Many spirits may contribute to a single word of speech, each one differently, but of spirits not expressly given an awareness, none is aware of the other, but thinks that he alone is speaking.

            When it was pointed out to a spirit that he was not speaking alone, but in company with many, and that he had been their medium of speaking, serving as their tool, he became angry. And in order to convince him, the nearest spirits who had participated and spoken through him revealed themselves. Then in turn, to these spirits who revealed themselves, since they thought they were speaking on their own, again others had to reveal themselves who had at first been farther away, declaring that they had spoken through them. So there is a kind of string, like a chain, as in the body, of a number of forces as acting causes for every single word spoken, and of muscles for every single action.

            This is the case in every person, but I know that scarcely anyone believes it, and yet it is the truth, confirmed to me by much daily experience. (SE 2100)



A man who reflects upon the common [or general] things of his thought, and who had not previously formed to himself ideas from corporeal things, may understand of what quality the world of spirits is; namely, [if he considers] that a speech of words is given, to which a man in speaking or hearing does not attend, but [only] to the sense of the words. His interior man is in this sphere; it is a sense of words, which obviously consists of ideas only, for in speaking he attends not at all to the words, but only to the sense of the words, which flow, as it were, spontaneously. This sense of words consists of ideas; without ideas no sense can be given. In this speech are the lower spirits among themselves, and then they know no otherwise than that they speak by words, when yet it is by ideas. Such man also becomes when he becomes a spirit, and such is then his speech. When man thinks, he himself knows not but that it is by words of speech, when yet it is by ideas, as everyone may be sensible if he reflects. Ideas afterwards flow of their own accord into whatever speech he is skilled in. That thought therefore is from ideas, which fall into the vocal speech of the man with whom they [spirits?] are, or with whom they speak. Wherefore the speech of spirits is universal, as is that of the thought of man unattended by vocal utterance. (SE 3637)

SE 4870  In some languages in the world, are some such natural [i. e. spontaneously-formed] words also given; and the most ancient language was no other than such speech of spirits - a speech perfectly natural. Man's interior ideas themselves are also in that language, although man is ignorant thereof - which is apparent from the fact that man, after death, when amongst spirits, speaks that language without instruction. (SE 4870)

AC 6624  As man thinks from what is sensuous, such things are obscure to him, nay, so obscure that he does not know what an idea is, and especially that thought is divided into ideas, as speech is into words; for thought appears to him continuous, and not discrete, when yet the ideas of thought are the words of spirits, and the ideas of a thought yet more interior are the words of angels. As ideas are the words of their speech, they are also sonorous among spirits and angels; hence the silent thought of man is audible to spirits and angels when it so pleases the Lord. How perfect the ideas of thought are in comparison with the words of speech, may be seen from the fact that a man can think more things within a minute than he can utter or write in an hour. The same could also be seen from speech with spirits and angels, for then in a moment I have filled a general subject with singulars, with the affection adjoined, whence the angels and spirits distinctly apprehended all things, and many more, which appeared about the subject like a cloud. (AC 6624)

CL 444  This is the reason why in this spiritual World, as you know, it is not allowed any one to stand behind another and speak to him, for then a love is inspired into him which, because of its delight, his self-intelligence favors and obeys, but which, being from man and not from God, is a love of evil or a love of falsity. [8] Besides this, I will tell you something else of a similar nature, namely, that I have sometimes heard goods and truths let down from heaven into hell, and there they Were progressively turned into their opposites, good into evil and truth into falsity. This is due to the same cause, namely, because all who are in hell turn themselves away from the Lord." (CL 444)

LJP 20 The city was double and triple, or city under city; and when one descends by ladders, he comes into a new city, where those reside who are different as to affections. They said that their streets are everywhere roofed over, because sometimes from the rocks round about, which are somewhat higher, they are looked at by the evil who are skilled in the perversion of souls by means of ideas, and in inducing lusts that are not congruous; and that they know how to bind the ideas, if by any means they penetrate; by which they were kept in anxiety, and as it were bound; and this even to despair: which was also shown me to the life. If anyone comes to them, who is of another genius, and therefore disagrees as to the affections and the thoughts thence, they order him to go away; and when he goes, he everywhere finds the gates closed: on which account he is led to other gates that he may go out, but he still finds them closed: and in the meantime they breathe into him a longing to go out; and this is done until he becomes so weary, that he can no longer endure it; and only then is he let out: and when let out he does not return, on account of the vexation into which he has been driven. The Dutch, more than the rest in the Christian world, know what fantasy is, and what reality; so that they cannot be deluded, like others. (LJP 20)

AC 7812. But the men on that earth know who and of what quality these spirits are, and therefore they pay no regard to them. Nevertheless they thus learn what evil is, and so what good is; for by evil is learned what is good, the quality of good being known from its opposite. All perception of a thing is according to reflection bearing on the distinctions that come from contraries in various ways and in various degrees.. (AC 7812)

AC 9968. When I arrived there, the earth itself was not seen, but only the spirits from that earth; for as has already been observed several times, the spirits of every earth appear around their own earth (AC 9968)

AC 9578. By means of angels from the Lord I was conducted to a certain earth in the universe, where it was granted me to look at the earth itself; but not to speak with the inhabitants of it, but with the spirits who came from it. For after their life in the world is completed, all the inhabitants, or men, of every earth, become spirits, and remain about their earth. (AC 9578)

In company with some spirits from this earth, and while in a state of wakefulness, I was conducted as to my spirit to a certain earth in the universe, by means of angels from the Lord.  The progression took place toward the right, and continued for two hours.  Near the end of our solar system, there first appeared a shining but dense cloud, and after it a fiery smoke rising up from a great chasm.  A vast abyss separated our solar world on that side from certain worlds of the starry heaven. The fiery smoke appeared for a considerable distance. I was being carried across this middle region, when underneath in that chasm or abyss there appeared very many men, who were spirits, for all spirits appear in the human form, and are actually men, (n. 322, 1881).  I also heard them speaking to each other there, but was not given to know whence they came and what was their nature; however, one of them told me that they were guards to prevent spirits from this world from passing into any other world in the universe without the needful facilities. (AC 9582)


The spirits of the planet Mars appear to themselves as men such as they had been in the world, and therefore they have to others a like appearance; for everyone in the other life appears to others as he appears to himself, because the perception is communicated. When I wondered at this, they said that they cannot appear otherwise, because when they lived in the world they knew that they were spirits clothed with a body, and then thought little about their body, but only about the life of their spirit in the body; and therefore when they come into the other life they scarcely know that the state of life has been changed; and as they then also think about the life of their spirit just as they did in the world, they therefore appear to themselves like men. All spirits are indeed in the human form, but not in one so strikingly like that in which are the spirits of Mars; for with these the idea remains such as they had in the world. Moreover, with those who when in the world know and believe that in the other life they shall be in the human form, as the body decreases, this thought increases; and therefore when they put off the body which had served them for use in the world, from the idea impressed upon them they remain to themselves in a like form. (AC 7475)

AC 7173. Certain spirits knew from heaven that a promise had once been made to the spirits of the earth Mercury that they should see the Lord, and therefore they were asked by the spirits about me whether they remembered this promise. They said that they remembered it, but that they did not know whether the promise was of such a nature that they should have no doubt about it. While they were thus talking together, the sun of heaven appeared to them. (The sun of heaven, which is the Lord, is seen only by those who are in the inmost or third heaven; all others see the light from it, and also the moon, n. 1529-1531, 4060.) When the sun was seen, they said that this was not the Lord God, because they saw no face. Meanwhile the spirits were talking together, but I do not know what they said. Then suddenly the sun appeared again, and in the midst of it the Lord encompassed with a solar circle. On seeing this, the spirits of Mercury humbled themselves profoundly, and settled down. Then also the Lord from the sun was seen by spirits of this earth who when they were men had seen Him in the world; and they all one after another, and thus many in order, confessed that it was the Lord Himself; and this they confessed before all the company. Then also the Lord from the sun was seen by the spirits of the planet Jupiter, who said in a plain voice, that it was He Himself whom they had seen on their earth when the God of the universe appeared to them. (AC 7173)

SE 1135. It was also observed that these same genii and spirits attracted not only the upper region of the head, as said above, but also the soles of the feet, and indeed they manifestly attracted the soles of the feet. By this is signified that in like manner as the receptaculum chyli attracts the still somewhat crude aliments, so do these same genii and spirits also attract those things that are natural, and not so much premeditated. For when a fraudulent man fishes out what others have said, he especially seizes upon, attracts, and holds in his memory, those things which have not been premeditated, that is, which are crude; for later, speaking from premeditation, that same man is wont to say different things and also so to explain what has slipped from his mouth that nothing of evil results. This those genii and spirits do not wish. The meeting of the chyle with like substances can thus be fully established. Such spirits and genii are adjoined to the men, and afterwards to the spirits of those who are of such a nature; in this way all that they have thought of is laid open before the society in which they are. (SE 1135)


The state of the natural mind before reformation may be likened to a spiral twisting or curving downward, while after reformation it may be likened to a spiral twisting or curving upward. Consequently a person before reformation looks downward to hell, but after reformation upward to heaven. (DLW 263)


We present these secrets of angelic wisdom here in order to make known the nature of the natural mind in a person, a subject that we take up again in further detail in subsequent discussions. (DLW 257)


I found in myself . . . that in every single thought - yea, even in that which we believe to be almost pure - is concealed an endless mass of sin and impurity; as also in every desire that comes from the body into the thoughts which are derived from very deep roots. Even though the thought may seem pure, yet underneath it is the fact that one thinks it from fear, from hypocrisy, and much besides; which also one can come to discover to some extent by after-reflection (JD 109).


This love is possible only in those who are in a state of truly conjugial love and who consequently possess an elevated sexuality, because men like this, out of chastity, do not permit themselves to feel an influx of love on account of the body of any other woman than their wife. And because they possess a highly elevated sexuality, they cannot help but love the opposite sex and at the same time turn their backs on anything unchaste. (CL 55)

This love exists only with those who are in love truly conjugial and from this in eminent potency; for, by reason of their chastity, they do not admit the influx of love from the body of any woman other than their wife; and, being in supereminent potency, they cannot but love the sex and at the same time hold in aversion what is unchaste. (another translation of the above)


[Note: At age 57, in the middle of his successful scientific career, Swedenborg suddenly found himself conscious in both his natural mind, as we are, and in his spiritual mind, of which we are unconscious. During the first few months of this new mental state he wrote about it with a religious fervor. However, after he was fully adapted to his new life of dual citizenship, and for the next 27 years until his death, Swedenborg started writing about it in a more formal rational style that is suitable for science, philosophy, and theology.]

