LITERATURE TYPE C: Derivative Articles and Books. TYPE C literature is derivative in the sense that it is based on and ultimately derives from literature TYPES A and B. Thus, textbooks purport to summarize TYPE A and B literature; course syllabi are frequently patterned on textbook outlines; popular magazines recapitulate and extend the applicability of the ideas in literature TYPE A and B. The following illustrations will give an indication of topical organization in the derivative literature.

[7. 1. 3. 1]

Sample 1: Textbook Outline (A. A. Harrison, Individuals and Groups: Understanding Social Behavior. Monterey, Calif.: Brooks Publishing Co., 1976.)


1. An Orientation to the Field

2. Guidelines for Inquiry

3. Social Perception

4. Social Learning

5. Attitude Formation and Change

6. Attraction to Others

7. Harmful and Helpful Behavior

8. Interaction in the Dyad

9. Interaction in Small Groups

10. Performance in Small Groups

11. Behavior in Organizations

12. Intergroup Relations



Name Index

Subject Index


Sample 2: 1977-79 General Information Bulletin of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Course descriptions for:

"Psych 222. Social Psychology (3)

Interpersonal relations; social attitudes; group dynamics; intergroup relations, class and cultural influences. Pre. 100"

"Psych 397. Applied Psycholinguistics in Social Psychology (3)

Techniques of descriptions of one's day to day behavior. Assigned projects and periodic reports on one's own behavior in natural social settings: transcripts of talk and conversation; classification of recording practices in the community; objective methodological plans for interpreting and understanding other students and scholars. Pre. 100, 222 or consent of instructor."

"Psych 450. Psychology of Small Groups (3)

The small group as means or medium for personal growth. Training in effective participation in and leadership of small groups. Pre. consent of instructor."

"Psych 493v. Practicum in Psychology (v)

Supervised psychological experience in school, clinic, hospital, industry, social welfare, government and other settings in Hawaii and on the mainland. Pre. consent of instructor."

"Psych 660. Personality: Theory and Research (3)

Methods of measurement, antecedents, structure, dynamics, situational determinants of individual reactions. Evaluation of theories and related research. Pre. 321 or equivalent."

"Psych 661. Psycholinguistics and Ethnosemantics (3)

Methods of analyzing situated discourse; varieties of situational registers and functions of talk; analysis of conversational transcripts; relationship dynamics; topicalization; educational psycholinguistics; ethnosemantic color and probe techniques; transactional engineering. Pre. 222 or consent of instructor."

"Psych 662. Social Psychology (3)

Theories and research in social cognition and social behavior. Pre. 222 or equivalent."

"Psych 663. Behavior in Groups (3)

Social motivation of groups; conformity and power; cooperation and competition; group structure; leadership; intergroup processes. Pre. 222 or equivalent."

"Psych 665. Cross-Cultural Psychology (3)

Theories of psychology and their application to crosscultural phenomena; assessment of cross-cultural processes and social motivation; culture and personality; evaluation and design of cross-cultural research."

"Psych 666. Psychology and Social Issues (3)

Conflict, dissent, community issues, problems; social change and its relation to mental disorder. (Alt. yrs.)"

"Psych 670. Applied Social Psychology (3)

Problems in use of social psychological principles in human affairs, including multidisciplinary considerations."

"Psych 671. Advanced Environmental Psychology (3)

Psychological aspects of problems of ecology, environment, and the future. Pre. 371. (Cross-listed as Arch 671.)"

"Psych 714. Survey Research Methods (3)

Field methods in social psychology; sampling, field observation, interviewing, coding methods; study of intact groups and organizations in their natural setting. Pre. 222 or equivalent."

"Psych 760. Research in Personality (3)

Supervised reading, discussion, research projects in areas of special interest. Open only to second-year graduate students. May be repeated"

"Psych 762. Research in Social Psychology (3)

Supervised reading, discussion, research projects in areas of special interest. Open only to second-year graduate students. May be repeated."


