the Study of Social Psychology
Dr. Leon James
Dr. Diane Nahl
FOREWORD TO THE SECOND EDITION
Education is the process of intellectualization. Its content is cultural knowledge; its goal, wisdom; its method, didactic and authoritarian. To educate is to lead, guide, orient, train, and so forth. Education is the community organized routine for assimilating its members. It produces literacy, or the ability to experience that which is not present, or present only "symbol- ically."
The study of social psychology is an educative activity that trains the intellect to objectify its self-reflexiveness. Self-reflexiveness is the mirroring of the self to the self, as in watching one's changing expressions in a mirror. As we watch, we see and react. When we react, we are being self -reflexive in that we are reacting to our own reactions. Words are like mirrors in that they reflect semantically, even if not visually. Thus, the box below mirrors or reflects the activity through the meaning of the words and their usability to refer.
I am writing the word MIRROR in this box.
Similarly, when we say "I'm upset because I can't stop thinking about it. "--it is a self-reflexive statement where the self reacts to the reacting self. The study of social psychology is a self-reflexive process since it involves the study of behavior in social settings, and studying (anything) is behavior in social settings. The peculiar advantage of the self-reflexive study of social psychology is that it trains the student in methods of objectifying one's natural self-reflexiveness in day-to-day living.
This program of study is still in its experimental phase. As we proceed, our objectives get redefined and our goals crystallize into unexpected, though interesting, shapes. You will find a degree of un-finished-ness in many aspects. First, the text of this edition of the Workbook is incomplete. The missing parts will be presented in the lectures. Second, we still have no adequate basis for selecting a series of research exercises from which the student could learn the material and the orientation that need to be understood. Third, the interactional climate of a large audience class needs to be managed in special ways to maintain personal interest and sustain individual attention; the methods used are still in their pedagogic Infancy.
While the above weaknesses may be bothersome for now, there are advantages to be derived which should also be mentioned. First, the Workbook contains a great deal of material to be read, studied, and used as a basis for discussion and writing on the part of the student. Second, the student will be completing two research reports about which specific instructions will be given and examples shown from the reports of students in previous semesters. Third, as much as half of the class may get Involved in student committees of volunteers who report to the rest of the class on various applied sociopsychological projects that will be specified. In this manner, you will be pursuing the study of social psychology; through study of the Workbook topics; through attendance of lectures where topics are discussed and students interact with each other; through preparation of two required research reports; through preparing for optional quizzes; and other methods you'll be participating in.
The experience of discovering that you have the capacity to comprehend technical intellectual procedures may be enjoyable as well as useful. Every person is good at some things and not so good at other things. Often, this depends on practice and the opportunity to practice. In this course, you are given a planned opportunity to practice technical skills that are useful, sometimes essential, in one's work, whatever it may be: teaching, research, selling, managing, graduate school, and so on.
We have provided a carefully prepared Concordance Index, at the end of the book. This is not a regular index usually found at the end of a textbook. We've attempted to make it into a self-instructional device for you to use in your study of social psychology. Read the instructions at the front of the index; they provide the key to studying the materials in this book.
The purpose of Lectures, we feet, is to create an interest in matters that the student ordinarily doesn't care about. This process is called teaching or instruction. As such, though, the purposes of education are multiple in a technologized society, its immediate, contact-effect is the redirection of interest or focus.
By the time we home in on such specifics of education as a large-audience college course in Social Psychology, the effects of the Lectures upon the student's topic focus is drastic. Students are assigned in that arena, a role which is complex and fraught with all sorts of difficulties. We shall have plenty of occasions to refer to and discuss the student's role and visible performances as evidenced through social psychological data. It will be plain from this evidence that students are persons, and persons are agents, and agents are free and only grossly controllable. The fine-tuning necessary to effect a contact between the instructor's topic focus
on an issue and the student-audience's topic focus is not available in many lectures and for a significant part of every lecture!