SE-WE 3. (...) To tell it in a few words, it means that one is allowed to hear and to speak with those who are in Heaven, in fact, with heavenly spirits, with saints who died long ago, even with Abraham himself, Isaac, and Jacob, and through them, indirectly, as well as even directly if such boundless grace be granted, with the Messiah Himself - indeed, even to see Him. The speech itself is entirely like speech with companions on earth, but coming down so clear from Heaven, from above, from every direction, far and near, as well as from within, that it is heard in the same way as speech of the mouth, but so that none of the bystanders hears or perceives any of it. This is the case even in an actual group, whether consisting of many persons or few. And every such individual hears it in their own native language.

The eyesight also is like ordinary sight, but unless one is admitted into the [very] inward heaven, one sees only symbolic displays, especially when the eyes are closed, and above all in a state midway between waking and sleeping. One sees them as clearly as we see with our eyes at midday. This happens as often as the Messiah [that is, the Incarnated God] sees fit to grant anyone to behold it.

As well as by hearing, sight and speech, their presence is made known - not vaguely, but clearly - by touch. What the Kingdom of God [that is, our heavenly life in eternity] is like, therefore, is plainly discerned at such a time by the senses just mentioned, to a degree that no one could believe such immense happiness could ever exist.

But lest these accounts be rejected as fables, I can testify sacredly that the Messiah Himself, Savior of the World, Jesus the Nazarene [that is, the Incarnated God], has introduced me into that Kingdom [that is, became conscious in the spiritual mind], and I have spoken there with heavenly guardian angels, spirits, dead people who have risen again, even with those who called themselves Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Esau, Rebekah, Moses, Aaron, and the Apostles, especially Paul and James. This has gone on now over a period of eight months almost uninterruptedly [see 8 below], except on my journey from London to Sweden, and continued while I have been writing these things which now come out in public. In fact, they themselves, or else their angels and others, brought in the very words from closest by.

Hence you may now realize that there is a Kingdom of God [that is, an afterlife in the mental world of eternity], and, from what is to be said later here and there, what it is like. This only I am prompted to add, that somehow I have been introduced into Heaven itself, not only with my mind, but almost my whole body, that is, my bodily sensation, and this when I was completely awake. This might strike everyone as so strange that they cannot help calling it into question. But because I have seen, heard, and experienced it with the very senses of my body, I cannot help affirming it now, upon Divine consent, and testify to it.  (...) (SE-WE 3)

SE-WE 4. (...) Now as for the Kingdom of God described here and above from the Divine Word, and to be further described below, let me say the following.

In order that everyone may believe that it will be such as described, I would like to make it known to them that it has been shown me several times. This first happened during a quiet sleep, but later in broad daylight when I was awake and able to discern it most clearly with my very senses. I actually saw how Angels, from Jehovah, the Only-begotten Son of God, descended and ascended as if by a ladder, conveying their own voice from on high through ever repeating voices, right to my ear.

Then also I could see how countless heavenly Spirits together, among them also saints who had died, were associated together so as to form one body, as if they were one person, and how they streamed in so harmoniously that not even the least discord could be felt. And this reached my very senses as clearly as objects normally reach the external senses, together with a clear voice and announcement, as if by one person, saying that this was an effigy of the Kingdom of God itself.

The sweet pleasantness and deep happiness I felt resulting from this was so great that I cannot express it in words. In a manner indescribable, it deeply penetrated my tissues and innermost marrows, and stirred them.

Because the Messiah [that is, the Incarnated God] in His infinite mercy and grace has granted me, His most unworthy servant of all, plainly to see this effigy on several occasions - but so often to experience those feelings of sweet happiness during the past two years that I will refrain from numbering the times - therefore I cannot keep from testifying to this. (SE-WE 4)

SE-WE 5. (...) Yet who will believe it that human minds, and thus people in the whole world, are controlled entirely at the Messiah's will, by means of spirits; and that human minds, consequently the human beings themselves, are mere instruments? [this is the vertical community]

But to the end that everyone may believe this, I can earnestly declare by God that I have experienced it so clearly that I am sure there could not be a clearer sensation in these matters. This has lasted now for a period of almost eight months [see 8a below]. During this time, by the Divine Grace of the Messiah, my mind has been governed by spirits of His heaven, with whom I have spoken throughout that entire period by day, almost without interruption.

At such times, these spirits streamed into my mind, bringing spiritual light together with the mental images themselves and the least points of thought, and even the actual words themselves, which no bystander was able to hear. Their inflow was so plain that I knew I was not thinking anything at all, not the least thing, that was not thus consciously streaming in. I could not produce even one idea by my own effort, even though I was conceded the appearance that I could. Yet all the while, during a period of five months, I was going around as before with friends in my country and with others socially, and no one noticed that such a heavenly association existed.

Just as they did into my intellect, spirits also streamed into my will and into my very actions. I was led wherever they pleased - through roads and streets, to an inn, and all around - to the point that I was just like a mere passive instrument. So perceptibly did they control the very movements of my feet, arms, head, eyes, and bodily joints, during conversations, according to the pleasure of the Messiah Himself, that the Spirits of His Heaven, who likewise by their own confession were controlled as passive instruments by the Messiah, were amazed themselves that I scarcely strayed by a footstep. This happened in the same way as when one is driven along by a plainly felt power.

Through all this, by the Divine grace of the Messiah, I have learned most clearly that all human thought, will and action is guided by the Messiah Alone, according to His will. Some of His Servants, from pure mercy and grace, He leads by means of His heavenly Spirits; and some He leads by permission, through other spirits who are not heavenly, all depending on each person's life. (SE-WE 5)

SE-WE 6. (...) Uninterrupted and constant are the feelings that govern our mind devoted to understanding, and, in fact, all its thoughts and mental images, right down to the least details in the mental images. And so constant are the changes of the feelings, that they perform unceasing spiraling movements having now a wider, now a narrower range, going to almost opposite extremes, or from falsities to truths themselves. The wider the range is, the more perfect and thus the happier is the state when one is governed by the Messiah. And this all happens in such an amazing way that it is most difficult to describe even in general terms.

I have experienced this, by the Divine mercy and grace of the Messiah, so strongly that I can declare and testify from actual, most lucid experience, that it is nothing else but feelings that govern all thoughts, and that without them, there is no life of the understanding, and consequently no understanding.

If I were to tell everything that I have been allowed by the Divine mercy and grace of the Messiah to learn from actual experience, as well as from regular conversations with heavenly beings and thus from living proof during a period of several months, about feelings of every kind (both those that govern our mind devoted to understanding and its will, and those that govern our moods and even our body) if I were to tell but a few proofs of actual experience from among these instances, people should be amply convinced that nothing else but feelings or loves govern the whole mind and all its ideas, thoughts, efforts and actions, the least as well as the greatest. (SE-WE 6)

SE-WE 9. Over a period of eight months, not the least particle of thought, feeling, conviction, came to me, as I was able to feel very clearly - not even the least bit - that did not originate from an outside source. Yet in the company of people on earth, I was like anyone else. I was so sensitive to this inflow that I was aware of the smallest details through my own senses. (SE-WE 9)

CORO 21. A redemption has also been accomplished by the Lord at this day, because the present day is His Second Coming according to prophecy; by which, having been an eye-witness thereof, I have been convinced of the truth of the foregoing arcana. (CORO 21)

TCR 709  After this work was finished the Lord called together His twelve disciples who followed Him in the world; and the next day He sent them all forth throughout the whole spiritual world to preach the Gospel that The Lord God Jesus Christ reigns, whose kingdom shall be for ages and ages, according to the prediction in Daniel (VII, 13, 14), and in the Apocalypse (XI, 15); also that "blessed are they that are called to the marriage supper of the Lamb." (Apoc. XIX, 9). This took place on the nineteenth day of June, 1770. This is what is meant by these words of the Lord: "He shall send His angels and they shall gather together His elect, from the end of the heavens to the end thereof." (Matthew XXIV, 31)[TCR 709]

 [Letter to Landgrave, July 13, 1771]  Most Serene Duke Landgrave,
I received and read with delight your letter, most Serene Duke, written to me on the first day of July.  I hope that after that day the last printed work, called Vera Christiana Religio, has come into your hands.  If it be pleasing to you, you may perhaps order that some learned men among the clergy in your Duchy, present and lay open their judgments concerning it; but I pray that such learned men among your clergy be chosen as love truths and take delight in them because they are truths.  If others are chosen, they will not see in this work a single grain of truth, but everything therein will be in shade.

As to what is told concerning the daughter of the Prince Margrave in Schwed,* that I predicted her death, this is a fiction invented by some chattering new maker.  I have not been there, nor have I written anything concerning her.  As to what is told concerning the brother of the Queen of Sweden, however, that is true; yet this must not be deemed as a miracle, but only as something memorable, similar to the memorabilia recounted concerning Luther, Melanchthon, Calvin and others, which are written in the work; for such memorabilia are not miracles, but are merely testimonies that, as to my spirit, I have been introduced by the Lord into the [spiritual] world, and thus, that I speak with angels and spirits.

As concerns the persons mentioned in the attached sheet, I have not spoken with four of them, namely, Bellisle, de Dombelles, Kameke, Bock, but six months ago I did speak with Stanislaus, King of Poland,** and this in a company where he was, and in which no one knew that it was he; for it was the delight of his life that he wished to be in companies incognito, and so to talk with spirits and angels as one of them and thus familiarly. Afterwards I saw him transferred to the northern quarter, and I heard that he was there promoted to the administration of a society of Roman Catholics over which he is set as Prince Moderator.

I have spoken at times with the Roman Pontiff who last died.*** After his death, he stayed with me for three days, and when he left, he descended to companies which consist of Jesuits, and presided over them for a month. I also saw him ascending therefrom, and then also it was given me to speak with him. But it is not allowed me to publish more concerning the course of his life and concerning his state. Of him who filled the Pontifical office thirty or forty years ago,**** see in the work, n. 820.

Ever most solicitous and obedient in all that concerns your honor and command,

I remain,

Most Serene Duke and Landgrave, 

your most humble servant 

Eman. Swedenborg

Amsterdam, July 13, 1771  (Letter to Landgrave, July 13, 1771)

* Swedenborg wrote Swett.