Sample 3: from the Social -Per sonality Psychology Program, Department of Psychology, UHM, January 1978.

"The Social -Personality Psychology graduate program, leading to the Master of Arts and the Doctor of Philosophy degrees in psychology, embraces a variety of scholarly interests, with a general emphasis on interdisciplinary, cross-cultural, applied, and contemporary topics. Its educational philosophy stresses close student-faculty interactions and individualized study programs appropriate to the particular educational and professional objectives of the student.

There are nine subareas in the Social-Personality area:

  1. Psychology of personality and individual development
  2. Applied social psychology, including education
  3. Cross-cultural psychology
  4. Environmental psychology
  5. Psycholinguistics
  6. Psychology of knowledge
  7. Transpersonal psychology
  8. Psychology of stereotypes, including sex roles and roles of mature age
  9. Psychology of interpersonal relationships Faculty


The faculty are particularly sensitive to the swift changes in world conditions and thus strive to develop versatility in their graduates to prepare them to adapt to future circumstances. They are:

ABE ARKOFF (Ph.D., Iowa) is interested in transpersonal and humanistic psychology and particularly in the facilitation of personal, interpersonal, and transpersonal growth through individual and group process. He is concerned with self study and fulfillment and also self renewal and redirection through the use of the personal journal, fantasy and dream analysis, inner imagery, cognitive modification, and other self-directed methods. He has a special interest in o older students and in student-led seminars and dyads and other kinds of instruction that feature human relationship. [see Chapter 8, Section 8. 6]

JOHN M. DIGMAN (Ph. D., Ohio State) is interested in longitudinal studies of personality, personality measurement, ability measurement, child personality, and multivariate methods of data analysis. [see Chapter 8, Section 8.4]

LEON JAMES(Ph. D., McGill) is interested in psycholinguistics, ethnosemantics, language teaching and literacy, conversational analysis, and applied social psychology. The "Daily Round Archives" (DRA) is a collection of social psychological data on the Local community and is used for education, training, and field research. *

W. SCOTT MACDONALD (Ph.D., UCLA) works in community psychology and applied social psychology. He has a continued interest in examining the delivery of services in, and evaluation of, public and private agencies. He is also interested in psychological consultation, and the resolution of specific problems in social situations. [see Chapter 5, Section 5.3]

*Note: Dr. Leon A. James and Dr. Barbara Y. Gordon are co-authors of this Workbook and joint creators of this program in the educational experimentation involving large class college teaching. Dr. Gordon is semi-retired due to medical cancer treatment and is a Visiting Colleague in the Department of Psychology. She does no teaching but is available for consultation on daily round research. She is President of Transactional Engineering Corporation and is a professional consultant in Educational Linguistics.

TERU L. MORTON (Ph. D., Utah) has primary interests in the social behaviors, cognitive processes and communication patterns involved in interpersonal roles and relationships, particularly those of friendships, marriage, and family systems. In addition, she has interests in the influence of culture and sex roles, the relationship between communication variables and psychological adjustment, and the application of social psychology to the systems of courts and corrections, education, and public health. [see. Chapter 8, Section 8.7]

WALTER D. NUNOKAWA (Ph.D., Oregon) is interested in how performance is affected by the organization of institutions, leadership, educational curricula and differences in group composition. He has worked on the design of an "Open University, 11 the relationship between moral behavior and group attitudes, and on social and public policy issues of community concern. [see Section 2. 5]

SAMUEL I. SHAPIRO (Ph.D., Pennsylvania State) is interested in transpersonal psychology, Asian psychology, the psychology of knowledge and mind, and the theory and practice of teaching in higher education. [see Chapter 8, Section 8. 4]

DAVID L. WATSON (Ph.D., Yale) is carrying out research in applied education, focusing on helping people to get free of sex role stereotypes, and on using behavior modification on themselves for self-direction. He works at research on teaching psychology so it is useful. [see Chapter 8, Section 8. 5]