There thus develops a separativeness between lecturer and lectured. The symptoms are quite familiar in our own experience: audience attention is low; disruptiveness frequent; boredom rampant; hostile appearances; and so on. These are the low points. The high points are also, fortunately, familiar: hushed concentration; active note-taking; visible interest and appreciation; objectivity and participation; and so on. The dialectics of this relationship, visible in the dance between the lows and the highs, governs the outcome for both parties involved. Success leads to a permanent and self-directive change on the student's topic focus: new interests are born where indifference or ignorance kept the person from sources of cultural knowledge and experience.
The instructor, as well, is permanently changed; so long as the person's integrity is retained. That is, the instructor must succeed in resisting all sorts of ordinary temptations: to continue talking as if the exchange is a one-way communication radio; to ignore the audience's mood of indifference; to give in to desires of retribution; to shy away from public confrontations; and so on. To resist these temptations requires a good deal of understanding group process and/or a good deal of personal courage. This is so because of the common condition of formality that reigns supreme in large-audience classes. The restrictions in ordinary human relationship that this kind of formality imposes upon the participants is, we feet, the major single block to effective college instruction.
The educational philosophy that justifies and rationalizes the procedures employed in this course, is explicitly anti-formality in classroom behavior, if by formality one means the transactional condition of uninvolvement between participants. In this course, the instructor has a special opportunity in this regard, one perhaps not as readily available to other courses; this is the opportunity provided for by the topic domain, namely Social Psychology.
Social Psychology, by any definition, is at the very least, the study of individuals and their behavior in participatory society (groups and institutions). It would be hard to imagine a better laboratory for the study of individuals in groups than a classroom of students engaged in the study of individuals in groups! This self-reflexive principle is the chief innovative characteristic of this course. The conceptual focus that allows us to apply the self-reflexive principle of instruction is (what we've come to call) the Daily Round Approach to the study of Social Psychology.
In this approach, social psychology is defined as the systematic study of social occasions. Social occasions are the units that actually count in the life of any community. People keep track of events and changes in their lives on the basis of what they notice and what gets topicalized. Noticings and topics are thus the two key elements in the study of social occasions.
The classroom composed of an audience of two hundred is a microcosm of the community, not in the sense of being a representative sample, but in the sense of being a genuine sample. By genuine, we mean that the student-audience has the natural characteristics of any audience-group in the community. Often social psychologists, when interested in investigating group behavior, seek out schools, industry, clubs, etc. as the locus of their observations while they forget their own college classrooms. Serving in an experiment as a Subject is not what we're talking about; rather, the character of the class as a whole. We mean to point out the fact
that a class is an audience, and this fact is often overlooked in the separation being made between college students as Subjects and college students as an audience. College students seen as a recurrent audience in a sequence of lectures constitute a genuine community locale, easily and usefully available for direct study by the student of social psychology.
But more is involved, for the course has a context; it cannot realistically be abstracted and separated from the campus, the student's other courses (concurrent and prior), and indeed, the student's daily schedule. Thus, the study of social psychology must encompass not only the classroom in which it is being studied, but also the socio-cultural environment of the classroom: who are the particular individuals composing the class; what are their actual characteristics; where in their daily round do the course and classes fit; what is their relationship to the instructor and to the topical content; and so on. These are the concrete features of the anti-formality philosophy mentioned above inasmuch as they entail the opposite of separativeness, ignoring, and indifference. Instead, they require a degree of directness and a genuineness in the student-teacher relationship that is unfamiliar to most of the students who have taken this course in the past. Students may appraise this by reading students' end of semester comments about their involvements in this course, and which will be made available for reading.
Our conception of the Daily Round Approach to the study of Social Psychology is outlined in the Table of Contents which identifies over one hundred Sections. Each Section follows a topic domain key or system of numbering, as indicated within square brackets. These appear at the head of each Section, thus serving as a title for it. Each title encompasses a bounded topic area. By studying these boundaries, the student will gain an understanding in depth of the theoretical, methodological, and underlying issues of that branch of knowledge that deals basically with daily life. Thus, issues and problems in social psychology are reviewed and focused on within the context of self-reflexive study.
For instance, Chapter 2 deals with the course procedure of handing in a Daily Feedback Sheet at the end of each lecture. This classroom practice becomes the context for examining various theoretical notions discussed by social psychologists: the factors that affect attentiveness, such as the room, the time of the day, the style of presentation, etc.; the interrelationships within institutional milieus, such as the contributions of the Instructor, the Student, and the Administration in the attribution of cause and ascription of responsibility; etc.
