BETWEEN THE SEXES DURING INFANCY & EARLY CHILDHOOD
- Average ______________________________________of
boys is slightly larger than
girls. Boys remain larger (on average) until about age 11, when girls, for
a few years, exceed boys their own age in height (Click
females have a more advanced ___________________, which continues to
develop more rapidly until age 10 or 11.
age 2, boys have higher ________________________________(click
for link), and by age 7, greater ____________________________ than
girls of comparable weights and body types.
age 2, boys have an advantage over girl in __________________ and
Boys are better at throwing objects and tracking and reacting to
objects thrown at them.
as early as age 7, boys show a 10% increase in
_____________________________________ over girls; this difference persists
and widens considerably during adolescence.
male adolescence allows males to grow ______________in proportion to their
trunk compared to women. This gives
males an advantage in running and jumping.
Health and Mortality
males have lower ____________________ scores, on average (see Table 10-2
in your text).
more males are born than females (105:100), more males are stillborn and
spontaneously aborted (miscarried) than are females.
are more likely to be born _____________________, and more likely to
experience respiratory distress at birth.
Testosterone retards maturation of fetal lungs and slows production
are also more likely to have cleft lips or cleft palates and heart
have higher rates of most _________________________, not only X-linked
disorders, but also cancer, autism,
cerebral palsy, polio, epilepsy, encephalitis, and respiratory illnesses.
have higher __________________________________ (due not only to their
greater vulnerability to illness, disease and starvation, but also to
their higher rates of accidental injury). (see Figure 1 ,
Figure 2, and Figure
gender disparity in rates of disease and mortality has been explained
primarily by the higher levels of ________________________ in males, as
this hormone is a known __________________________________.
respond more to touch, pain and sound, and are more easily soothed and
respond more to visual stimuli, and cry more often and for longer periods
Toddlers (ages 1-3)
acquire _______________________ skills earlier and faster,
show more interest in _______________________
more _________________________ active, show more interest in
_____________________ than people
Females have smaller brain, but more brain cells. They have extra neurons in areas for
understanding _________________. This may
be why females master language and speech faster than boys and talk earlier.
Females also have a larger __________________________
, fibers connecting the right and left hemispheres of the brain. This connection between the verbal and
spatial thinking centers may allow women to be better at sharing functions
Males have superior ______________ abilities. They are able to visualize what an object
will look like rotated in space better than females. Males also have better depth perception, and
are better at geometric puzzles and mazes.
The right hemisphere, which controls visual and spatial skills, is
larger in male brains than in females.
Young Children (ages 4-8)
tend to prefer ______________________________________ games and
_____________________________ play; excel in language and
One recent study indicates that play behavior in girls appears to
be more directly influenced by the testosterone levels of her mother
during pregnancy. Click
here for link.
more _________________________________, tend to prefer
___________________________ games and ____________________ play; excel in
spatial skills and ______________________________ activity
Before 6 years of age, both girls and boys are equally
responsive to infants. But after this
age, _____________________ is almost an entirely female play activity. Engaging in play parenting and “playing
house” is associated with higher survival rates of firstborn children.
Boys play more with inanimate mechanical objects (like toy
cars) and engage in more ______________________, such as building with blocks
or making a fort. Boys also
experimentally manipulate objects more (taking them apart and putting them
together) and have larger play ranges and thus more exploratory play in the
_____________________ involves groups of children enacting
everyday or imaginary themes.
Boys play characters characterized by power and
dominance, like cowboys or superman and enact conflicts.
· Girls play
family roles, where there are no clear winners, and don’t feature a dominance
Some researchers think same-sex groups are formed during this
time due to the different play and social styles of boys and girls. The sexes use different strategies to attempt
to gain control over a desired resource (like a toy) or influence group
Boys shove and
push, while girls use verbal persuasion and commands
the first few months after birth, levels of ____________________________
are relatively high, compared to later in infancy and childhood.
levels are higher in male newborns, peak at about
______________, and then gradually decline to childhood levels by the end
of the first year. Click
for link to graph. Click on
link to a 1996 study Here’s
another study from 1998
females, testosterone levels decline to childhood levels about
_______________ after birth.
studies have linked differences in hormone levels during early infancy to
further sexual differentiation of ______________________________ after
Sexual Development and Behavior
of boys and girls are typically swollen at birth, and proportionately
larger (with respect to the rest of their bodies) than at any other time
before puberty (due to residual effect of placental hormones)
infants get erections and appear to derive pleasure from fondling their
own genitals (= genital play), but are incapable of
_______________________ before puberty
infants also appear to derive pleasure from fondling their own genitals,
and may produce vaginal secretions
Toddlers & Young Children (age 2 - 8):
age 2, both boys and girls may derive pleasure from deliberate
self-masturbation, characterized by rhythmic manipulation of their own
age 3, children are aware of ____________________________________ and can
usually distinguish between males and females. Have trouble understanding
the concept of marriage.
age 4-5, children begin to acquire an increasing curiosity about gender
differences, and games of "show" or "playing doctor"
age 5, games of "show" decline, as children exhibit more
modesty, embarrassment from teasing, and a sense of privacy about their
bodies; play activities become less common between the sexes. Begin to
understand the concept of marriage.
Click Here for Question Review
(8 - 11 yrs) - transition period between childhood and puberty
- Between the ages of 8 - 11 years, levels of
_____________________________ (particularly FSH) begin to rise in both
boys and girls.
- Dramatic changes in both FSH and LH occur just
after age 10, preceding the onset of puberty.
- Levels of testosterone and estrogen do not
change until later, when puberty begins.
- Usually become well established during this
is generally much more rigid for boys than for girls
- In the U.S., most children first
learn about sexual intercourse and pregnancy by age 10.
- The primary source of information for boys is
often the ____________________________, especially classmates and older
friends. For girls, the primary source tends to be their
_______________________. In general, the father appears to provide little
in the way of sex education for children.
- Masturbation to orgasm may occur,
especially among pre-pubescent boys. (Click
for link to graph). Most boys
and girls learn about masturbation through accidental self-discovery, but
boys also frequently learn about it from their (usually older) peers.
social groups reaches a peak in pre-pubescent children.
Consequently, there is typically very little heterosexual behavior during
this period. "Dating" is usually more symbolic (exchange of
rings, etc) than physical, although "kissing games" are common
Click here for question