HERBERT B. WEAVER (Ph. D., Pennsylvania) is interested in environmental psychology, in industrial and organizational psychology, and in applied social psychology. He is presently the Coordinator of the Social-Personality program. [see Chapter 2, Section 2.4]


The facilities and outreach of the Psychology Department offer an unusual spectrum of educational opportunities for students. A very active department is involved in many activities in the community, including courts and corrections, cross-cultural research with a variety of ethnic groups under varied social conditions, in schools, hospitals and public health clinics. Our multi-ethnic community provides opportunities for the student to come into contact with people of a variety of cultural backgrounds and long-standing roots in the community as well as recent immigrants from several, Pacific 'Basin regions. University faculty may utilize the community as an opportunity to apply theory to practice. The community looks to the University for consultation and assistance in many areas so that applied social psychology and action research are important activities. There are many opportunities for interdisciplinary study with other University departments and divisions, including the social science departments other than psychology, the Department of Architecture, the Schools of Medicine, Nursing, Public Health, Social Work, and Law, the Colleges of Education and Business Administration, the East-West Center, and the organized research units. Interdisciplinary study and research are encouraged.


Sample 4: Topical Index of Psychology 222, Professor L.A. James, Lectures, Fall Semester, 1977. Recorded Lecture Tapes may be heard at Sinclair Library Listening Center. This Index, prepared by Alan Bynum, based on Class Notes taken by Diane Nahl. [see Chapter 1, Section 1. 2. 1]


Sample 5: Topical Outline of Community Cataloguing Practices, James and Nahl 1975-77.



Available Volumes and Chapters (January 1978)

Series I, Vol. 1: Cumulative Record of the Daily Schedule

Chapter 1: Ethnopractice: Microdescriptions of the Daily Round as Laboratory

Chapter 2: Textbook Social Psychology: Objectifying the Experimental Literature on Subjects

Chapter 3: Radicalist Social Psychology: The Secret Code

Series I, Vol. 2: The Categories of Autobiography

Chapter 1: Objective Autobiography: Sudden Memory as the Integrating Mechanism on the Daily Round

Chapter 2: Historical Autobiography: On the reconstruction of Biographical Record

Series I, Vol. 3: Experiments in Neurosemantics

Series I, Vol. 4: DRA Selections

Series II, Vol. 1: The Cross-cultural Study of Community Information

Chapter 1: The Social Psychology of Language Teaching

Chapter 2: Language Teaching vs. Teaching Talk

Chapter 3: Transactional Engineering for the Language Teacher

Chapter 4: The Third Force in Language Teaching Appendix

Series II, Vol. 2: Gordon, B. Y., Educational Linguistics and Cognitive Development

Series III, Vol. 1: The Functional Analysis of the Verbal Community

Chapter 1: Notes on Community Psycholinguistics

Chapter 2: The Structure and Function of Transactional Idioms

Chapter 3: The Empirical Investigation of Conversation

Chapter 4: The Act of Composition: Preliminaries to the Study of Style

Chapter 5: Discourse Thinking

Series IV, Vol. 1: Principles of Ethnosemantics

Chapter 1: Introductory Notes on Ethnosemantics

Chapter 2: Notes on ESNOSYS: Ethnosemantic Notation System

Chapter 3: Notes on Display Repertoire

Chapter 4: Notes on ES-PROBE Technique

Chapter 5: Notes on Topic Focus

Chapter 6: The Color Coding System for the Investigation of Hexagrammatic Morphology

Series V, Vol. 1: Philosophical Foundations of Radicalism

Chapter 1: Notes on the Psychology of Knowledge

Chapter 2: Empirical Metaphysics

Chapter 3: Radicalism in Psychology

Chapter 4: Notes on the Language and Register of Psychotherapy

Chapter 5: The Ritual Frame of Hypnosis

Series VI, Vol. 1: Principles of Performative Teaching Chapter 1: (in preparation)

Series VI, Vol. 2: James Reprints: 1958-78

Series VI, Vol. 3: Workbook for the Study of Social Psychology

[7.1.3 6]

Sample 6: An Annotated Bibliography of a Decade of Ethnosemantic Investigations by James & Nahl 1968-78.