** When the Russians, in 1734, entered Poland to set Augustus of Saxony on the throne, Stanislaus, the rightful King, was forced to flee.  Subsequently he renounced all claim to the Polish throne upon the condition, among others, that he retain the title of King of Poland. He died in 1766. Swedenborg first met him in the spiritual world on Sunday, Nov. 16, 1768. He had seen him before, but without knowing who he was, "although all the spirits had been eager to know this." Therefore Swedenborg had asked him his name, and "since, in the spiritual world, no one can hold back the truth, the King not only told him his name but forthwith became so confidential with him that he at once led him to his daughter, the late Queen of France" (Cuno's Memoirs, p. 12). The daughter here referred to is Marie Leszczynska (1703-1768), the wife of Louis XV of France.

*** In 1771 "the last pope" was Clement XIII who died on Feb. 2, 1769; yet in his next letter to the Landgrave, Swedenborg says that it was Benedict XIV, Pope Clement's immediate predecessor whom he met. This, however, seems clearly to have been a slip; for Benedict XIV died in 1758 and his character as an evil man had been fully manifested by 1771. See SE 5843 seq. That it was Clement XIII whom he met, is indicated by the statement that he presided over the Jesuits; for during his papacy, Clement XIII strove greatly, though in vain, to prevent the Jesuits from being expelled from France, Portugal and Spain. (LETT 31)

**** Clement XII, Pope 1730-1740, died Feb. 6, 1740.


AC 9439.  As, with most in the church at this day, there is no faith in the life after death, and scarcely any in heaven, or in the Lord as being the God of heaven and earth; therefore the interiors of my spirit have been opened by the Lord, so that I may, while in the body, be at the same time with the angels in heaven, and not only speak with them, but also see there amazing things, and describe the same; lest perchance hereafter people may say, Who has come to us from heaven, and told us that it exists, and what there is there? But I know that those who have previously at heart denied a heaven and a hell, and the life after death, will still harden themselves against them, and will deny them; for it is easier to make a raven white, than to cause those to believe who have once at heart rejected faith. But let the things which have thus far been shown concerning heaven and hell and the life after death, be for those few who are in faith. That the rest, however, may be brought to something of acknowledgment, it has been granted that I should relate such things as delight and attract the man who is desirous of having knowledge; and which at present shall be about the earths in the universe. (AC 9439)

AC 9440.  He who is not acquainted with the arcana of heaven, may believe it to be impossible for a man to see earths which are so remote, and from the evidence of the senses to give any account of them. But he should know that in their first cause and origin, the spaces and distances, and consequently the progressions, which appear in the spiritual world, are changes of state of the interiors, and that they appear with angels and spirits in accordance with these changes; and that by means of such changes angels and spirits can be translated from one place to another, and from one earth to another, even to earths which are at the end of the universe. And so can a man in respect to his spirit, his body still remaining in its own place. So too has it been done with me, for of the Lord's Divine mercy it has been given me to be in company with spirits as a spirit, and at the same time with men as a man. (That in heaven the spaces and distances, and consequently the progressions, are appearances arising from changes of state of the interiors, see n. 5605.) A sensuous man cannot conceive that in respect to his spirit a man can be translated in this manner, because such a man is in space and in time, and measures his progressions according to these. (AC 9440)

(Docu. II, p. 187)  the Spirit had been with me from my youth (Docu. II, p. 187)

(Docu. II, p. 166)  I saw a bookshop and immediately thought that my work would accomplish more than the works of others but at once checked myself . . . that one is servant to another and that our Lord has many thousand ways of preparing one so that each and every book ought to be left in its own worth as a medium, near or remote, according to the state of the understanding of each and every man. Yet pride will straightway out. May God control it (Intro., WE 70; 1746). (Docu. II, p. 166)

At a lecture on the history of anatomy, in my thoughts I prided myself that they would mention me as one who understood anatomy better; yet I was glad that it was not done (JD 270 [1744.], WE 71).

When anyone did not regard me according to the estimation of my own imagination, I always thought, if you knew what grace I had, you would act differently; which was something impure and had its root in self-love" (JD 75).

INV 38. Wherefore, in order that true Christian religion might be manifested, it was absolutely necessary that someone should be introduced into the spiritual world, and derive from the mouth of the Lord genuine truths out of the Word. The Lord cannot enlighten anyone with His light, unless He is approached immediately, and acknowledged as the God of heaven. (INV 38)

JD 109.  I found in myself . . . that in every single thought - yea, even in that which we believe to be almost pure - is concealed an endless mass of sin and impurity; as also in every desire that comes from the body into the thoughts which are derived from very deep roots. Even though the thought may seem pure, yet underneath it is the fact that one thinks it from fear, from hypocrisy, and much besides; which also one can come to discover to some extent by after-reflection (JD 109).

SD 3058. ((((At last I spoke with them where they were, in [that] very high [place], representing [referentes] to me, that because in the state of the body they were such as not to believe in spirits, nor that anyone could speak with spirits; they then thought in a similar manner because they were in that state. I told them that we should believe in [our] senses - for instance, in sight, smell, taste, hearing, touch, and the thousand varieties [of my experiences], lasting now almost three and one-half years, - a thing to be believed, because it is so, [and] that I now write the same in their presence, which no man could do unless he was at the same time with spirits; for thus to write these things cannot be given by anyone in another manner; at length they for once confessed that it is the case, that I speak with spirits. - 1748, September 5. (SD 3058)

WE 6905  hardly a day passed by for several months, in which a flame was not seen by me, as visibly as the flame of a household hearth; at the same time, this was a sign of approbation. (WE 6905)

2951. WITH WHAT DIFFICULTY MAN CAN BE PERSUADED THAT HE IS RULED THROUGH SPIRITS. Before my mind was opened, so that I could speak with spirits, and so be persuaded by living experience; for many years previous, such proofs existed with me, that I am now astonished, that yet I did not come into persuasion concerning the Lord's government, through spirits. Not only were there dreams, for several years, informing me concerning those things which were written, but there were, also, changes of state, when I wrote; a certain extraordinary light in those things which were written.

Afterwards, also, many visions, when my eyes were closed, and light miraculously given; and spirits sensibly [flowed]. It was as manifest to perception [sensum] as the corporeal senses. Many times (occurred infestations through various modes, by evil spirits, in temptations. Then, afterwards, when those things were written to which evil spirits were averse, so that I was so obsessed as nearly to be overcome with horror [ita ut poene obsiderer ad horrorem]. Fiery lights were seen. Speech [loqueloe] in morning-time [was heard], besides many other things; until a certain spirit addressed me in a few words. I was greatly astonished that he should perceive my thoughts, and afterwards wondered greatly when [my mind] was opened so that I could converse with spirits; in like manner the spirit [was then surprised] that I should be astonished. From these things it may be concluded with what difficulty man can be led to believe that he is ruled by the Lord through spirits, and with what difficulty he recedes from the opinion that he lives his own life from himself, apart from spirits. - 1748, August 27.

I formerly perceived, after speaking for some months with spirits, that if I were remitted into my former state, I could have fallen into the opinion that [these things] were phantasies. (SD 2951)

CLJ 35. It has pleased the Lord to open for me the eyes of my spirit, and to keep them open now for nineteen years; it has been given me to see the things which are in the spiritual world, and also to describe them. I can affirm that they are not visions, but things seen in all wakefulness." (CLJ 35)

HH 184. Whenever I have talked with angels face to face, I have been with them in their abodes. . . This occurred when my inner sight was opened, and I was fully awake." (HH 184)

AE 53. All things which I have seen in the heavens have been seen by the sight of the spirit; and I was then in a similar state of wakefulness to that in which I was when they were not seen. (AE 53)

AR 484. These things which I saw and heard, I saw and heard in the wakefulness of my body, and at the same time of my spirit; for the Lord has so united my spirit to my body, that I am in both at the same time." (AR 484; cf. CL 1, TCR 851)

SD 1647. The things which I have learned in representations, visions, and from speech with spirits and angels are solely from the Lord .... Thus I have been instructed, consequently by no spirit, nor angel, but by the Lord alone from Whom is everything true and good . . . . (SD 1647)

JD 177. I am an instrument with which He may do what He pleases.  (JD 177)

JD 195. I saw also in a vision how some beautiful bread was presented to me on a plate. This was a prediction that the Lord Himself will instruct me, as soon as I have attained that state in which I shall know nothing, and in which all my preconceived notions will be removed from me; which is the first state of learning: or, in other words, that I must first become a child and that then I shall be able to be nurtured in knowledge as is being the case with me now." (JD 195. Cf. AC 1557 and see also WE 8212)

TCR 779. That the Lord manifested Himself before me, His servant, and sent me to this office, and that He afterwards opened the sight of my spirit, and so has introduced me into the spiritual world, and has granted me to behold the heavens and the hells and to converse with angels and spirits, and this now uninterruptedly for many years, I testify in truth; likewise, that from the first day of that call I have not received anything that pertains to the doctrines of the New Church from any angel, but from the Lord alone, while I read the Word. (TCR 779)

AR Preface. Every one can see that the Apocalypse could never have been explained except by the Lord alone, for the several words there contain arcana which could never be known without a singular illustration and thus revelation; wherefore it pleased the Lord to open the sight of my spirit and to teach. Do not believe, therefore, that I have taken anything herein from myself, or from any angel, but from the Lord alone. The Lord also said by the angel to John, 'Seal not the words of the prophecy of this book', by which is meant that they are to be manifested. (AR Preface)

DP 135. I have had discourse with spirits and with angels now for many years; but neither has a spirit dared, nor any angel wished, to tell me anything, still less to instruct, concerning anything in the Word, or concerning any doctrine from the Word; but the Lord alone has taught me, Who has been revealed to me and has enlightened me. (DP 135)

AE 1183. It has been given me to see [the light of heaven], and from it to perceive distinctly what has come from the Lord, and what from the angels. What has come from the Lord has been written, and what has come from angels has not been written. (AE 1183)

SD 1647. The things which I have learned in representations, visions, and from speech with spirits and angels are solely from the Lord.... Thus I have been instructed, consequently by no spirit, nor angel, but by the Lord alone from Whom is everything true and good. (SD 1647)

SD 4034. It was evident that even the things which I have learned through evil spirits I have learned from the Lord alone, although the spirits spoke. (SD 4034)

De Verbo XIII: 29. As regards myself, it has not been allowed to take any thing from the mouth of any spirit, nor from the mouth of any angel, but from the mouth of the Lord alone. (De Verbo XIII (29)

INV 38. In order that the true Christian religion might be disclosed, it could not be otherwise than that some one should be introduced into the spiritual world, and from the mouth of the Lord derive the genuine truths out of the Word. (INV 38)