Or, to give a second example, Chapter 4 deals with grading policy and the point system used in this course. This is then used as the context for discussing phenomena frequently investigated by many social psychologists: the dynamics of assessment and social evaluation. Every Chapter thus involves the topics of social psychological theory and method, but always within the context of the course activities and actual class environment. Since the text is incomplete, these issues are to be explored in the lectures.
We hope that the transition from the more usual lecture-class to this more innovative dynamic approach will be realized as a worthwhile educational experience. Our larger educational objective is to lead you to the realization that the scientific method is a tool that belongs to the community, not to the scientist; or, if you prefer, that there is a scientist in every one of us. Our more immediate objective is to help you acquire the skills of practicing the tools of science and. apply them to your own
case. To this end, we show you, in painstaking details, how to write up a "research report" in the scientific register; how to transform your observations into objective data; and how to generate scientific arguments that are capable of encompassing the actuality of your own socialized existence within the confines of community. We trust that these skills will prove useful to you, now, as well as in the future.
Finally, an explanation is in order for the system of pagination and indexing used in this edition of the Workbook. You'll note, of course, that the pagination we use is by Section number, not page number. Thus, if you look up an entry in the "Concordance" Index, you will be guided to one or more Sections to look up in your investigation of the concept and how it fits into the overall study and understanding of social psychology. We prepared this Index at great pains but we feel it is essential for the efficient study of the Workbook. Please use it as a didactic device for facilitating your efforts in mastering the meaning of terms and ideas provided for your study. Quizzes will also be provided in the course of the lectures. The Concordance index will allow you to study for the quizzes and to familiarize yourself with complex, but not "difficult," matters. Good luck in your studies, and may you derive the full benefits we envisaged.
Have a good time, and remember that your professor is just like you. Can you believe it?
Kailua, January 1, 1978
LJ and DN
|Chapter 1: Format of Lectures|
|[1.1]||*Spring 1978 Lecture Format: The Three Acts|
|[1.2]||*Case History Report: Fall Semester 1977|
|[1.2.2]||*The Daily Feedback Sheets (DFS)|
|[18.104.22.168]||*Ethnodynamics of Communication Network|
|[22.214.171.124]||*Situational Context of Quantitative Assessment|
|[126.96.36.199]||Nature of Transactional Relationship|
|[1.2.3]||The Four Research Reports|
|[1.2.4]||The Anonymous Evaluationship|
|[1.3.]||Case History Report: Spring Semester 1977|
|[1.3.1]||The Social Psychology of the Anonymous Complaint|
|[1.3.2]||The Five Assignments|
|[1.4]||Case History Report: L.A. Jakobovits: Over a Decade of Personal Experimentation|
|[1.5]||Overview: The Social Psychology of Social Psychology|
|Chapter 2: Daily Feedback Sheets ("DFS") and the Social Psychology of a College Classroom|
|[2.1]||*DFS: Introductory and Definitional|
|[2.2]||The Social Psychology of College Classroom|
|[2.3]||Case History Report: A DFS Study by the Students of Psychology 397, Fall, 1977|
|[2.4]||Case History Report: Professor H. Weaver's Environmental Psychology of the Classroom|