The following outline and its content are informative concerning the topical structure of ethnosemantics as reflected in our work. Ethnosemantics and neurosemantics are key empirical areas for social psychology as they deal with the relation between meaning and culture on the one hand (ethnosemantics ethnodynamics ) and, meaning and neurophysiology on the other (neurosemantics psychodynamics).

Dr. Leon James

1977 (First Edition) Dept. of Psychology, University of Hawaii, 96822

Appendix to Notes on the Psychology of Knowledge


(1) Notes on Ethnosemantics (100 pages; #N005)

Incomplete but stimulating discussions on various basic topics in ethnosenantics written from 1973-1976. Part I: Overview; Part II: Notes on Display Repertoire; Part III: Further Notes on Display Repertoire; Part IV: Notes on Topic Focus; Part V: Notes on ES-Probes.

(2) Notes on Educational Psycholinguistics (25 pages; #NO02)

Definition of the field; register; analysis of moves; conversational rhythm; linkage structure in topicalization.

(3) The Functional Analysis of Conversational Interaction (35 pages; A009)

A comprehensive presentation, in article form, of the functional analysis of verbal behavior in a conversational setting; includes several flow chart diagrams on mechanisms of talk and topicalization dynamics.

(4) The Secret Code: Investigating the Ritual of Talk (100 pages; B002)

A general presentation of the new view on the functional analysis of discourse and talk; written in a compact style of understanding called "the radicalist register."

(5) Introduction to Educational Psycholinguistics (150,pages; B004)

Sample chapters dealing with "The Transactional Model of Talk"; "The Function and Structure of Transactional Idioms"; "Discourse Thinking Accounts"; "The Empirical Investigation of Conversation: The Closing Problem"; presents an ethnomethodological framework.

(6) The Cataloguing-Practices of North American Groups (40 pages; B012)

Notes and outline for the organization of glossary entries in the empirical description of ethnicity.

(7) Color-Coding Routine Program (50 pages; B010)

A programmed text designed to give the student the ability to code words and concepts into one of six categories known as a hexagrammatic system; the six categories are color coded as a mnemonic device; once terms are assigned a color category, they can be combined according to statable rules to yield meaningful phrases and assertions called "Pure Color Wisdom;" in ethnosemantics, all topic units and discourse argument units are derivable from this hexagrammatic system. See applications in (1) above.

(8) The Act of Composition: Some Elements in a Performance Model of Language: 1968 (47 pages; A007)

I An unpublished paper prepared in 1968 for an NCTE Conference of Writers in Colorado Springs; deals with a proposal for the functional analysis of meaning seen as a situated communicative act; this writing ante-dates, foreshadows, and contrasts interestingly with the other works written since 1971.

(9) Frame-Up: Mission Impossible (A Review of Erving Coffman's "Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience") (17 pages; A003)

The beginnings of a promising review on the Goffmanesque Mystique; where Coffman succeeds and where he fails; what needs to be done.

(10) Miscellaneous Notes, Charts, Outlines in Ethnosemantic Investigations (50 pages; see ID references given)

(i) Ethnomethodological Psycholinguistics: The Third Revolution (8 pages; A001; "Conversation"; "Mechanisms and Categories of Topic";."Discourse Structure").

(ii) Seminar Outline on Understanding Discourse: From Ethnosemantics to Transactional Engineering (7 pages; OUT003; "A systematic exploration in outline form.of the four movements of discourse and representing an overall wholistic synthesis of the field; PSYCH 700, Fall 1974, UHM).