Ecclesiastical History 3. The Books which were written by the Lord by means of me (a Domino per me), from the beginning to the present day, should be enumerated. (Ecclesiastical History 3)

SD 6101:2. A certain Anglican bishop told how he especially had insulted the five works concerning heaven and hell and the rest which had been presented to all [the bishops] and to all the Protestant lords in the Parliament, vituperating and blaspheming them... Then it was told him that the work is not mine but the Lord's, who desired to reveal the nature of heaven and hell and the quality of the life of man after death and concerning the last judgment... And I also told him that this [revelation] is the male child whom the woman brought forth and whom the dragon wished to devour. [Rev. 12] (SD 6101:2)

"That our Savior has visibly revealed Himself before me and commanded [me] to do what I have done and what is yet to be done, and that He thereupon allowed me to come into communion [samtal] with angels and spirits, I have declared before the whole of Christendom.... That [the Chancellery of Justice now] relates that they still cannot believe it, I cannot take amiss, since I cannot put my state of sight and speech into the heads of others and so convince them, nor can I cause angels and spirits to talk with them; nor is it permitted that miracles should occur nowadays, but reason itself shall find it [true] when with reflection they read my writings in which much is found such as never before has been discovered nor can be discovered without actual sight and conversation with those who are in the spiritual world... If there should be any further doubt, I am ready to testify with the most solemn oath that may be required of me, that this is [the] truth, complete and actual, without the least fallacy. That our Savior causes this to happen to me is not at all for my sake, but from an urgency which concerns the eternal welfare of all Christians." (Swedenborg's letter to the king, May 25, 1770)

"Read, if you please, the things which have been written in the latest published work, called "The True Christian Religion", concerning the arcana disclosed by the Lord through me His servant... and afterwards draw a conclusion, but from reason, concerning my Revelation." (Swedenborg's letter to Cuno in 1770)

CORO 18. The Lord Jehovah derives and produces from this New Heaven a New Church on the earth, which is done by a Revelation of Truths from His own mouth or from His Word, and by Inspiration. (CORO 18)

"When I think of what I am about to write, and while I am writing, I enjoy a complete (fullkomlig) inspiration, for otherwise it would be my own; but now I know for certain that what I write is the living truth of God." (Swedenborg's testimony as reported by Gjorwell, Doc. II, p. 404)

AC 6597. That the internal sense is such as has been set forth is plain from the singular things which have been explained, and especially from this, that this has been dictated to me out of heaven. (AC 6597)

TCR 779. The second coming of the Lord is effected by means of a man before whom He has manifested Himself in Person, and whom He has filled with His Spirit to teach the doctrines of the New Church through the Word from Him. (TCR 779, heading)

HH 1. That at this day there exists such immediate revelation, is because this is meant by the Advent of the Lord. (HH 1)

INV 55. It has pleased the Lord to prepare me from my earliest youth to perceive the Word, and He has introduced me into the spiritual world, and has enlightened me with the light of His Word more proximately. From this it is manifest that this surpasses all miracles. (INV 55)

CORO IV. In place of miracles, there has, at this day, taken place a manifestation of the Lord Himself, an intromission into the spiritual world, and enlightenment there through immediate light from the Lord, in such things as are the interior things of the church; but chiefly, the opening of the correspondential sense in the Word, in which the Lord is in His own Divine light. (CORO: Miracles IV)

INV VII. That this [New] Church is not instituted and established through miracles, but through the revelation of the correspondential sense, and through the introduction of my spirit, and at the same time of my body, into the spiritual world, so that I might know there what heaven and hell are, and in light might imbibe immediately from the Lord the truths of faith whereby man is led to eternal life. (INV VII)

SE 1647. That the things which I learned from representations, visions, and discourses with spirits and angels were from the Lord alone. "Whenever there was any representation, vision, and discourse, I was kept interiorly and intimately in reflection upon it, as to what thence was useful and good, thus what I might learn therefrom; which reflection was not thus attended to by those who presented the representations and visions, and who spoke; yea, sometimes they were indignant when they found that I was reflecting. Thus have I been instructed; consequently by no spirit, nor by any angel, but by the Lord alone, from Whom is all truth and good; yea, when they wished to instruct me concerning various things, there was scarcely anything but what was false: wherefore I was prohibited from believing anything that they said; nor was I permitted to infer any such thing as was proper to them. Besides, when they wished to persuade me, I perceived an interior or intimate persuasion that the thing was so and so, and not as they wished; which they also wondered at. The perception was manifest, but cannot easily be described to the apprehension of men. -1748, March 22. (SE 1647)

SE 1719. For these reasons let men beware of giving heed to those opinions which some persons would fain publish and inculcate, that spirits are altogether devoid of sense, or that spiritual essences lack all that kind of affection which they enjoyed while living in their bodies. I know the contrary, which has been demonstrated to me by a thousand and a thousand most sensible proofs of experience, as I can solemnly declare and attest; and if men are unwilling to believe from the weight which they attach to their suppositions and opinions in respect to spiritual essences; let them take heed to themselves when they come into the other life, where experience will compel them to believe what they do not credit in this world. (SE 1719)

De Verbo VII. At this day the correspondential sense of the Word has been revealed by the Lord, because the doctrine of genuine truth has now been revealed, which doctrine is partly contained in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, and now in the small works which are being given to the public; and because that doctrine and no other agrees with the correspondential sense of the Word, therefore that sense, together with the science of correspondences, has -now for the first time been disclosed... By many that sense will not be acknowledged for a long time. (De Verbo VII (21)

AC 6597. That the Internal Sense is such as has been expounded, is evident from the particulars which have been explained, and especially from this, that that sense has been dictated to me out of heaven. (AC 6597)

 AC 64. This, now is the internal sense of the Word, its very essential life, which does not at all appear from the sense of the Letter.  AC 64

INV 44. The correspondential sense of the Word has been disclosed by the Lord through me. (Invitation to the New Church 44)

ATH 2. The doctrine of the church is that this is the advent of the Lord and that thence it is that arcana have been opened by the Lord respecting heaven and hell, man's life after death, the Word, the last judgment-which have all been written out in Latin and sent to all the archbishops and bishops of the kingdom [of Great Britain] and to the nobility..(Concerning the Atlianasian Creed 2)

That at this day the correspondential sense of the Word has been revealed by the Lord, is because the Doctrine of genuine Truth has now been revealed, which Doctrine is contained in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, and now in the [other] little works which are being given to the public; and because that Doctrine, and no other, agrees with the correspondential sense of the Word, therefore that sense, together with the science of correspondences, has now for the first time been disclosed. This sense also is signified by the appearance of the Lord in the clouds of heaven with glory and power, Matthew 24:30, 31.- De Verbo VII:7 (21)

INV 44. Not even an iota [of the correspondential sense of the Word] could have been opened except by the Lord alone. This surpasses all revelations which have hitherto been since the creation of the world. (INV 44)

AC 3398. The arcana of the internal sense are now revealed, because there is scarcely any faith, since there is no charity; thus because it is the consummation of the age; and when this is so they can be revealed without danger of profanation, because they are not interiorly acknowledged. (AC 3398:4)

AC 3128. But since these arcana have been revealed, and lie open to those who are in good, that is, who are angelic minds, therefore, however obscure they may appear to others, these arcana are to be expounded, because they are in the internal sense. (AC 3128)

De Verbo 111. It has been granted me sometimes to be among the angels of the middle and of the highest heaven, and to hear them conversing with one another; at which time I was in an interior natural state..... I heard things ineffable and inexpressible..... Afterwards it was given me to understand that I could not utter nor describe them by any spiritual and celestial expression, but that nevertheless they could be described even to their rational comprehension by words of natural language. And it was said that there are not any Divine arcana which cannot be perceived and expressed also naturally, although in a more general (communius) and imperfect way. (De Verbo 111:4 (6)

AC 10320. From love toward the human race the Lord has made such revelations as will ... conduce to man's salvation. What the Divine has revealed, is with us the Word. (AC 1032)

AE 641. It has been done in like manner at this day; for it has now pleased the Lord to reveal many arcana of heaven, especially the internal or correspondential sense of the Word, which hitherto has been wholly unknown, and with it He has taught the genuine truths of doctrine; which revelation is meant by the advent of the Lord in Matthew (24: 3, 30, 37) ...In both worlds there is a church, and revelation takes place in both, and through this separation, as also the establishment of a new church. (AE 641)

CORO 18. The Lord Jehovah from the New Heaven derives and produces a New Church upon earth, which is done by a Revelation of Truths from His own mouth, or from His Word, and by means of Inspiration. (CORO 18)

CORO Mir. IV. In place of miracles, there has at this day taken place a manifestation of the Lord Himself, an intromission into the spiritual world, and enlightenment there by means of (per) immediate light from the Lord in such things as are the interior things of the church. But chiefly, the opening of the correspondential sense in the Word, in which the Lord is in His own Divine light.  (CORO Mir. IV)

INV 43. The manifestation of the Lord in Person, and [my] introduction by the Lord into the spiritual world, both as to sight and as to hearing and speech, surpasses all miracles; for we do not read anywhere in history that such intercourse with angels and spirits has been granted from the creation of the world. For I am daily with angels there, even as I am in the world with men; and this now for twenty-seven years. The testimonies of this intercourse are the books which have been published by me concerning heaven and hell, and also the memorable relations thence in the last work, called the True Christian Religion ... Tell me, who ever before has known anything about heaven and hell, about the state of man after death, about spirits and angels, etc., etc. (INV 43, 44)

INV 44. Besides these most evident testimonies [there is the fact] that the correspondential sense of the Word has been disclosed by the Lord through me, which has never before been revealed since the Word was written among the sons of Israel; and this (hie) is the very Sanctuary of the Word: The Lord Himself is in this [sense] with His Divine, and in the natural sense with His Human. This, even as to an iota, cannot be opened except by the Lord Himself. This surpasses all the revelations which have been made since the creation of the world. Through this revelation there is opened a communication of men with the angels of heaven, and a conjunction of the two worlds has been effected; since when man is in the natural sense, the angels are in the correspondential sense. (INV 43, 44)

DE VERBO VII. To interpret the correspondential sense from truths of doctrine opens heaven, because that is the sense in which the angels are, and so man by means of that sense thinks together with angels and thus conjoins them to himself in his intellectual mind. (DE VERBO VII:6 (20)