|[2.5]||Case History Report: Walter Nunokawa: Design for an "Open University"|
|[2.6]||Case History Report: EFL Classrooms without Walls: Sandra Nakazaki - J.F.T.E.C.|
|Chapter 3: Students Committees of Monitors and the Social Psychology of a Small Group|
|[3.1]||*Title and Duties of Committees|
|[3.2]||*Committee Periodic Report|
|[3.2.1]||The Social Psychology of the Committee Report|
|[3.3]||Case History Report: Spring Semester 1978|
|[3.4]||The Social Psychology of Small Groups|
|[3.5]||Case History Report: Bernadette Ching : A Community of Lovebirds|
|Chapter 4: Grading Policy and the Social Psychology of Evaluations|
|[4.1]||*The Point System|
|[4.2]||The Social Psychology of Evaluations|
|[4.2.1]||Case History Report: The Shifting Referent of Percentage Ratings: (DFS, Psych 222, Fall 1977)|
|[4.2.2]||Case History Report: The Self-Prediction of Grades: (DFS, Psych 222, Fall 1977)|
|[4.3]||The Ethnodynamics of Evaluation|
|[4.3.1]||Case History Report: Student End of Course Declarations: Psych 222, 1974-1977|
|[4.4]||C.E. Osgood and the Pollyanna Hypothesis|
|[4.5]||L.A. Jakobovits: Semantic Satiation and Neurosemantics|
|Chapter 5: Students Discharge Report and the Social Psychology of Community|
|[5.1]||*Format of Student Discharge Report|
|[5.2]||The Social Psychology of Community|
|[188.8.131.52]||Case History Reports: Mapping My Daily Round; Psych 397 Students, Fall 1977|
|[184.108.40.206]||Case History Reports: Why can't They Do It Another Way; Psych 222 Students, Fall 1977|
|[5.3]||Applied Social Psychology: The Center, Inc.|
|[5.3.1]||Case History Report: B. Y. Gordon: The Sociodynamics of Bubble Machines|
|[5.3.2]||Fast therapy Foods, Ltd.: The Social Psychology of Health Foods|
|[5.3.3]||Biographical Color Calendars and Clocks: An Ethnosemantic Application|
|[5.3.4]||*Case History Report: B. Y. Gordon: The Effectiveness of KYOLIC, Garlic: The Social Psychology of Medical Assessment|
|[5.3.5]||Daily Round Information Please: Mining Community Information|
|[5.3.6]||Store Customer Index Map: Let Your Eyes Do the Walking|
|[5.4]||Applied Social Psychology: Case History Report: Scott Macdonald: Evaluation of Public Agencies in Hawaii|
|Chapter 6: Quizzes and the Social Psychology of Knowledge|
|[6.1]||Introductory Remarks: Study Quizzes and Class Quizzes|
|[6.2]||The Hexagram of Quiz Types|
|[6.3]||The Social Psychology of Knowledge|
|[6.3.1]||The Ethnosemantics of the "I Ching"|
|[220.127.116.11]||Case History Report: Jung/Jakobovits|
|[6.3.2]||Objective and Subjective|
|[6.3.3]||Case History Report: "Diagramming My Knowledge"; Students of Psych 222, Fall 1977|
|Chapter 7: The topical Structure of Social Psychology|
|[7.1]||*The Topical Establishment and Who's Who in Social Psychology|
|[7.1.1]||*LITERATURE TYPE A: Books for Professionals|
|[18.104.22.168]||*L. Berkowitz: "Advances in Experimental Social Psychology"|
|[22.214.171.124]||*The Registry of Authors in Social Psychology|
|[7.1.2]||*LITERATURE TYPE B: Journal Articles|
|[7.1.3]||*LITERATURE TYPE C: derivative Articles, Books, and Instructional Programs|
|[126.96.36.199]||*Sample 1: Textbook Outline|
|[188.8.131.52]||*Sample 2: UHM Catalogue Course Descriptions|
|[184.108.40.206]||*Sample 3: Social-Personality Psychology Program, UHM|
|[220.127.116.11]||*Sample 4: Social Psychology 222|
|[18.104.22.168]||*Sample 5: Topical Outline of Community Cataloguing Practices, Jakobovits and Gordon, 1975-77|
|[22.214.171.124]||*Sample 6: An Annotated Bibliography of a Decade of Ethnosemantic Investigations by Jakobovits and Gordon, 1968-1978|
|[126.96.36.199]||*Sample 7: Case History Report: "What is Social Psychology?"|