(iii) Introductory Notes to Ethnosemantics - PSYCH 705R - Psycholinguistics Seminar, Spring 1976, UHM (9 pages; OUT004; handout summarizing the ethnosemantic perspective on glossaries, cataloguing-practices, and the empirical and experimental aspects of doing ethnosemantic investigations.).

(iv) A Topological Feature of Topic: Self-Analytic Reflexivity (5 pages; T/C002; outlines the Square of Certainty: what you know you know; what you know you don't know; what you don't know you know; what you don't know you don't know; a 2 x 2 teaser that yields surprising results).

(v) The Morphemic Hexagram in the Language of Science (6 pages; T/CO03; an outline of some of the entries in such a Chart).

(vi) The Scientific Bible (B008; miscellaneous and partial solutions to the ES-PROBE technique in the following academic disciplines: Management Science, Psvchology, Raising Awareness, Sociology, Linguistics, Education, Physics, illustrates application of the technique to the exploration of topical organization in the scientific disciplines and their argument framework).


Volume 2 is a 300-page collection that contains the following dealing with applications in language teaching viewed as a process of controlled social engineering:

(1) The Third Force in Language Teaching (55 pages; B001)

A critique of psychodynamic approaches to language teaching and an elaboration of the transactional. engineering approach

(2) The Linguistic Approach: The Primary Assumptions (Based on Gordon, 1962) (11 pages; N004)

Brief summarizing notes of the linguistic assumptions that are relevant to language teaching motivated by a desire to promote cognitive development in the classroom.

(3) Handout for TEC Workshop-Transactional Engineering for Language Teachers (15 pages; OUT002)

From a workshop in October 1976, sponsored by the Modern Language Council of the Alberta Teachers Association, Alberta, Canada.

(4) Transactional Engineering for the Language Teacher (35 pages; A011)

Text of the Keynote Address, Alberta Teachers Association Annual Convention, Banff Springs, Alberta, 1976; traces three historical.developments in language teaching approaches; outlines the transactional engineering approach; presents a model of talk and shows how it can motivate particular pedagogic techniques.

(5) Learning is a Contextual Event (17 pages; A12)

Originally written as an Introduction to our The Context of Foreign Language Teaching (Newbury House, 1974) but not used; examines distinctions between learning, teaching, and training; addresses itself to the language teacher.

(6) A Simulated Interview with Leon A. James (29 pages; A013)

A personal interview, Playboy-style, on the background history and evolution of his ideas in educational psycholinguistics, language teaching, and transactional engineering.

(7) Some Cautionary Remarks on the Use of Attitude Ouestionnaires in Foreign Language Teaching (19 pages; A006)

A negative experimental report on a two-year project in Montreal, Canada; attempting to show the relationship between attitudinal factors and achievement in an experimental class in teaching French to high school students.

(8) Classroom Discussions with Professor Leon A. James (20 pages; TRO03)

Transcribed from class exchanges, 9/11/73, UHM; only LAJ's voice is transcribed; of interest to ESL and FL teachers.

(9) Classroom Discussirons in an ESL lecture given by Prof. L. A. James (62 pages; TRO04)

Transcribed, with both professor's and students' voices; 9/18/73, UP-4.

(10) BOTEC --- Bulletin of the Transactional Engineering Corporation, August 1972 (65 pages; A005)

This is Vol. 1, No. 1, of a proposed new publication; articles include brief discussions suitable for the language teacher: "Teaching: A Transactional Engineering Analysis"; "TEC Workshops"; "DES,OCS: Developmental Sequence of the Conceptual Statement"; "The Self-SAOROGAT: Self-Analytic Objective Reporting of On-Going Authentic Transactions"; "Students' Corner": and others.

(11) Transactional Engineering in the Classroom (16 Pages; A004)

A talk given at the Alberta Teachers Association Convention in 1973.