TCR 508. In the New Church ... it is lawful to enter with the understanding and penetrate into all the secrets [of faith] and also to confirm them by the Word. The reason is that its doctrinals are continuous verities laid open by the Lord by means of the Word, and confirmations of them by rational things cause the understanding to be opened above more and more, and thus to be elevated into the light in which the angels of heaven are. (TCR 508)

AE 814. And it was given to her that she should be arrayed in fine linen clean and bright,' signifies that they who will be of the Lord's New Church are instructed by the Lord in genuine and pure truths through the Word. (AE 814)

SE 5610. The angels have told me ... that when [they are turned] to those things which are in my thought from the heavenly doctrine, then they are in greater clarity than in any other case. (SE 5610)

INV 52. The manifestation of the Lord and intromission into the spiritual world, surpass all miracles. This has not been granted to any one since the creation as it has been to me. The men of the Golden Age indeed spoke with angels, but it was not granted them to be in any other than natural light; but to me it is granted to be in both spiritual and natural light at the same time. By this means it has been granted me to see the wonderful things of heaven, to be together with the angels as one of them, and at the same time to draw forth (haurire) truths in light and thus to perceive and teach them; consequently to be led by the Lord. (INV 52)

TCR 779. This Second Advent of the Lord is effected by means of a man before whom He has manifested Himself in Person and whom He has filled with His Spirit, to teach the doctrines of the New Church through the Word from Him. " ...It follows that He is to do it by means of a man, who is able not only to receive the doctrines of this Church with his understanding, but also to publish them by the press. That the Lord has manifested Himself before me His servant and sent me on this office, and that, after this, He opened the sight of my spirit and thus let me into the spiritual world and gave me to see the heavens and the hells, and also to speak with angels and spirits, and this now for many years, I testify in truth; and also that from the first day of that call, I have not received any thing which pertains to the doctrines of that Church from any angel, but from the Lord alone while I read the Word. (TCR 779)

ATHA 2. The doctrine of the church is that this is the Advent of the Lord and that thence it is that arcana have been opened by the Lord respecting heaven and hell, man's life after death, the Word, the last judgment- which have all been written out in Latin and sent to all the archbishops and bishops of the kingdom [of Great Britain] and to the nobility. And still not a word has been heard, a sign that they do not interiorly care for the things of heaven and the church, and that it is now the very end of the church and indeed that the church no longer exists. (Concerning the Athanasian Creed 2)

TCR 3. Without the advent of the Lord into the world, no one could have been saved. It is similar at this day: wherefore unless the Lord came again into the world in Divine truth which is the Word, not any one can be saved. (True Christian Religion 3)

AE 36. The consummation of the age' the last time of the church; and the [second] advent of the Lord then is the revelation of Himself, and of Divine truth from Him, in the Word through the internal sense; elsewhere than in the Word the Lord does not reveal Himself, nor there otherwise than through the internal sense. (Apocalypse Explained 36)

DE DOM 1. That a revelation has been made by the Lord concerning heaven and hell, concerning the last judgment (which has been accomplished), and concerning the correspondential sense of the Word. Thus the way to salvation has been revealed, and the state of man after death; and this fully and plainly, so that anyone who understands the Latin language can know ...(De Domino, Preface)

AC 6492. In a dream my father appeared to me, and I spoke with him, saying that after a son becomes his own master he ought not to acknowledge his father as father, as before; for the reason why the father is to be acknowledged during the bringing up of the son, is that the father is then in the Lord's stead, nor does a son know at that time what he ought to do except by the direction of his father. But when a son becomes his own master, and competent to think for himself, and seems to himself to be able to direct himself from himself, then the Lord must be his Father, whose vice-regent his natural father had been. These things I spoke in my dream. When I awoke, there seemed to descend from heaven a long roll fastened to rods, and tied by most beautiful woven knots of an azure color; the beauty of this object was indescribable. It was said that the angels make such presents to one another. (AC 6492)


Much experience has taught me about these matters. Indeed it has taught me that not only things of the human mind, namely those belonging to its thought and affection, correspond to spiritual and celestial things which heaven has from the Lord, but also that the whole of a person in general, and whatever exists in him in particular, corresponds, so much so that neither the smallest part, nor even the smallest fraction of a part, fails to correspond. (AC 3628)


But still the person in whom the spiritual degree has been opened comes into that wisdom when he dies, and he may also come into it as the result of a suspension of his bodily sensations and an influx then from above into the spiritual elements of his mind. (DLW 257)



see also D.Wisdom 10

“there is nothing more necessary for man to know than what good and truth are” (NJHD 12)

It is according to Divine order that good and truth should be conjoined, and not separated; thus, that they should be one, and not two; for they proceed in conjunction from the Divine, and are conjoined in heaven, and therefore they should be conjoined in the church. The conjunction of good and truth is called, in heaven, the heavenly marriage, for all there are in this marriage. Hence it is that in the Word heaven is compared to a marriage, and that the Lord is called the Bridegroom and Husband, but heaven, and also the church, are called the Bride and Wife. That heaven and the church are so called, is because they who are therein receive Divine good in truths. (HD 13)

All the intelligence and wisdom which the angels have is from that marriage, and not any of it from good separate from truth, nor from truth separate from good. It is the same with the men of the church. (HD 14)

Because the conjunction of good and truth is an image of marriage, it is plain that good loves truth, and truth, in its turn, loves good, and that one desires to be conjoined with the other. The man of the church, who has not such love and such desire, is not in the heavenly marriage, consequently the church as yet is not in him; for the conjunction of good and truth constitutes the church. (NJHD 15)

truths are of good, and are the forms of good. (NJHD 16)

all insanity and folly are born from the conjunction of evil and falsity. The conjunction of evil and falsity is called the infernal marriage. (NJHD 17)


see also TCR 241

           Lost Ancient Word quoted by Moses (De Verbo 15)



the Heavenly Doctrines  © 2000-2001 The Academy of the New Church

Continual Reflection, and Continual Presence of the Lord

Spiritual Experiences 4226


Heavenly Doctrine 133 | Heavenly Doctrine 134 | Heavenly Doctrine 135

The Lord's Favour to Man's varied Conscience

Arcana Coelestia 2053

The Pleasures of Life

Arcana Coelestia 994 | Arcana Coelestia 995


Apocalypse Explained 1220

The Origin of Human Speech

Arcana Coelestia 9407

Four successive Solar Atmospheres

Spiritual Experiences 222

A Prayer for Deliverance from Evil

Apocalypse Explained 1148

The Church cannot be raised up anew in any Nation until it is entirely Vastated

Arcana Coelestia 1356 | Arcana Coelestia 1365 | Arcana Coelestia 1366

Organic Function, the ground of Correspondence of Heaven with all things in Man

Arcana Coelestia 4219 | Arcana Coelestia 4222 | Arcana Coelestia 4223

The Church passes through the stages of Life like an individual

True Christian Religion 762

A Man's Mind is the Man himself

Divine Love and Wisdom 38

In Volume 18

Readings. Citations, Literature

The Writings of Swedenborg are available online and searchable at:

Other Online books by Swedenborg:

True Christian Religion by E. Swedenborg (with hypertext index)
Divine Providence by E. Swedenborg (with hypertext index)
Arcana Coelestia by E. Swedenborg
Divine Love and Wisdom (DLW) by E. Swedenborg (with hypertext index)
The Heavenly City: A Spiritual Guidebook by E. Swedenborg
On Mechanical Tremulation, Vibration in the Body  by E. Swedenborg
Journal of Dreams by E. Swedenborg

Chronological list of Swedenborg's books and other links:  ||

For a chronological list of the Wirings of Swedenborg, and a brief biography, please consult this online article:  Swedenborg: A Biography by Dr. Jane K. Williams-Hogan (1988). Available at:

For a brief description of Swedenborg's life and significance in today's world, see this interview with Dr. Jane K. Williams-Hogan in 2006:

For a complete and authoritative list of Swedenborg's Writings, along with collateral works and a comprehensive glossary of terms, consult this book:  Woofenden, William Ross. (1988) Swedenborg's Researcher's Manual. A Research Reference Manual for Writers of Academic Dissertations, and for Other Scholars. Bryn Athyn, PA: The Swedenborg Scientific Association.

For a recent collection of expert commentaries on Swedenborg see this book: Brock, Erland J. et. al. (editors). (1988). Swedenborg and His Influence. Bryn Athyn, PA: The Academy of the New Church.

For an excellent collection of articles written by current experts on Swedenborg, see:
Simons, Kurt (2005). Editor, Swedenborg and His Revelation: An Anthology. Available at:

For a definitive and well regarded biography of Swedenborg see this book: Sigstedt, Cyriel (1952) The Swedenborg Epic. The Life and Works of Emanuel Swedenborg (New York: Bookman Associates, 1952) Available online:

For a Bibliography of Articles, Books, and Web Sites on Swedenborg:

For Swedenborg related information, publications, and Web links consult my Swedenborg Hawaii site at:

See below for Lists of Collateral Articles Relevant to Theistic Psychology Available on the Web 

Part 1

Articles and Books on Theistic Psychology
written by Leon James
(1981 - 2005)

1.    James, Leon. (1972) Appendix to The Third Force in Language Teaching: A New Ethnomethodological Approach to Discourse Analysis and Instruction. Available at:

2.    James, Leon. (1973) The Analysis of Transactional Engineering Competence. Available at:

3.    James, Leon. (1974)  Ethnographic Discourse Methodology. Available at:

4.    James, Leon. (1974) Radicalist Empiricism: The Universal Modes of Enactment in Human Experience: A Self-Witnessing Account of the Discovery of Sudden Memory and My Interpretation of Its Significance for the Human Race. Available at:

5.    James, Leon.. (1975) Principles of Ethnosemantics  Available at:

6.     James, Leon. (1976) Understanding Discourse: From Ethnosemantics to Transactional Engineering. Available heatre:

  1. James, Leon. (1976) Community Cataloguing Practices (CCPs): Historical Autobiography. Available at:

8.    James, Leon and Diane Nahl. (1977) Lecture Notes on The Psychology of Knowledge. Available at:

9.    James, Leon. (1977) Instructions for Studying Discourse in Talk: Topic, Argument, Setting, and Relationship. Available at:

10.  James, Leon. (1977) Principles of Ethnosemantics and Its Relation to Ethnomethodology and Applied Psycholinguistics. Available at:

11. James, Leon. (1978) Community Cataloguing Practices. Available at:

12. James, Leon. (1978) The Hexagram of Sudden Memory. Available at:

13. James, Leon and Diane Nahl. (1978) Daily Round Archives. Available at:

14. James, Leon and Diane Nahl (1979) Social Psychology of the Generational Community Classroom. Article available at:

15. James, Leon. (1979) Social Psychology: Studying Community-Building Forces. Available at:

16. James, Leon. (1980) Community Archives in Social Psychology. Available at:

17. James, Leon and Diane Nahl (1980) The Investigation of Community Cataloguing Practices (CCP). Available at:

18. James, Leon. (1981) Society’s Witnesses. Available at:

19. James, Leon. (1981) Sample Song Analyses by Students. Available at:

20. James, Leon and Diane Nahl (1981) The Development of the Daily Round Archives—DRA. Article available at:

21. James, Leon and Diane Nahl (1982) Simultaneous & Successive Degrees in the Uses of Language and Speech. Available at:

22. James, Leon. (1982) Discourse: Height and Breadth A Psycholinguistic Classification Scheme for Discourse and Behavior. Available at:

23. James, Leon and Diane Nahl. (1982) The Coming Swedenborgian Revolution in the Social Sciences and Humanities. Logos: Newsletter of the Swedenborg Foundation. Winter Issue. Available at:

24. Leon James and Diane Nahl (1982-1999) Genetic Culture: Primacy of the Affective over the Cognitive. Available at:

25.  James, Leon. (1984) Spiritual Geography: The Horizontal and Vertical Communities of our Dual Citizenship. Available at:

26. James, Leon. (1985) Affective and Cognitive Resistance to a More Healthy Lifestyle. Available at:

27. James, Leon. (1985-2001) De Hemelsche Leer--Part 1--Degrees of Consciousness. Available at:

28. Leon James. (1985) Substantive Dualism: Swedenborg's Integration of Biological Theology and Rational Psychology. Available at:

29. Leon James. (1985) Ethnography of an Academic Cyber-Community: The Hawaii Generational Curriculum Project (1985). A directory of links to articles and student reports, available on the Web at:

30. James, Leon and Diane Nahl. (1987) Course-Integrated Library Instruction Mentor Project. Report of the Educational Improvement Fund 1987- 88. Office of Faculty Development and Academic Support, University of Hawaii, 95-102.

31. James, Leon. (1987) Traffic Violence: A Crisis in Community Mental Health. Innercom -- Newsletter of the Mental Health Association in Hawaii. Available at:

32. James, Leon. (1987) Religious Behaviorism Swedenborg’s Ennead of Religion. Available at:

33. Leon James (1987) Swedenborg’s Science of Correspondences: An Empirical Method for the Psychology of Religion. Available at: 

34. James, Leon. (1987) Religious Psychology or Theistic Science: A Guide to Spiritual Self-examination. Available at:

35. James, Leon. (1987) Religious Behaviorism: Swedenborg's Theory of Trisubstantivism as a Basis for the Science of Human Behavior. Available at.

36. Nahl, Diane and Leon James. (1988) Problem Solving and Creative Librarianship. College and Research Libraries, 1988, 49(5), 400-408.

37. Leon James. (1989) Scientific Dualism. Available at:

38. Nahl, Diane and Leon James. (1990) Learning Principles and the Library Environment. Research Strategies, 1990, 8(2), 74-81.

39.  James, Leon. and Diane Nahl. (1990) Measuring Information Searching Competence. College and Research Libraries, 1990, 51 (5), 448-462.

40. James, Leon. (1990) Notes on the Doctrine of the Wife. Available at:

41. James, Leon. (1991) Course-Integrated Electronic Socializing on PLATO. UHCC Newsletter, 1991, 28(2), 12-14. Available at.

42. Nahl, Diane and Leon James. (1992) A Content-Analysis Method For Developing User-Based Objectives. Research Strategies, 1992, 10(1), 4-16.

43. James, Leon. (1993) Swedenborg's Religious Psychology: The Marriage of Good and Truth as Mental Health. Studia Swedenborgiana, 1993, 8(3), 13-42.  Available at.

44. James, Leon. (1993-2004) Swedenborg Glossary of Theistic Psychology. Available at:

45. Nahl, Diane and Leon James. (1993) Bibliographic Instructional Design for Information Literacy: Integrating Affective and Cognitive Objectives. Research Strategies, 1993, 11(2), 73-88.

46. James, Leon. (1994) Two Perspectives on Swedenborg's Writings: Secular and Religious (Part I). New Church Life , August 1994, 114(8), 348-362.   Available at.

47. James, Leon. (1994) Two Perspectives on Swedenborg's Writings: Secular and Religious (Part II). New Church Life , September 1994, 114(9), 394-399.   Available at:

48. James, Leon. (1994) The Social Psychology of Driving. Available at.

49. James, Leon. (1994 – 2004) Swedenborg Hawaii Web Site.

50. James, Leon. (1994) Cyber-psychology: Principles of Creating Virtual Presence. Available at:

51. James, Leon. (1995) Dualist Science and the Writings of Swedenborg. New Church Life , June 1995, 115(6), 264-270.

52. James, Leon. (1995) Principles of Driving Psychology.  Available at:

53. James, Leon. (1995). The Reciprocal Relation Between Science and Revelation. New Church Life , 115(5), 228-235.

54. Nahl, Diane and James, Leon. (1995). Achieving Focus, Engagement, and Acceptance: Three Phases of Adapting to Internet Use.  Available at:

55. James, Leon. (1995) Do the Writings of Swedenborg Contain Scientific Revelations? New Church Life , July 1995, 115(7), 325-330.

56. James, Leon.(1995)  Dualist Science and the Writings of Swedenborg New Church Life, June 1995, 115(6), 264-270.

57. James, Leon. (1995) Course Integrated Use of the World Wide Web. InfoBITS--University of Hawaii Information Technology Services, Mar-May, 1995, 2(2), 8-9.  Available at:

58. James, Leon. (1996) The Fourteen Scientific Fallacies in AC5084: Implications for Science Education. New Philosophy, July-December, 1996, XCIX(3 & 4), 439-450.  Available at:

59. James, Leon. (1996). The Fourteen Scientific Fallacies in AC5084: Implications for Science Education. New Philosophy, XCIX(3 & 4), 439-450. Available at:

60. James, Leon. (1997) Managing an Online Generational Learning Community (1997).  Available at:

61.  James, Leon. (1997) Congressional Testimony on Aggressive Drivers. Available online here:

62. Leon James, Leon. (1997) The Vertical Community. Available at:

63. James, Leon and Nahl, Diane. (1998) Driving with Emotional Intelligence.  Summary Available at:

64. James, Leon and Diane Nahl. (1998) Heaven on Wheels: The Christian Response to Traffic Rage.  Available at:

65. James, Leon. (1998) World Road Rage Survey: Aggressive Driving in Relation to Gender, Age, and Type of Car. Available at:

66. James, Leon. (1998) Youth Against Road Rage (YARR) Vision statement: Lifelong Driver's Ed: A New Socio-Political Reality.  Available at:

67. James, Leon, Diane Nahl, and Arnold Nerenberg. (1999) RoadRageous Video Course. Description Available at:

68. James, Leon and Diane Nahl. (1999) DrDriving's CARRworkbook. Children Against Road Rage Prevention. Available at:

69. James, Leon. (1999) Factual Details About the Spiritual World as Observed by Swedenborg. Available at:

70.  James, Leon. (1999) Spiritual Geography--Graphic Maps of Consciousness for Regeneration. Available at:

71. James, Leon and Diane Nahl (2000). Articles on Driving Psychology. Available at:

72. James, Leon. and Diane Nahl.(2000)  Road Rage and Aggressive Driving: Steering Clear of Highway Warfare. New York: Prometheus Books. Excerpts Available at:

73. James, Leon (2001) Doctrine of the Wife for Husbands: A Spiritual Practice for Achieving Unity. Voice: A Newsletter for Caritas. October issue, Volume 2, 7-8. Related article Available at:

74. James, Leon and Nahl, Diane. (2001)  Road Rage and Aggressive Driving: Steering Clear of Highway Warfare. New York: Prometheus Publishers, 2001. Table of Contents and extracts Available at:

75. James, Leon (2001) Genes of Consciousness: Spiritual Genetics for Regeneration. Available at:

76. James, Leon. (2001). Overcoming Objections to Swedenborg's Writings Through the Development of Scientific Dualism. New Philosophy,  v.CIV n.3 & 4 pp. 153-217. Available at:  Copy Available at:

77. James, Leon (2001). Hindu and Buddhist Non-Duality: Conflict in the New Church Mind? ISI News Newsletter of Information Swedenborg, Issue 55, August 2001, 4-7. Available at:

78.  James, Leon. (2001) My Discoveries and Inventions—1960 to 1980. Available at:

79.  James, Leon. (2001). De Hemelsche Leer--Part 3-- Methodological Tools for Extracting The Doctrine of the Church. Available at:

80. James, Leon. (2002)  The Doctrine of the Wife (Version 2). Available at:

81. James, Leon (2002). A Man of the Field: Forming The New Church Mind in Today’s World. (Volume 1: Reformation: The Struggle Against Nonduality; Volume 2: Enlightenment : The correspondential sense of the Writings;  Volume 3: Regeneration: Spiritual Disciplines For Daily Life; Volume 4: Uses: The New Church Mind In Old Age (in preparation) Available at:

82. James, Leon (2002). Spiritual Psychology: Groundwork for our Science. Available at:

83. James, Leon (2002). The Substitution Technique: A Method for Extracting What the Writings Say About Themselves as the Word De Hemelse Leer, Vol. XIV No. 2 (April 2002), 103-109.

84. James, Leon (2002). Dealing With Stress And Pressure In The Vehicle. Taxonomy of Driving Behavior: Affective, Cognitive, Sensorimotor. Chapter In J. Peter Rothe, Editor. Driving Lessons - Exploring Systems That Make Traffic Safer. University of Alberta Press, Edmonton, Canada. Available at:

85. James, Leon (2002) The Genes of Consciousness.  Available at:

86. James, Leon (2002). Out Of Egypt Have I Called My Son: Teaching the Scientifics of the Internal Sense of the Writings. 1. By the Substitution Technique. 2. By Diagramming. Available at:

87. James, Leon. (2002) The Perizonius Thesis: How Regeneration of the New Church Mind Affects the Grand Human in Swedenborg's System. Available at:

88. James, Leon (2002) The Substitution Technique: A Method for Extracting What the Writings Say About Themselves as the Word De Hemelse Leer, Vol. XIV No. 2 (April 2002), 103-109.