|[7.2]||*The Two Paradigms in Psychology|
|[7.2.1]||*Case History Report: Indexical Concordance Techniques in Topic Domain Methodology: Students of Psychology 661, Spring 1977|
|[7.2.2]||*Case History Report: Diane Nahl on M.E. Bitterman: An Application of Topic Domain Methodology to a Vita Bibliography|
|Chapter 8: Methodological Issues in Social Psychology|
|[8.1]||*Features of the New Paradigm: Ethnosemantics, Ethogeny, and Ethnomethodology|
|[8.1.1]||*Ethnosemantics and Social Psychology|
|[8.1.2]||*The Hexagram of Sudden Memory|
|[8.1.3]||*A Glossary of Terms in Ethnosemantics|
|[8.1.4]||*The Universal Basis of Behavior|
|[8.1.5]||*The Investigation of Community Cataloguing Practices (CCP)|
|[8.2]||*R. Harre and P.F. Secord|
|[8.2.1]||*The Correspondences in Basic Theory|
|[8.2.2]||*Strategies of Investigation|
|[188.8.131.52]||*The Analysis of Accounts|
|[184.108.40.206]||*The Other Side|
|[220.127.116.11]||*The Third View|
|[8.2.3]||*Longitudinal Studies of Personality, Biographical Record and Psychohistory or, The Social Psychology of Relationship|
|[8.3.1]||Case History Report: J.M. Digman: Multivariate Methods Approach|
|[8.3.2]||Case History Report: D. L. Watson: Behavior Modification on the Daily Round|
|[8.3.3]||Case History Report: Abe Arkoff: Promoting Self-Growth Through the Personal Journal|
|[8.3.4]||Case History Report: Teru L. Morton: The Pervasiveness of Sex Role Stereotypes in Everyday Life|
|[8.3.5]||Case History Report: Christine Winskowski: The Empirical Investigation of Relationship dynamics in Conversation|
|[8.3.6]||Kenneth Burke: A Grammar and a Rhetoric of Motives|
|[8.3.7]||Case History Reports: Daily Round Diary Tape; Psychology 222 Students, Fall 1977|
|[8.4]||Sam Shapiro: Transpersonal Psychology and Asian Philosophy|
|[8.5]||*Jakobovits and Gordon: Social Psychology and Applied Psycholinguistics: The "DRA" Project|
|[8.5.1]||*Contents of the DRA and Index|
|[8.5.2]||*Uses of the DRA|
|[8.5.3]||*Procedure for Contributions and Use|
|[8.5.4]||*Theoretical and Methodological Significance|
|[18.104.22.168]||Oral and Written Literacy|
|[22.214.171.124]||The Meaning of Conversational Environment|
|[126.96.36.199]||Aspects to Theory of Talk|
|[188.8.131.52.1]||Notational Definitions for Prepared Transcripts Data|
|[184.108.40.206]||The Syntax of Presentations: PMNS|
|[220.127.116.11.1]||Individual Differences and Cognitive Processes|
|Chapter 9: Taxonomy of Microdescrptions on the Daily Round|
|[9.3]||*Instructions for a Full Outline of a Functional analysis of the Daily Round|
|[9.3.I]||*Explanatory Notes: My Vita|
|[9.3.II]||*Explanatory Notes: My Talk|
|[9.3.II.2]||*The Functional Analysis of Talk|
|[9.3.II.2.1]||*Format of Report|
|[ -2A]:||*The Analysis of Topic|
|[ -2B]:||*The Analysis of Argument Logic|
|[ -2C]:||*The Analysis of Sequence|
|[ -2D]:||*The Analysis of Relationship|
|[ -2E]:||*The Analysis of Setting|
|[9.3.V]||*Explanatory Notes: My Daily Setting; My Standardized Imaginings; My Community of Relationships|
|[9.3.II.-V.2]||*The Functional Analysis of Talk|
|[9.3.II.-V.3]||*The Functional Analysis of Community|
|[9.3.II.-V.4]||*Further Notes on entry Format with Examples from the DRA|
|[9.3.VI]||*Explanatory Notes: The Sociograph of my Environment|
|Chapter 10: Theory Building in social Psychology: Notes on CHARTS|
|[10.2]||*CHART T/7, T/8, T/9, T/11|
|[10.3]||*CHART T/12, T/14, T/15, T/16, T/17|
|[10.5]||*CHART T/19, T/20, E/9|
|[10.6]||*CHART T/21, T/23, T/24, T/25|
|Chapter 11: Instructions for DRA Research Reports|
|[11.2]||*Format of Research Reports (RR)|