Volume 3 is a 500-page collection that contains various applications of ethnosemantic investigations in such fields as education, psychotherapy, hypnosis, historical biographies, the I Ching, and others.

(1) The Language and Register of Psychotherapy Today (30 pages; B006)

Notes, figures, charts, outlines on:, I. The Enactment Model; II. The Progressivist Assumptions; III. Two Model Paradigms for a Clinical Theory of Everyday Behavior; IV. The Dialectics of a Practical Psychotherapy; V. Four Approaches: Freudian, Gestalt, Radical, Behavioral; VI. Continued Education for Practicing Psychologists.

(2) Raising Awareness Handbook (25 pages; B007)

A practical self-study approach introducing systematic techniques, exercises, tables, charts, for the awakening of the person out of the ordinary state of captivity and lack of understanding.

(3) Essays on Nothing and Everything --- Contributions to a Radicalist Philosophy of the Human Condition (63 pages; B005)

Two sample chapters dealing with radicalist vs. progressivist logic; radicalism in Psychotherapy and in education; and the "Metaphysics of Nothingness."

(4) The Discovery of Sudden Memory (65 pages; B009)

Sub-titled: "Some Preliminary Observations About Natural Memory Scanning Operations in the Contemporary American Register"; contains some fundamental observations on the nature of human consciousness and memory; thinking as a standardized, setting-occasioned scanning operation; standardized imaginings and the reconstruction of records; discourse thinking operations and the mode of enactment in the radicalist register.

(5) The Conditions of Re-Enactment Within the Ritual Frame of Hypnosis (12 pages; M008)

A functional re-interpretation and re-formulation of the phenomenon of hypnosis in terms of the notion of "access rituals" in relationship dyads; explaining hypnosis as a contractual arrangement rather than an "altered state of consciousness."

(6) The Performative Paradox, The Glass Bead Game, and the Planetary Register (11 pages; A002)

The paradox of talk is that though we can refer to things, situations, or experiences, the verbal expression or report is neither the thing it refers to, nor does it allow it to be recaptured. Thus, social dealings are always abstracted in talk. The consequences of this are important in the ordinary lives of people.

(7) Notes on the Reconstruction of Biographical Record (100 pages; N001)

Annotations of readings dealing with text that discusses a writer's autobiographical involvement with knowledge, science, and creativity; focus on the history of psychology.

(8) Lecture Notes on the Psychology of Knowledge: Part I (55 pages; N010)

Authorized notes for Psychology 434, "Seminar in the Psychology of Knowledge," University of Hawaii, Manoa, Spring, 1977.

(9) Lecture-Discussion with Leon James and Students (45 pages; TRO06)

Transcribed classroom exchanges, Psychology 434, "Seminar in the Psychology of Knowledge," University of Hawaii, 9/17/73.

(10) Commentaries on Our Cultural Times ---By Two Scribes (70 pages; B011)

Fooling around with words and with truth. Presents the radicalist attitude through a personally objective view on everyday life in our times; poetic and inspirational.

(11) The Mobian Text (60 pages; B003 + P002)

Preface, Introductory Remarks, and Illustrations of the Mobius Strip Presentation of Text; this is a novel way of reading text non-sequentially and by programmed routes within the book's pages; includes a sample of 44 "IS-pages" in the radicalist register dealing with textbook topics in the field of Social Psychology.

(12) Miscellaneous Applications

(i)Notes on the I Ching (6 pages; P001; table of contents and some elaborations).

(ii) Notes on "The Layman's Parallel Bible" (8 pages; N006; a brief demonstration of a technique of reading annotations applied to a contrastive analysis of a passage in four versions; showing how theologically-motivated editorial policy in translation affects the substance and argument of the text.

(iii) Newsmen's Logic Needs Improving Professors Say (10 pages; A010; a critical view of news-science reports; written in the form of a newspaper article; with illustrativ6 analyses of newspaper reports on marijuana smoking research).

Navigation Table

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