89. James, Leon. (2002) Can There Be a Scientific Proof that the Threefold Word is Divine? Available at:

90. James, Leon. (2002)  New Church Education With Dualist Concepts. Available at:

91. James, Leon. (2002) Spiritual Psychology Based on the Writings of Swedenborg. Available at:

92.  James, Leon. (2002) Spiritual Psychology: The Mental Technology of Self-Witnessing. Available at:

93. James, Leon (2002) The Substitution Technique: A Method for Extracting What the Writings Say About Themselves as the Word” De Hemelse Leer, Vol. XIV No. 2 (April 2002), 103-109.

94. James, Leon. (2003) The Science of Spiritual Anatomy. Available at:

95. James, Leon. (2003) Bryn Athyn: The City of Levites in the New Canaan. Available at:

96. James, Leon. (2003) Diagnostic Test of Rational Spirituality. Available at:

97. James, Leon. (2003) Moses, Paul, and Swedenborg: Three Steps in Rational Spirituality. Available at:

98. James, Leon. (2003) Anti-Semitism and Holocaust Theology. New Church Issues Database. Available at:

99. James, Leon. (2003) List of Documents by Leon James for the Swedenborg Library Reserve Shelf. Leon Rhodes, Collection Editor These materials carry dates of 1972 to 2003.  Available at:

100.                 James, Leon. (2004). Anti-Semitism and Holocaust Theology. Available at: 

101.                James, Leon. (2004-07). Theistic Psychology: The Scientific Knowledge of God Extracted from the Correspondential Sense of Sacred Scripture. Available at:

102.                James, Leon. (2004) Driving Psychology. Available at:

103.                James, Leon. (2004) I'm Yours More and More: The Unity Model of Marriage (Lecture Notes). Available at:

104.                James, Leon and Nahl, Diane (2004). A New Paradigm for a Global Lifelong Driver Education Curriculum. Paper for presentation at the International Association for Driver Education (IVV), Road Safety Conference SAFEX 2004, 13-15 May in Rovinj, Croatia  Available at:

105.                James, Leon. (2004) A directory of all my full text articles available on the Web: 

106.                James, Leon. (2004) A directory of all my publications, with full text access to most of them, available on the Web at:

107.                 James, Leon. (2004) Sayings and Aphorisms. Available at: 

108.                 James, Leon (2004) Theistic Science and Theistic Psychology. (An updated entry in the Swedenborg Glossary). Available at:

109.                 James, Leon (2004) Swedenborg's Argument of Why Miracles Are Not Allowed Today. Available at:

110.                 James, Leon (2004) Human Freedom, God's Omnipotence, and the As-of Self. Available at:

111.                 James, Leon. (2004). What is "Substantive Dualism" in Theistic Psychology? Available at: 

112.                 James, Leon. (2004). Theoretical Implications of God's Omnipotence, Omniscience, and Omnipresence. available at:

113.                 James, Leon. (2004). Anatomy of the Mind. Available at: 

114.                 James, Leon. (2004). Moral Intelligence  and Evolution. Available at: 

115.                 James, Leon. (2004). Swedenborg's Description of How We Are Resuscitated After Death. Available at: 

116.                 James, Leon. (2004). Sexuality: Love of the Sex vs. Love of One of the Sex. Available at: 

117.                 James, Leon. (2004). Preface and Diagram of the Foundations of Theistic Psychology. 

118.                 James, Leon. (2004). The Scientific Meaning of Genesis Chapter 22. Available at: 

119.                 James, Leon. (2005). The Doctrine of the Wife. Chapter in Roslyn Taylor (editor), Healing Words: A Sampler of Wholeness Theology. Xlibris Corporation (ISBN: 1-4134-7976-6). Pp. 161-192. A version of this article is available online here:

  1. James, Leon. (2006). Theistic Psychology: Teaching the Scientifics of the Interiors of the Third Testament. De Hemelse Leer, July/October issue, 140-154.
  2. James, Leon. (2007). A Reply to the Editor's Commentary on Teaching the Scientifics of the Interiors of the Third Testament. De Hemelse Leer, January issue, 64-66. Available here:
  3. James, Leon. (2007). The Scientific Meaning of Christmas. Available here:
  4. James, Leon. (2008). Recognizing Our Dual Existence. Information Swedenborg. Winter 2008 Issue. Pp. 1-5.  Available online here:
  5. James, Leon. (2008). A Brief History of God and Humanity. Information Swedenborg. Winter 2008 Issue. Pp. 6-10.  Available online here:



See also Dr. Ian Thompson's mirror site for the works of Leon James:


Part 2

Directory of Reports on Theistic Psychology 
by Students of Professor James at the University of Hawaii
Over 200
reports written between 1983 - 2008


G27 Student Reports on Theistic Psychology: (Spring 2008)







(the above reports are each written jointly by three student authors)


G26 Student Reports on Theistic Psychology: (Spring 2007)




































G25 Student Reports on Theistic Psychology: (Fall 2006)























G24 Student Reports on Theistic Psychology: (Spring 2006)



G23 Student Reports on Theistic Psychology: (Fall 2005)




G22 Student Reports on Theistic Psychology: (Spring 2005)



G21 Student Reports on Theistic Psychology: (Fall 2004)

Report 2: My Understanding of Theistic Psychology










G20 Student Reports on Rational vs. Mystical Spirituality: (Spring 2004)

Report 1: Can Theistic Psychology Exist in Science? See Instructions at:















Report 2: The Cognitive Organization of Rational Spirituality










Report 3: Contrasting mystical versus Rational Spirituality















More Student Reports on various Swedenborg topics: (1983 - 2005)

1.    Swedenborg and the History of Psychology: College Students Speak Out (1983)

2.    Is Personality Forever? What Students Say About Personality and the Afterlife (1983)

3.    What Students Say About Personality and the Afterlife (1983)  

4.    Heaven Is A Place On Earth:  A Religious Self-Examination Experiment (1988) by Kerri Kahapea

5.    A Personal View on Swedenborg's Divine Love and Wisdom (1991) by Robert Cooksey

6.     Swedenborg: To Believe or Not to Believe (1991) anonymous

7.    Life After Death and related articles and bibliographies (1991-2) by various students

8.    Function Without Structure (1993) by Michael K. Choi

9.    Human Behaviors and Human spirits: Quest for the Good and Truth (1993) by Michael K. Choi

10. Rationalism: Do We have Free Will (1993) by Jacqueline Fernandez

11. Human Behavior and Human Spirit:  Quest for the Good and Truth (1993) by Michael K. Choi

12. Life After Death and related articles and bibliographies (1993) by various students

13. The Lord's Divine Providence  (2003) by Silas Leger

14.  Spiritual Psychology (2004) by Josh Cooper

  1. Theistic Psychology  and Emmanuel Swedenborg -- An Independent Study (2004)  by Shirley Leman
  2. My Investigation of Theistic Psychology Concepts by Masashi Shimonao (2005).
  3. The Beginnings of Correspondences by Ami Lyons (2005)
  4. Hinduism and Theistic Psychology by Ami Lyons (2005)
  5. Theistic Psychology and How It Has Changed My Life by Jennifer Ikeda (2005)


Part 3

Articles and Books on Swedenborg and Theistic Psychology
by various authors (1849 - 2004).
Some are available online.


Acton, Rev. Alfred. (1988). Life on the Moon. The New Philosophy 1988;91: 469-480
    Available online:

Acton, Rev. Alfred. (1948) The Letters and Memorials of Emanuel Swedenborg (Bryn Athyn, PA.: Swedenborg Scientific Association)

Acton II, Rev. Alfred (1991) Paradigms of Revelation. The New Philosophy January-June 1991, pp. 489-506. Available online:

Alden, Karl R. (1961) The City of God: Conversations on the Doctrines of The New Church. (The General Church Publication Committee: Bryn Athyn, PA).

Alden, Kay R. (2003) A Look at the Development of the Natural Mind From an Educational Perspective. (Theology 526 taught by Re. Grant Odhner, Academy of the New Church, Bryn Athyn, PA).

Baker, Gregory L. (1992) Religion and Science: From Swedenborg to Chaotic Dynamics. (Foreword by Robert W. Gladish. (The Solomon Press: New York).

Baker, Gregory L. (2003). Article in New Church Life Vol. CXXIII, No. 2, Feb. 2003, 39-44.

Barnitz, Harry W. (1969) Existentialism and the New Christianity. (A Comparative Study of Existentialism and Swedenborgianism) Towards a New Universal Synthesis. (New York: Philosophical Library).

Bedford, Allen J.. (xx). Chemical Education in a New Church College. Available on the Web at

Benade, William H. (1976 and 1988). Conversations on Education. (The Academy of the New Church Press: Bryn Athyn, PA).

Bell, Reuben, Rev. Dr. (1996). Soul-Body Interaction in Human Conception and Development. The Clothing of the Inmost in the Image3 of Heaven. New Church Life. Online at:

Bell, Reuben, Rev. Dr. (2004). Spiritual Considerations For Health And Disease. Online at:

Bell, Reuben, Rev. Dr. (2004). A Source Analysis Of Emanuel Swedenborg's Philosophical And Theological Ideas. Online at:

Bell, Reuben, Rev. Dr. (2003) An Introduction to the Presence of Correspondences Within the Word. On the Web at

Berridge, Norman J. (2001) The Natural Basis of Spiritual Reality. With Anatomical Drawings by Linda Simonetti Odhner .(Swedenborg Scientific Association Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania 2001). Available at:

Billings, John K. (1996) The Spiritual Origin of Sexuality and Gender: The Difference That Makes the   Difference. Studia Swedenborgiana, Vol. 10 October, 1996 Number 1. Available on the Web at:

Blom-Dahl, Christen. (1996) The Third Source--Swedenborg: A Physical and Metaphysical Revelation. Available online:

Brock, Erland J, (1988). New Church Epistemology Part VIII. New Philosophy October-December, Vol.. XCI, No.4, 683-695.

Brock, Erland J. et. al. (editors). (1988). Swedenborg and His Influence. Bryn Athyn, PA: The Academy of the New Church.

