Research into the interlinks between biodiversity patterns, processes, threats, conservation and human welfare

Vulnerability to climate change in the ocean


The authors have made these photographs available for media use.

SUGGESTED CAPTION Of the many marine habitats analyzed in the study, researchers found that coral reefs, seagrass beds, and shallow soft-bottom benthic habitats would experience the largest absolute changes in ocean biogeochemistry. Deep-sea habitats would experience small changes in ocean biogeochemistry. But because many deep-sea ecosystems are so stable, even small changes in temperature, oxygen, and pH may lower the resilience of deep-sea communities. Photos credit: Courtesy NOAA HURL Archives

Images from here onward should be credited to Keoki Stender and Yuko Stender. For higher resolution of the images below please contact Yuko Stender at