Burnham, Rev. N.C. (1887) Discrete Degrees in Successive and Simultaneous Order Illustrated by Diagrams. Available at:

Bush, George (1846). Reply to Ralph Waldo Emerson on Swedenborg. A Lecture Delivered at the Odeon, Boston. Available on Google Books:

Bush, George (1875). Statement of Reasons for Embracing the Doctrines and Disclosures of Emanuel Swedenborg. Available on Goggle Books:

Bush, George (circa 1875).  Reply to Rev. Dr. Woods' "Lecture on Swedenborgianism ;": Delivered in the Theologial Seminary,... By George Bush, William B. (William Benjamin) Hayden, Nathaniel Francis Cabell, Richard K. (Richard Kenner) Crallé, Catherine Crowe, Justinus Andreas Christian Kerner, J. (John) Clowes. Available on Goggle Books:

Carlson, Mark. (1990) Evolution, the Limbus, and Hereditary Evil (Part 2). New Church Life, June 1990, 259-275. Available here:

Chambers, David R. (2005) Theistic Astrology. Available on the Web at:

Childs, Geoffrey S. (2002) The Path: The Inner Life of Jesus Christ. (Fountain Publishing: Rochester, Michigan).
Portions available here:      

Cole, Stephen D. (1988). Swedenborg, Psychology, and the Cerebellum. New Philosophy, XCI (2) , 529-543.

Clowes, John.  (1837) The Psalms: With The Internal Sense And Exposition From The Writings Of The Hon. Emanuel Swedenborg, Together With Observations, And Notes On The Literal Sense, By The Editors.  Available here:

Clowes, John. (1858; reprinted 1983). Exposition of the Four Gospels. (New Church Collateral Publishing, Australia.

Clowes, John. (1851) The Parable of Jesus Christ Explained.  Available online at:

Clowes, John. (1816) The  Miracles of Jesus Christ Explained According to their Spiritual Meaning. (Printed for a Society of Gentlemen,  Manchester, England. 1816 and 1817). Available at;

De Charms, George. (1958) The Doctrine of Miracles. New Church Life, 1958, 218-9.

DeCharms, George. (1958)  The Growth of the Mind. A New Church Interpretation (Academy Book Room: Bryn Athyn, PA, 1953). Available at:

De Charms, George. (1962) The Doctrine of the Proprium (The General Church Publication Committee: Bryn Athyn, PA).

De Charms, George. (1963) The New Church and Modern Christianity. Bryn Athyn, PA: General Church Publication Committee. 

De Charms, George. (1970) The Doctrine of Reflection. Published articles in the New Philosophy, now available on the Web

De Charms, George. (1974) The Spiritual World: Worship Talks for Children (Bryn Athyn, General Church 1974). Available online at:

De Charms, George. (1972) Imagination and Rationality. (Swedenborg Scientific Association: Bryn Athyn. Originally published in New Philosophy 1972).

De Hemelsche Leer. Six Fascicles (1930) (Swedenborg Genootschap, The Hague). Available at:

Dingle, Herbert. (1938). Swedenborg as a Physical Scientist. London: Swedenborg Society.

Dole, George F. (1994). Sorting Things Out. San Francisco: J. Appleseed & Co

Duckworth, Julian (xx) The Bible's Deeper Meaning Outlook, The Swedenborg Movement Newsletter,. No. 37 2000. Available on the Web at: 

Eccles, John (1987) Brain and Mind, Two or One? In Colin Blakemore and Susan Greenfield, editors. Mindwaves. Thoughts on Intelligence, Identity and Consciousness. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Echols, Rev. J. Clark, Jr. (2004) Honest Self-Observation. (General Church Sermons, Cincinnati, Ohio January 11, 2004).

Emerson, Ralph W. (1849). Representative Men (Swedenborg the Mystic). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Available online:

Fox, Leonard. (1993) Gurdijeff’s Guide to Heaven or Hell?. New Church Life June 1993. (See also his reply in the October 1993 issue.)

Eugene T. Gendlin. (1978, 1981)  Focusing. (New York: Bantam Books).

Giles, Chauncey. (1874) Our Children in the Other Life (London: James Speirs). Available at:

Giles, Chauncey. (1896) The Sanctity of Marriage (Philadelphia:  American New-Church Tract and Publication Society, 1904 (copyright 1896 A Vision of Marriage by Chauncey Giles. Available at:

Giles, Chauncey. (1934) The Nature of Spirit and of Man as a Spiritual Being. (Philadelphia: American New-Church Tract and Publication Society). Available at:

Glenn, E. Bruce. (1993) The Arts: An Affectional Ordering of Experience. Bryn Athyn, PA: The Academy of the New Church.

Goodenough, Daniel W. (1986) Providence and Free Will in Human Actions. Bryn Athyn, PA: Swedenborg Scientific Association.

Gould, Stephen Jay (1997) Nonoverlapping Magisteria. Available online:

Groeneveld,  H.D.G. (1947). Address to the Assembly. Sunday, April 13th, 1947. Available at:

Groeneveld, Harrie G.D. (1930) The Second Coming of the Lord in the Doctrine of the Church. De Hemelsche Leer, First Fascicle, 38-43, 1930. Available at: (See also the restart issues of De Hemelse Leer, Dr. Rutger Perizonius, Editor (Van der Heimstraat 5, 2582 RX, The Hague).

Gutfeldt, Horand K, (1992). Domains of Materialism, Past and Present: Broadly Generalized Observations of a History of Human Thought. New Philosophy Vol. XCV, Nos. 3-4, 93-100.

Halterman, Barry C. (2001) Swedenborg's Influence on Ralph Waldo Emerson, T.D. Suzuki, Robert Frost, and Bill Wilson.. Available online:

Howard, Rev. Geoffrey H. (2001) The Transformation of a Man into a Husband and a Woman into a Wife through Marriage. New Church Life, June 2001, 243-248.

Hyde, Rev. James (1898). An Exposition of the the Prophecy of Joel According to the Principles of the New Chruch. (James Speirs, London). Available at:

Smith, Huston (xx)  Intimations of Immortality: Three Case Studies: The Ingersoll Lectures for 2001-02.  Available at:

Hyatt, Rev. Edward S. (1896) Sermons on the Word. (Swedenborg Genootschaft, Nassauplein 29). Available online:
or at

James, Henry, Sr.. (1869). The Secret Of Swedenborg--Being An Elucidation Of His Doctrine Of The Divine Natural Humanity. (Boston: Fields, Osgood, & Co.) Available online at:

James, William (1902) Lectures on Mysticism (part of the next reference). Available online:

James, William. (1898). Human Immortality. Online at:

James, William (1902) The Varieties of Religious Experience. Available online: or here or here:  (See also a brief abstract of each chapter. Available at: )

James, Leon. See Part 1 above.

Jarvis, Bruce (1988) and Thompson, Ian J. (2001) The General Human Form. (The Bones of the Skeleton, The Fuelling Function)  Online article at

John, Johnson. (1994). Henry Maudsley on Swedenborg's messianic psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry 165:690-691.

Patrick L. Johnson (1993).  Internal Respiration The Swedenborg Society Magazine 1993, No. 6, pp. 21-25 On the Web at

Kabala. Kabbalah. See citation by Steinsaltz, Adin.

Keller, Helen. (1927) Edited by Ray Silverman. Light in My Darkness. (West Chester, Pa: Swedenborg Foundation, 1994). Available at:

            King, Thomas A. (1922) Allegories of Genesis. (including Days of Creation) Available here:  

Kukla, A. (1983). Toward a Science of Experience. The Journal of Mind and Behavior. Spring 1983, Vol. 4(2), 231-246.

Larsen, R. (editor). (1988). Emanuel Swedenborg: A Continuing Vision. New York: Swedenborg Foundation.

Lawrence, James F. Editor. (1995) Testimony to the Invisible: Essays on Swedenborg  Includes articles by Luis Borges, Czeslaw Milosz, Kathleen Raine,  D.T. Suzuki, Eugene Taylor, Wilson Van Dusen, Colin Wilson. (West Chester, PA: Swedenborg Foundation Publishers, 1995.)

Lord's New Church. Handbook Of The Lord's New Church Which Is Nova Hierosolyma. Printed Edition 1985 Internet Edition 2000. Available at:

Maclagan, Rev. Henry. (1912) The Book of Leviticus Interpreted and Explained According to its Spiritual or Internal Sense With Copious References from the Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg, Explanatory Notes, and a Commentary. (James Speirs, London).  Available at:

Nemitz, Rev. Kurt P. (1970) The Names of the Planets Whose Spirits Swedenborg Met. (Privately distributed talk to the Council of the Clergy, General Church, Bryn Athyn, PA).

Nemitz, Rev. Kurt P. (1991) Leibniz and Swedenborg. The New Philosophy 1991;94:445-488. Available online here:

New Century Controversy Index Database of Articles. Available online:

New Church Life (A monthly magazine published by the General Church) Available online:

New Church Ministers. Collection of Sermons available at:

New Philosophy Onine (a Swedenborgian Journal since 1906). Available at:

Odhner, Carl Theolphilus (1913) The Golden Age The story of the Most Ancient Church (Bryn Athyn, PA: Academy Book Room, 1913), Online at

Odhner, C.Th. (1914) Correspondences of Egypt: A Study In the Theology of the Ancient Church. (The Academy Book Room Bryn Athyn. Pa.). Available online:

Odhner, Rev. Hugo Lj. (1921) The Transition from Human to Divine Philosophy. (Written in 1921. Published in) The New Philosophy 1974; 77:43-71. Available at:

Odhner, Hugo Lj. (1941) The Principles of the New Philosophy. New Philosophy, Vol. XLIV, no3 (July 1941). Available at:

Odhner, Hugo Lj. (1954) The Divine Allegory: The History of the Peoples and Lands of Scripture and Their Spiritual Significance as Revealed in the Writings of Swedenborg (Swedenborg Foundation: New York).

Odhner, Hugo Lj. (1960)  Spirits in Human Life. (Bryn Athyn, PA: The Academy Bookroom 1960) Available at:

Odhner, Hugo, Lj. (1960) Spirits and Men: Some Essays on the Influence of Spirits upon Men, as Described in the Writings of Swedenborg (The Academy Book Room: Bryn Athyn, PA). Available at:

Odhner, Hugo, Lj. (1960)  On Immortality (including the Doctrine of the Limbus) . New Church Life 1960;80:5-13, 64-72,111-121. Available at

Odhner, Hugo, Lj. (1961) The Past and the Future. New Church Life, 86:384-393. Available online at: /  

 Odhner, Hugo Lj. (1964).  Creation. Doctrinal Essays. (Bryn Athyn: Academy Publication Committee). Available online:

 Odhner, Hugo Lj. (1966) The Church and the human form. New Church Life, 81:1-5. Available online at: 

Odhner, Hugo Lj. (1968) Life in the Spiritual World. (Bryn Athyn, PA: Academy Publication Committee 1968)  Available online at:

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